Essay on Pollution for students – Types of Pollution

Pollution Essay in English

What is Pollution? Pollution types, Causes and Effects of Pollution.

Essay on Pollution, Types of Pollution - Air, water, soil| Pollution Essay i


Essay on Pollution in English

I have written an essay on Pollution in English for class 10. In the Pollution Essay we get to know on these issues –  What is Pollution?  Pollution typesair, water, noise, environment, Global Warming, and Climate Change.

What is pollution?

Pollution is the presence or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. Pollution can take many forms, and it can occur naturally or as a result of human activities. Some common types of pollution include air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution. Pollution can have a variety of negative impacts on the environment, including harm to wildlife and natural ecosystems, as well as negative effects on human health. It is important to reduce pollution and protect the environment to ensure the long-term health and sustainability of our planet.

Present scenario of Pollution

Pollution is a key issue that has been affecting our earth. Although it is an issue that has been prevalent since ancient times, in the 21st century its harmful effect has been felt on a large scale.

Although the governments of different countries have taken several major steps to curb these effects, there is still a long way to go.

Several natural processes and cycles get disturbed due to this. Not only that, many flora and fauna today either have gone extinct or are endangered. Due to the rapid increase in the amount of pollution, animals are losing their habitat at a rapid speed.

Pollution has affected several major cities across the globe. A majority of these polluted cities lie in India. Some of the most polluted cities in the world are Delhi, Kanpur, Bamenda, Moscow, Heze, Chernobyl, Beijing among others.

Although these cities have taken several steps to curb pollution, they still have a long way to go. The air quality of these places is poor and there are cases of land and water pollution as well. Now it’s time that the administration of these cities prepares strategies to check these issues.

 Pollution Types

Basically, there are four categories of pollution –

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Soil Pollution
  • Noise or Sound pollution

Let’s discuss the all the Pollution types one by one:

  1. Air Pollution:
    In general, air pollution is caused by the release of harmful substances into the air. These substances can be either man-made or naturally occurring, but either way, they can have serious negative impacts on human health and the environment.. There are many causes of air pollution. Some of the main causes include:

a) Emissions from vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and buses
b) Industrial activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the release of chemical byproducts
c) Agricultural practices, such as the use of pesticides and fertilizers
d) Household products, such as cleaning supplies and personal care items
e) Construction and demolition activities
f) Waste disposal and landfills
g) Power plants


  1. Water Pollution:
    Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful substances or organisms that can have negative impacts on human health, the environment, and aquatic life. Water pollution can occur in natural bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, and oceans, as well as in man-made water systems, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, and sewage treatment plants.There are many causes of water pollution. Some of the main causes include:

a. Agricultural runoff: Pesticides, fertilizers, and animal waste can run off of farmland and into nearby bodies of water, polluting the water.
b. Industrial waste: Many industries release chemicals and other waste products into bodies of water, which can pollute the water.
c. Sewage and sewage treatment plants: If sewage treatment plants are not properly maintained, sewage and other waste products can be released into bodies of water, polluting the water.
d. Oil spills: Oil spills can occur as a result of human activities, such as the transportation of oil, or they can occur naturally. Oil spills can have serious negative impacts on the quality of water.
e. Leaks and spills: Accidental leaks and spills of chemicals and other substances can pollute bodies of water.
f. Litter: Litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, can end up in bodies of water, where it can harm wildlife and pollute the water.
g. Land development: Land development and construction activities can lead to soil erosion, which can in turn cause water pollution.

  1. Soil Pollution:Soil pollution, also known as soil contamination, is the presence in soil of harmful substances or contaminants that can have negative impacts on human health, the environment, and agricultural productivity. Soil pollution can have a variety of causes, including agricultural practices, industrial activities, waste disposal, and the use of certain chemicals and products in the home.

Soil pollution can have serious consequences, including harm to plants and wildlife, contamination of the food supply, and negative impacts on human health. It is important to reduce soil pollution and protect our soil to ensure the long-term health of our planet.

  1. Noise Pollution:
    Noise pollution, also known as sound pollution, is the presence of excessive or unwanted noise in the environment. Noise pollution can have negative impacts on human health and well-being, as well as on the health of wildlife. Noise pollution can be caused by a variety of sources, including traffic, industrial activities, construction, transportation, music and entertainment, and neighbors. Some common effects of noise pollution include hearing loss, stress, sleep disturbance, and interference with communication. It is important to reduce noise pollution and protect against excessive or unwanted noise to ensure the long-term health and well-being of people and wildlife.

Often, the day after the festival of Diwali it is reported in the media how the bursting of crackers caused an increase in noise pollution in major cities of India.

Although these are the four major  categories of pollution lifestyle changes have caused several other types as well such as Radioactive Pollution, Light Pollution among others.

If a place ends up getting light in excess or in an unwanted amount, then it contributes to light pollution. Nowadays, several urban areas are facing unwanted glares in excess amounts.

This is due to the fact that most Indian cities such as Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai, etc. have an active nightlife.

We are living in the nuclear era. Since a lot of countries are developing their own nuclear devices, it has lead to an increase in the presence of radioactive substances in the atmosphere of the Earth.

This is known as radioactive pollution. Handling and mining of radioactive substances, testing, minor accidents occurring in radioactive power plants are other major causes contributing to radioactive pollution.

Global Warming

Global Warming is another name for climate change. The blanket of pollution that traps the heat around our planet is the main reason why global warming is increasing nowadays. As humans burn fossil fuels, vehicles emit harmful gases, jungles burn at alarming rates – all these factors are the main reasons.

Once it enters the earth’s atmosphere, eventually spreading across the globe. As a result, heat gets trapped around the earth for the next 50 or 100 years after it starts emitting again.

The worst part is harmful gases such as Carbon Dioxide have increased at an alarming rate. Due to this, the upcoming generation will feel the effects of global warming for hundreds of years.

Prominent Steps Taken to Curb the Pollution

The authorities at the national and international levels have taken several steps to curb the pollution issue. Some of these are as follows:

  1. National Green Tribunal: The Indian government had set up NGT in order to curb the issues related to the environment in India. Since 2010, it has imposed heavy penalties on several industries when they have failed to comply with NGT’s order. It also helped to revive several polluted lakes. It also ordered the closure of several coal-based industries in Gujarat that caused air pollution.
  2. Alternative Sources of Energy: Since the last few years, the Indian government has been encouraging people to switch towards alternative sources of energy. It is compulsory for the residents of Tamilnadu state to have solar panels and rainwater harvesting systems on their rooftops. Other sources of alternative energy are biofuels, Wind Energy, Hydroelectric energy, etc.
  3. BS-VI Fuel: Recently, the Government of India had announced that from April 1, 2020, onwards, the country will switch towards using BS-VI (Bharat Stage VI) Fuel. Once this rule comes into existence, the vehicular emission of sulphur would come down by more than 50%. It would bring down the emission of Nitrogen Oxide from diesel cars by 70% and by 25% in petrol cars. Similarly, the particulate matter emissions will come down by 80% in cars.
  4. Air Purifiers: People are now using air purifiers especially the indoor ones, to curb air pollution. Air Purifiers clear the particulate matter present in the air, remove harmful bacteria, and improve air quality to a great extent.

Role of UNO in Curbing Pollution

Under its banner, the UNO in 1972 had initiated United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order to address the issue of pollution. It has issued several issues such as climate change, ecosystem management, environmental governance, resource efficiency, etc. It has lead to several successful treaties such as the Montreal Protocol (1987) to limit the emission of gases that were thinning the protective ozone layer, Minamata Convention (2012) to limit the use of toxic mercury, etc. UNEP sponsored ‘Solar Loan Programme’ where lakhs of people from different countries were provided with solar power panels.

Pollution Methods to reduce

Although the authorities of different cities are working hard to curb the pollution issue, however, it is the duty of citizens and common people also to contribute to this process. Few of the important ways to curb all kinds of pollution are:

  1. Stop Bursting Firecrackers: say no to firecrackers when you celebrate festivals such as Dussehra, Diwali or any other occasion of celebration. It causes noise, soil as well as light pollution. Also, it has an adverse effect on our health.
  2. Limit the Use of vehicles: Vehicles are a major cause of pollution. Minimise the use of vehicles. If possible, try to substitute them with electric vehicles for personal use. Use public transportation or carpool can help to reduce air pollution caused by vehicle emissions.
  3. Keep the Surrounding Clean: As a responsible citizen, it should be our duty to keep the area around our home clean. We should dump the waste instead of throwing it here and there. Properly disposing of waste, such as by using designated trash and recycling bins, can help to prevent pollution.
  4. Recycle and Reuse: Several non-biodegradable products such as daily use items made of plastic end up harming our environment. We need to either dispose of it properly or donate it for recycling. Nowadays, the government is running a lot of schemes to recycle plastic where the citizens can not only donate their plastic waste but also exchange it in return for other items.
  5. Plant Trees: Cutting of trees due to several reasons such as the widening of roads, building houses, etc. has led to an increase in different kinds of pollution. Plants absorb harmful gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, etc. present in the atmosphere. Since they release oxygen during the photosynthesis process, therefore, it is important for us to plant and take care of as many trees as we can.
  6. Use environmentally-friendly products: Choosing products that are made from natural, biodegradable materials and that are not harmful to the environment can help to reduce pollution.
  7. Support clean energy: Supporting the use of clean energy sources, such as solar and wind power, can help to reduce air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
  8. Support laws and regulations to reduce pollution: Supporting laws and regulations that aim to reduce pollution can help to protect the environment and human health.
  9. Educate others: Sharing information about the causes and impacts of pollution and how to reduce it can help to raise awareness and encourage others to take action to reduce pollution.

Pollution is a problem that we need to solve at the earliest so that humans can live safely on this planet. It is important that we follow the suggested measures to curb this issue. Its our responsibility to make our place a better place for living. In order to make the Earth survive, we have to stop polluting it.

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