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Present Perfect Tense Examples, Structure, Formula, Rules, Exercises in Hindi

Present Perfect Tense - This article includes definition, formulae and rules for forming sentences in the present perfect tense. Video explanation,positive, negative, negative interrogative and interrogative sentences examples have been given with each formula. All this is simultaneously explained in Hindi for better understanding. There are exercises at the end so that you can assess how much you have learnt about the present perfect tense.

 

Present Perfect Tense Definition

We use this tense when we want to talk about unfinished actions or habits that started in the past and continue to the present, actions or events that happened sometime during a person's life. Usually we use it to say 'how long' and we need 'since' or 'for' for that purpose.

 

FOR A DETAILED EXPLANATION on Past Perfect Tense, please see the video

 

 

Present Tense Examples and Formulae

The different formulae for present perfect tense are as follows:

 

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Present Perfect Tense Formula for First Person Singular

The present perfect tense formula for First Person Singular is that the sentence starts with ‘I’ followed by  ‘have’, then the verb in its past participle form, followed by an object which is optional.
So, we can say that the present perfect tense formula for First Person Singular is as follows -

I + have + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some example sentences with formula for present perfect tense when the First Person is Singular:

1) I have studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

मैंने पिछले दो महीनों से  परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है।

2) I have gone to work.

मैं काम पर जा चुका  हूं।

3) I have slept till late this weekend.

मैं इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सोया  हूँ

4) I have just watched a movie.

मैंने अभी एक  फिल्म देखी  है

5) I have swum since childhood.       

मैं  बचपन से  तैरता हूं।

For converting these sentences into negative sentences the formula is that you add have not before the past participle form of the verb and the rest of the rule remains the same.

I + have not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the  First Person is Singular:

1) I have not studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

मैंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है।

2) I have not gone to work.

मैं काम पर नहीं गया हूं।
3) I have not slept till late this weekend.

मैं इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोया हूं।

4) I have just not watched a movie.

 मैंने अभी कोई फिल्म नहीं देखी है।

5) I have not swum since childhood. 

मैंने बचपन से तैराकी नहीं की है।

 

For converting these sentences into interrogative sentences the formula is that you add Have at the starting of the sentence and the rest of the rule remains the same. The sentence ends with a question mark (?).

Have + I + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the First Person is Singular:

1) Have I studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या मैंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन किया है?

2) Have I gone to work?

 क्या मैं काम करने गया हूँ?

3) Have I slept till late this weekend?

 क्या मैं इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सोया हूं?

4) Have I  just watched a movie?

क्या मैंने अभी  एक फिल्म देखी है?

5) Have I swum since childhood?     

क्या मैं बचपन से कभी तैरा हूँ?

 

For converting these sentences into negative interrogative sentences the formula is that you add ‘have’ at the starting of the sentence and ‘not’ after the subject. The rest of the rule remains the same. The sentence ends with a question mark (?).

Have + I + not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of negative interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the  First Person is Singular:

1) Have I  not studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या मैंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है?

2) Have I not gone to work?

क्या मैं काम पर नहीं गया हूँ?

3) Have I not slept till late this weekend?

क्या मैं इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोया हूँ?

4) Have I not just watched a movie?

 क्या मैंने अभी  एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है?

5) Have I not swum since childhood?

क्या मैंने बचपन से कभी तैराकी नहीं की ?       

 

Present Perfect Tense Formula for First Person Plural

The formula for present perfect tense when the First Person is Plural are that the sentence starts with ‘We’ and ‘have’, then a verb in its past participle form followed by an object which is optional.
So, we can say that the formula for present perfect tense for First Person Plural is as follows -

We + have + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some example sentences with formula for present perfect tense when the First Person is Plural:

1) We have studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

 हमने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है।

2) We have gone to work.

हम काम पर गए हैं।

3) We have slept till late this weekend.

हम इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सो चुके हैं।

4) We have just watched a movie.

 हमने सिर्फ एक फिल्म देखी है।

5) We have swum since childhood.   

हमने बचपन से ही तैराकी करी है।

For converting these sentences into negative sentences the formula is that you add have not before the past participle form of the verb and the rest of the rule remains the same.

We + have not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the  First Person is Plural:

1) We have not studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

हमने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है।

2) We have not gone to work.

 हम काम पर नहीं गए हैं।

3) We have not slept till late this weekend.

 हम इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोए हैं।

4) We have not watched a movie.

हमने फिल्म नहीं देखी है।

5) We have not swum since childhood.         

हमने बचपन से तैराकी नहीं करी है।

For converting these sentences into interrogative sentences the formula is that you add Have at the starting of the sentence and the rest of the rule remains the same. The sentence ends with a question mark (?).

Have + we + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the First Person is Plural:

1) Have we studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

क्या हमने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है?

2) Have we gone to work?

क्या हम काम पर गए हैं?

3) Have we slept till late this weekend?

क्या हम इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सोए हैं?

4) Have we watched a movie?

 क्या हमने एक फिल्म देखी है?

5) Have we swum since childhood?

क्या हमने बचपन से तैराकी करी है?

For converting these sentences into negative interrogative sentences the formula is that you add have at the starting of the sentence and ‘not’ after the subject. The rest of the rule remains the same.

Have + ‘we’ + not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of negative interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the  First Person is Singular:

1) Have we not studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या हमने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए मेहनत नहीं की है?

2) Have we not gone to work?

 क्या हम काम पर नहीं गए हैं?

3) Have we not slept till late this weekend?

क्या हम इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोए हैं?

4) Have we not just watched a movie?

क्या हमने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है?

5) Have we not swum since childhood?

क्या हमने बचपन से तैराकी नहीं करी है?

 

Present Perfect Tense Formula for Second Person

The formula for present perfect tense when there is a Second Person involved are that the sentence starts with ‘you’ and ‘have’, then a verb in its past participle form followed by an object which is optional.
So, we can say that the formula for present perfect tense when a Second Person is involved is as follows -

You + have + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some example sentences with formula for present perfect tense when a Second Person is involved:

1) You have studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

आपने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है।

2) You have gone to work.

 आप काम पर गए हैं।

3) You have slept till late this weekend.
आप इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सो चुके हैं।

4) You have just watched a movie.

आपने अभी-अभी फिल्म देखी है।

5) You have swum since childhood.  

 आपने बचपन से ही तैराकी की है।

 

For converting these sentences into negative sentences the formula is that you add have not  before the past participle form of the verb and the rest of the rule remains the same.

you + have not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when there is a second person involved:

1) You have not studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

 आपने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है।

2) You have not gone to work.

आप काम पर नहीं गए हैं।

3) You have not slept till late this weekend.

आप इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोए हैं।

4) You have not just watched a movie.

 आपने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है।

5) You have not swum since childhood.

आपने बचपन से ही तैराकी नहीं करी है

For converting these sentences into interrogative sentences the formula is that you add Have at the starting of the sentence and the rest of the rule remains the same.

Have + you + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when there is a Second Person Involved:

1) Have you studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या आपने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन किया है?

2) Have you gone to work?

 क्या आप काम करने गए हैं?

3) Have you slept till late this weekend?

क्या आप इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सो गए हैं?

4) Have you just watched a movie?

क्या आपने अभी-अभी कोई फिल्म देखी है?

5) Have you swum since childhood?

क्या आपने बचपन से कभी तैराकी करी है ?

For converting these sentences into negative interrogative sentences the formula is that you add have/ has at the starting of the sentence and ‘not’ after the subject. The rest of the rule remains the same.

Have + you + not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of negative interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when there is a second person involved:

1) Have you not studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या आपने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है?

2) Have you not gone to work?

 क्या आप काम करने नहीं गए हैं?

3) Have you not slept till late this weekend?
क्या आप इस सप्ताहांत देर तक नहीं सोए हैं?

4) Have you not just watched a movie?

क्या आपने अभी फिल्म नहीं देखी है?

5) Have you not swum since childhood?.

क्या आपने बचपन से तैराकी नहीं  करी है ?

 

Present Perfect Tense Formula for Third Person Singular

The formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Singular are that the sentence starts with He, She, proper noun and ‘has’, then a verb in its past participle form followed by an object which is optional.
So, we can say that the formula for present perfect tense for Third Person Singular is as follows -

He/ She/ Proper Nouns + has + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some example sentences with formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Singular:

1) He has studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है।

2) Father has gone to work.

 पिता काम पर गए हैं।

3) She has slept till late this weekend.

वह इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सोया है।

4) Ram has just watched a movie.

 राम ने अभी  एक फिल्म देखी है।

5) Sham has swum since childhood.

शाम ने बचपन से ही तैराकी करी है।
For converting these sentences into negative sentences the formula is that you add has not  before the past participle form of the verb and the rest of the rule remains the same.

He/ She/ Proper Nouns + has not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Singular:

1) He has not studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा में कड़ी मेहनत नहीं की है।

2) Father has not gone to work.

पिता काम पर नहीं गए हैं।

3) She has not slept till late this weekend.

वह इस सप्ताह देर तक नहीं सोई  है।

4) Ram has not just watched a movie.

राम ने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है।

5) Sham has not swum since childhood.

शाम ने बचपन से ही तैराकी नहीं करी है।

For converting these sentences into interrogative sentences the formula is that you add Has at the starting of the sentence and the rest of the rule remains the same.

Has + He/ She/ Proper Nouns + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Singular:

1) Has he studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

क्या उसने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है?

2) Has Father gone to work?

क्या पिता काम पर गए हैं?

3) Has she slept till late this weekend?

 क्या वह इस सप्ताहांत देर तक सोई है?

4) Has Ram just watched a movie?

 क्या राम ने सिर्फ एक फिल्म देखी है?

5) Has Sham swum since childhood?

क्या शाम ने बचपन से तैराकी करी है?

For converting these sentences into negative interrogative sentences the formula is that you add has at the starting of the sentence and ‘not’ after the subject. The rest of the rule remains the same.

Has +  He/ She/ Proper Nouns + not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of negative interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Singular:

1) Has he not studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

क्या उसने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए मेहनत नहीं की है?

2) Has Father not gone to work?

क्या पिता काम पर नहीं गए हैं?

3) Has she not slept till late this weekend?

क्या वह इस सप्ताह के अंत देर तक नहीं सोई है?

4) Has Ram not just watched a movie?

क्या राम ने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है?

5) Has Sham not swum since childhood?

क्या शाम बचपन से ही नहीं तैरा है ?

 

Present Perfect Tense Formula for Third Person Plural

The formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Plural are that the sentence starts with ‘They’ or common nouns and ‘have’, then a verb in its past participle form  followed by an object which is optional
So, we can say that the formula for present perfect tense for Third Person Plural is as follows -

They/ Common Nouns + have + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some example sentences with formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Plural:

1) They have studied hard for the exams for the last two months.

 उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है।

2) Girls have gone to work.

लड़कियां काम पर चली गई हैं।

3) Boys have slept till late this weekend.

लड़के इस सप्ताह के अंत  देर तक सोए हैं।

4) They have just watched a movie.

 उन्होंने सिर्फ एक फिल्म देखी है।

5) They have swum since childhood.

वह बचपन से ही तैरते रहे है।

For converting these sentences into negative sentences the formula is that you add have not  before the past participle form of the verb and the rest of the rule remains the same.

They/ Common Nouns + have not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Plural:

1) They have not studied hard for the exams for the last two months.
उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कठिन अध्ययन नहीं किया है।

2) Girls have not gone to work.

लड़कियां काम पर नहीं गई हैं।

3) Boys have not slept till late this weekend.

इस सप्ताहांत लड़के देर तक नहीं सोए हैं।

4) They have not just watched a movie.

 उन्होंने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है।

5) They have not swum since childhood.

वह बचपन से नहीं तैरे है।

For converting these sentences into interrogative sentences the formula is that you add Have at the starting of the sentence and the rest of the rule remains the same.

Have + They/ Common Nouns + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)?

Let us see some examples of interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Plural:

1) Have they studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

क्या उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए कड़ी मेहनत की है?         

2) Have girls gone to work?

 क्या लड़कियां काम पर गई हैं?

3) Have boys slept till late this weekend?

 क्या इस सप्ताह के अंत तक लड़के सो गए थे?

4) Have they just watched a movie?

क्या उन्होंने सिर्फ एक फिल्म देखी है?

5) Have they swum since childhood?
क्या वह बचपन से तैर रहे है ?

For converting these sentences into negative interrogative sentences the formula is that you add have/ has at the starting of the sentence and ‘not’ after the subject. The rest of the rule remains the same.

Have/ has + They/ Common Nouns + not + verb (past participle form) + object (optional)

Let us see some examples of negative interrogative sentences with the formula for present perfect tense when the Third Person is Plural:

1) Have they not studied hard for the exams for the last two months?

 क्या उन्होंने पिछले दो महीनों से परीक्षा के लिए मेहनत नहीं की है?

2) Have girls not gone to work?

 क्या लड़कियां काम पर नहीं गई हैं?

3) Have boys not slept till late this weekend?

क्या इस सप्ताह के अंत तक लड़कों को नींद नहीं आई है?

4) Have they not just watched a movie?

क्या उन्होंने सिर्फ एक फिल्म नहीं देखी है?

5) Have they not swum since childhood?

क्या वह बचपन से ही नहीं तैरे है?

 

Present Perfect Tense Exercises

Translate the following using the present perfect tense. The questions are followed by the answers.

  1. क्या राधा ने फ़ोन नहीं किया है ?
  2. धोबी ने कपड़े इस्त्री कर दिए हैं।
  3. मैंने सफाई कर दी है।
  4. क्या कार्यक्रम ख़त्म हो चुका  है ?
  5. उन्होंने काम ख़त्म कर दिया है।

 
Answers

i. Has Radha not called up?

ii. Dhobi has ironed clothes.

iii. I have done cleaning.

Has the programme finished?

iv. They have finished the work.

 

Also See:

Past Tense of Come

Past Tense of Fall

Past Tense of Lead

Past Tense of Read

Past Tense of Bite

 

Also See: