Water Conservation Essay for students of Class 5 to 12
- Water – The Elixir of Life
- Conservation of water – Water scarcity
- The water crisis in India
- How to conserve water?
Water – The Elixir of Life
Water conservation Essay – It is said that around 3.7 billion years ago, the earth cooled down and had warm oceans. In these warm water bodies, the first single-celled organisms evolved. Thus, water was instrumental in the origin of life.
70% of the earth is covered with water, and up to 70% of the human body is made of water. Today we have millions of marine species, but many plants and animals evolved to survive in non-saline conditions.
The human civilization rose on the banks of rivers. Early human beings settled down along the fertile river basins as it was easy for growing crops, and was convenient for transportation too.
Presently, agriculture demands for 70% of the freshwater needs. Industries and domestic uses share the rest thirty percent. But this precious resource has become scarce due to many human-made reasons.
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Conservation of water – Water scarcity
Only three percent of the total water available is freshwater. But more than sixty percent of this potable water is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Therefore, we humans must consume water judiciously.
But so far, we have done the reverse. We exploit water extensively for agriculture and industrial purposes.
Moreover, we haven’t kept our water bodies clean. Industrial effluents and sewage discharges are directly let into rivers. In cities, buildings come up on dried ponds and lakes.
So, when it rains, we don’t have the facility to store the rainwater. Therefore, we not only have frequent flash floods, but the rainwater goes to the sea and gets wasted. We use the fertile soil from riverbeds carelessly, and it leads to flooding in riverine areas too. So, we humans are primarily responsible for reducing the holding capacity of water bodies.
We live in concrete jungles, and a green cover is almost missing in our cities. It is the roots of trees that help in the retention of groundwater. Moreover, plants release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide.
Thus, they are instrumental in curbing global warming. Lesser warming implies a slower melting of ice sheets and glaciers, thereby, preserving the largest source of fresh water.
Floods and storms are natural events, but nature has its way of replenishing the water that flows into the seas. But we humans have a history of clearing up forests for various purposes like agriculture, industrialization, and human settlements.
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The water crisis in India
We are an agrarian society and are largely dependent on Monsoon rains for our crop yields. Therefore, our economy is vulnerable to climate changes and water scarcity.
Moreover, we need to create a lot of awareness about water conservation methods. Our farmers need exposure to advanced methods of irrigation so that they consume less water for farming purposes.
Villages need to realize the consequence of open defecation and direct use of river water for domestic needs like washing clothes and utensils.
The imposition of strong penalties for industries releasing untreated effluents in freshwater sources is the need of the hour. So, we need corruption-free administrative systems that can keep a good vigil on factories across all the states.
More than villages, it is the cities where the water crisis is worse. Recently in Chennai, one of the Metro cities of India, all the water- suppling lakes dried up. And the government had to bring water to the city via train, to meet the demand.
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The first problem in cities is the population explosion. Cities in India witnessed a sudden migration of people from rural areas. High paying jobs, better access to education, and a better lifestyle were obvious reasons for the shift. But, the cities did not have the infrastructure to support the large scale influx.
Moreover, corruption is rampant in our cities. This led to the pollution of water bodies, and at times buildings were built on dried lakes too. Now the affluent people in our cities don’t mind paying for water. What about the urban poor? Their situation is miserable.
And whom can we blame for this mess? It is not the government officials alone; every one of us is responsible. We need a massive movement to rectify the problem of the water crisis.
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How to conserve water?
We cannot imagine living without water. Water is vital for a healthy body. We can survive without food for a few days but cannot live without water — we need it for cooking, cleaning, and for using the toilet too.
Non-availability of water in landlocked regions could become a threat to survival for most of the species there. Consumption of unclean water leads to many diseases such as cholera and diarrhea.
Tiny drops of water make the ocean vast. So, every drop of water saved is a step towards saving life on the blue planet. Our governments come up with effective strategies for conserving water.
However, the issue persists and is a global crisis. John F Kennedy once quoted that whosoever solves the water-crisis should get two Nobel prizes, one for Science and the other for Peace.
The scientific communities need to work on advanced agricultural reforms in irrigation, development of drought-resistant crop varieties, and desalination of seawater.
Proper planning of cities and efforts to keep the water bodies clean are an absolute requirement. But all these measures need to be cost-effective, and governments must ensure that the developments reach the end-user for reaping maximum gains.
The government should also come up with bold measures such as curbing advertisements that depict the wasting of water such as the use of the shower etc.
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As individuals, we have a huge role to play in water conservation.
We can practice the following measures daily:
- We need to cut shower baths and tub baths. One can go for buckets instead.
- Washing machines and dishwashers should be loaded fully before using them.
- We should minimize the use of electricity as much as possible as the power plants consume tons of water.
- We need to plant more trees, and our gardens need huge trees too apart from the flowering shrubs and ornamental plants.
- We should water plants early in the morning and in the evenings. In these timings, less water is lost due to evaporation.
- To prevent evaporation, we can also cover the soil around trees with mulch.
- It is said that the Indian toilet system requires less water than the flush systems. So, we should insist on it while building new houses.
- Rainwater harvesting has to become compulsory. We need not wait for a government order and adopt it as early as possible for the general welfare of the society.
- Water that is used for washing vegetables and dry food items need not go to the drain. We can water the plants with them.
- For cleaning purposes, we need not use hose pipes. Rather we can clear the dust first and then wipe with cloth or mop.
- We must turn off the pipes while brushing the teeth and while washing face and utensils.
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