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Active and Passive voice, Examples, Definition, Exercises, Rules in Hindi

This article on active and passive voice gives the definition of active and passive voice. There are examples of each and rules to convert active voice into passive voice. Rules for identification of passive voice and exercises on active and passive voice have also been given.

 

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ACTIVE VOICE - DEFINITION

Where the subject performs the action stated by the verb is active voice

कृतवाच्य वाक्य में क्रिया द्वारा दर्शाया गया कार्य subject या कर्ता द्वारा किया जाता है।

 

ACTIVE VOICE – EXAMPLE SENTENCES

मैंने राधा को ई मेल भेजा।

I sent an e-mail to Radha.

 

उसने दरवाज़ा खोला।

He opened the door.

 

PASSIVE VOICE - DEFINITION

कर्मवाच्य वाक्य में object या कर्म कर्ता के स्थान पर आ कर महत्वता लेते हैं। केवल उन वाक्यों में प्रयोग होती है जिनमें सकर्मक क्रिया हो।

In passive voice, the subject is acted upon by the verb.

The subject may appear in the ‘by the ….’ phrase or may be omitted.

 

PASSIVE VOICE - IDENTIFICATION

  1. The verb phrase will always include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been
  2. May include a "by the..." phrase after the verb; the agent performing the action, if named, is the object of the preposition in this phrase.

 

PASSIVE VOICE – EXAMPLE SENTENCES

An e-mail was sent to Radha by me.

राधा को मेरे द्वारा ईमेल भेजा गया।

 

The door was opened by him.

दरवाज़ा उसके द्वारा खोला गया।

 

CONVERSION FROM ACTIVE TO PASSIVE VOICE - EXAMPLES

A: हमने अपना गृहकार्य कर लिया है।

A: We have done our homework.

 

P: अपना गृहकार्य हमारे द्वारा कर लिया गया है।

P: Our homework has been done by us.

 

A: शिक्षक ने उसे मॉनिटर नियुक्त किया।

A: The teacher has appointed him as the monitor.

 

P: वह शिक्षक द्वारा मॉनिटर नियुक्त किया गया है।

P: He has been appointed the monitor by the teacher.

 

A: मैं भी जीवन मैं सफलता प्राप्त कर सकता हूँ।

A: I can also achieve success in life.

 

P:जीवन में सफलता मेरे द्वारा भी प्राप्त की जा सकती है।

P: Success in life can also be achieved by me.

 

RULE FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Sentences with intransitive verbs (without object) cannot be converted into passive voice).

 

SENTENCES WHICH DO NOT HAVE PASSIVE VOICE - EXAMPLES

A: राम जाता है।

A: Ram goes.

 

A: वह जल गया है।

A: He has been burnt.

 

A: साँप मारा गया है।

A: The snake has been killed.

 

A: हम पढ़ते हैं।

A: We study.

 

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE – EXERCISE

Translate the following sentences in active and passive voice. The answers follow the questions:-

1. A: हम अपने देश को प्यार करते हैं।

P: हमारा देश हम को प्यार है।

 

2. A: वह मेरी शादी पर आई थी।

P: मेरी शादी पर वह आई थी।

 

3. A:मैंने स्लेट तोड़ी थी।

P: स्लेट मेरे द्वारा तोड़ी गई थी।

 

4. A: बिल्ली ने दूध पी लिया।

P: दूध बिल्ली द्वारा पी लिया गया है।

 

Answers:

1. A: We love our country.

P: Our country is loved by us.

 

2. A: She had attended my wedding.

P: My wedding had been attended by her.

 

3. A: I had broken the slate.

P: The slate had been broken by me.

 

4. A: The cat has drunk the milk.

P: The milk has been drunk by the cat.

 

This is a table that shows the change of sentences from Active to Passive voice in different tenses. The tense of the verb in the sentence remains the same during the change from active to passive or vice-versa. Also, the verb of the sentence has to agree with the subject of the sentence. The passive verbs are made up of two main parts: be+ Past participle form of the main verb. The form of the verb ‘be’ changes according to different tenses. The table below shows the formation of passive verbs in different tenses. The perfect continuous tense of both the present and past tense does not have passive forms of the verbs.

Present Indefinite Tense     

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + V1(s/es) + O

Passive
S + is/am/are + V3 + Prep+ O

He enjoys having coffee in the evening.

Coffee is enjoyed by him in the evening.

Negative

Active
S + do/ does not + V1+ O

Passive
S + is/ am/ are not + V3 + Prep+ O

He does not love you.

You are not loved by him.

Interrogative

Active
Do/Does + S + V1+ O?

Passive
Is/Am/Are + S + V3 + Prep + O?

Do you like him?

Is he liked by you?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Do/Does + S + not + V1+ O?

Passive
Is/ Am/ Are + S + not + V3 + Prep + O?

Does she not help you?

Are you not helped by her?

 

Present Continuous Tense

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + is/ am/ are + V + ing + O

Passive
S + is/am/are + being + V3 + Prep + O

She is writing a letter.

A letter is being written by her.

Negative

Active
S + is/ am/ are not + V + ing + O

Passive
S + is/ am/ are not + V3 + Prep + O

Yuvraj is not painting a picture.

A picture is not being painted by Yuvraj.

Interrogative

Active
Is/ Am/ Are + S + V + ing + O?

Passive
Is/ Am/ Are+ S + being + V3+ Prep + O?

Are they making chapatis?

Are chapatis being made by them?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Is/ Am/ Are + S + not + V + ing + O?

Passive
Is/ Am/ Are + S + not + being + V3 + Prep + O?

Is the noise not disturbing the old woman?

Is the old woman not being disturbed by the noise?

 

Present Perfect Tense

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + has/ have + V3 + O

Passive
S + has/ have + been + V3 + Prep + O

He has invited all his friends.

All his friends have been invited by him.

Negative

Active
S + has/ have not + V3 + O

Passive
S + has/ have not + been + V3 + Prep + O

She has not stolen my pen.

My pen has not been stolen by her.

Interrogative

Active
Has/ Have + S + V3 + O?

Passive
Has/ Have + S + been + V3 + Prep + O?

Have you won the lottery?

Has the lottery been won by you?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Has/ Have + S + not + V3 + O?

Passive
Has/ Have + S + not + been + V3 + Prep + O?

Has she not stolen your purse?

Has your purse not been stolen by him?

 

Past Indefinite Tense

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + V2 + O

Passive
S + was/ were + V3 + Prep + O

.He shot a deer.

A deer was shot by him.

Negative

Active
S + did + not + V1 + O

Passive
S + was were + not + V3 + Prep + O

.He did not speak the truth.

The truth was not spoken by him.

Interrogative

Active
Did + S + V1 + O?

Passive
Was/ Were + S + V3 + Prep + O?

Did you eat my pizza?

Was my pizza eaten by you?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Did + S + not + V1 + O?

Passive
Was/ Were + S + not + V3 + Prep + O?

Did you not beat her?

Was she not beaten by you?

 

Past Continuous Tense

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + was/were + V + ing + O

Passive
S + was/ were + being + V3 + Prep + O

He was writing a poem.

A poem was being written by him.

Negative

Active
S + was/ were + not + V + ing + O

Passive
S + was/were + not + being + V3 + Prep + O

He was not playing cricket.

Cricket was not being played by him

Interrogative

Active
Was/ Were + S + V + ing +  O?

Passive
Was/ Were + S + being + V3 + Prep + O?

Were the players chasing the ball?

Was the ball being chased by the players?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Was/ Were + S + not + V + ing + O?

Passive
Was/ Were + S + not + being + V3 + Prep + O?

Were the owners not making false promises?

Were false promises not being made by the owners?

 

Past Perfect Tense

Type of Sentence

Active Form

Passive Form

Affirmative Sentence

Active
S + had + V3 + O

Passive
S + had + been + V3 + Prep + O

We had already solved all the problems.

All the problems had already been solved by us.

Negative

Active
S + had + not + V3 + O

Passive
S + had + not + been + V3 + Prep + O

Ram had not purchased the table.

The table had not been purchased by Ram.

Interrogative

Active
Had + S + V3 + O?

Passive
Had + S + been + V3 + Prep + O?

Had the batsman made a mistake?

Had a mistake been made by the govt?

Negative Interrogative

Active
Had + S + not + V3 + O?

Passive
Had + S + not + been + V3 + Prep + O?

Had you not locked the window?

Had the window not been locked by you?

 

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