Pollution Essay in English covering What is Pollution? Types of Pollution, Causes and Effects of Pollution.
Essay on Pollution in English
I have written an essay on Pollution. In the Pollution Essay we get to know on these issues – What is Pollution? Pollution types – air, water, noise, environment, Global Warming, and Climate Change.
- What is pollution?
- Present scenario of Pollution
- Types of Pollution
- Global Warming
- Prominent Steps Taken to Curb the Pollution
- Role of UNO in Curbing Pollution
- Different Ways to Curb Pollution
What is pollution?
Pollution is introducing something into the environment that is dirty, unclean or has a harmful effect on the ecosystem.
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Present scenario of Pollution
Pollution is a key issue that has been affecting our earth. Although it is an issue that has been prevalent since ancient times, in the 21st century its harmful effect has been felt on a large scale.
Although the governments of different countries have taken several major steps to curb these effects, there is still a long way to go.
Several natural processes and cycles get disturbed due to this. Not only that, many flora and fauna today either have gone extinct or are endangered. Due to the rapid increase in the amount of pollution, animals are losing their habitat at a rapid speed.
Pollution has affected several major cities across the globe. A majority of these polluted cities lie in India. Some of the most polluted cities in the world are Delhi, Kanpur, Bamenda, Moscow, Heze, Chernobyl, Beijing among others.
Although these cities have taken several steps to curb pollution, they still have a long way to go. The air quality of these places is poor and there are cases of land and water pollution as well. Now it’s time that the administration of these cities prepares strategies to check these issues.
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Types of Pollution
Basically, there are four types of pollution –
- Air Pollution
- Water Pollution
- Noise Pollution
- Soil Pollution.
Let’s discuss the types of Pollution one by one:
- Air Pollution: It is mainly caused due to vehicular emission of gases. Harmful gases are produced as a by-product in factories and industries, by burning toxic substances such as plastic and leaves in the open, by the vehicular exhausts, by the CFCs used in the refrigeration industry, etc.
India has seen an increase in the number of vehicles on its roads. These are responsible for transmitting harmful gases such as Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. These gases are responsible for reducing the quantity of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. They also cause several breathing problems, respiratory diseases, types of cancers, etc.
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- Water Pollution: It is another big challenge faced by humans nowadays. Sewage waste, wastes from industries or factories, etc.are being dumped into water bodies such as canals, rivers, and seas directly. This has resulted in a loss of habitat for marine life and dissolved oxygen present in water bodies has started disappearing.
The shortage of potable water is a major repercussion of water pollution. People are forced to drink polluted water due to which they get diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, etc.
- Soil Pollution: A major part of the Indian population depends on agriculture. As a part of this job, farmers use lots of herbicides, fertilizers, fungicides, and other similar chemical compounds. This, in turn, contaminates the soil and makes it unfit for growing crops further. Apart from that, if the authorities do not dump industrial or household waste that keeps lying on the ground, this also contributes to soil pollution.
This, in turn, results in the breeding of mosquitoes which is a cause of many diseases such as dengue. All these factors are responsible for making the soil toxic.
- Noise Pollution: Apart from contributing to air pollution, a large number of vehicles on the Indian roads also contribute to noise pollution. This is alarming for those who live in urban areas or near the highways. It causes stress-related issues such as anxiety in people.
Apart from that, noise from the bursting of crackers, functioning of factories, music played on loudspeakers, especially during the festival season also contribute to noise pollution. If not controlled, it can affect the functioning of the brain as well.
Often, the day after the festival of Diwali it is reported in the media how the bursting of crackers caused an increase in noise pollution in major cities of India.
Although these are the four major types of pollution lifestyle changes have caused several other types of pollution as well such as Radioactive Pollution, Light Pollution among others.
If a place ends up getting light in excess or in an unwanted amount, then it contributes to light pollution. Nowadays, several urban areas are facing unwanted glares in excess amounts.
This is due to the fact that most Indian cities such as Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai, etc. have an active nightlife.
We are living in the nuclear era. Since a lot of countries are developing their own nuclear devices, it has lead to an increase in the presence of radioactive substances in the atmosphere of the Earth.
This is known as radioactive pollution. Handling and mining of radioactive substances, testing, minor accidents occurring in radioactive power plants are other major causes contributing to radioactive pollution.
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Global Warming is another name for climate change. The blanket of pollution that traps the heat around our planet is the main reason why global warming is increasing nowadays. As humans burn fossil fuels, vehicles emit harmful gases, jungles burn at alarming rates – all these factors are the main reasons.
Once it enters the earth’s atmosphere, eventually spreading across the globe. As a result, heat gets trapped around the earth for the next 50 or 100 years after it starts emitting again.
The worst part is harmful gases such as Carbon Dioxide have increased at an alarming rate. Due to this, the upcoming generation will feel the effects of global warming for hundreds of years.
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Prominent Steps Taken to Curb the Pollution
The authorities at the national and international levels have taken several steps to curb the pollution issue. Some of these are as follows:
- National Green Tribunal: The Indian government had set up NGT in order to curb the issues related to the environment in India. Since 2010, it has imposed heavy penalties on several industries when they have failed to comply with NGT’s order. It also helped to revive several polluted lakes. It also ordered the closure of several coal-based industries in Gujarat that caused air pollution.
- Alternative Sources of Energy: Since the last few years, the Indian government has been encouraging people to switch towards alternative sources of energy. It is compulsory for the residents of Tamilnadu state to have solar panels and rainwater harvesting systems on their rooftops. Other sources of alternative energy are biofuels, Wind Energy, Hydroelectric energy, etc.
- BS-VI Fuel: Recently, the Government of India had announced that from April 1, 2020, onwards, the country will switch towards using BS-VI (Bharat Stage VI) Fuel. Once this rule comes into existence, the vehicular emission of sulphur would come down by more than 50%. It would bring down the emission of Nitrogen Oxide from diesel cars by 70% and by 25% in petrol cars. Similarly, the particulate matter emissions will come down by 80% in cars.
- Air Purifiers: People are now using air purifiers especially the indoor ones, to curb air pollution. Air Purifiers clear the particulate matter present in the air, remove harmful bacteria, and improve air quality to a great extent.
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Role of UNO in Curbing Pollution
Under its banner, the UNO in 1972 had initiated United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order to address the issue of pollution. It has issued several issues such as climate change, ecosystem management, environmental governance, resource efficiency, etc. It has lead to several successful treaties such as the Montreal Protocol (1987) to limit the emission of gases that were thinning the protective ozone layer, Minamata Convention (2012) to limit the use of toxic mercury, etc. UNEP sponsored ‘Solar Loan Programme’ where lakhs of people from different countries were provided with solar power panels.
Different Ways to Curb Pollution
Although the authorities of different cities are working hard to curb the pollution issue, however, it is the duty of citizens and common people also to contribute to this process. Few of the important ways to curb all types of pollution are:
- Stop Bursting Firecrackers: say no to firecrackers when you celebrate festivals such as Dussehra, Diwali or any other occasion of celebration. It causes noise, soil as well as light pollution. Also, it has an adverse effect on our health.
- Limit the Use of vehicles: Vehicles are a major cause of pollution. Minimise the use of vehicles. If possible, try to substitute them with electric vehicles for personal use. Use public transport while commuting.
- Keep the Surrounding Clean: As a responsible citizen, it should be our duty to keep the area around our home clean. We should dump the waste instead of throwing it here and there.
- Recycle and Reuse: Several non-biodegradable products such as daily use items made of plastic end up harming our environment. We need to either dispose of it properly or donate it for recycling. Nowadays, the government is running a lot of schemes to recycle plastic where the citizens can not only donate their plastic waste but also exchange it in return for other items.
- Plant Trees: Cutting of trees due to several reasons such as the widening of roads, building houses, etc. has led to an increase in different types of pollution. Plants absorb harmful gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, etc. present in the atmosphere. Since they release oxygen during the photosynthesis process, therefore, it is important for us to plant and take care of as many trees as we can.
Pollution is a problem that we need to solve at the earliest so that humans can live safely on this planet. It is important that we follow the suggested measures to curb this issue. Its our responsibility to make our place a better place for living. In order to make the Earth survive, we have to stop polluting it.
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