Home >> Learn English >> English Grammer >>

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules and examples - definition, exercises

Direct and Indirect Speech -Definition and Rules

 

Definition and Examples of Direct and Indirect Speech Rules

This article includes the definition of direct and indirect speech along with important rules for converting direct speech into indirect speech and vice versa. Various examples of conversion of direct speech into indirect speech have been given. Rules, parts, examples and exercises of direct and indirect speech have been given in both Hindi and English for better understanding.

 

Define Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct speech is a report of the exact words used by a speaker or writer. The words spoken appear within inverted commas “......” and should be exactly word to word as spoken or written.

किसी द्वारा बोले गए वाक्य को ज्यों का त्यों लिख देना या बताना प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य (या direct speech)  कहलाता है।

FOR A DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE TOPIC, SEE THE VIDEO

 

 

Example

अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, "तुम जा सकते हो।”

 

The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”

 

Advertisement:

 

 

INDIRECT SPEECH DEFINITION

When we report what someone said in our own words, it is called Indirect speech. We do not use inverted commas, do not write the exact words as spoken or written by someone.

किसी द्वारा बोले गए शब्दों को अपने शब्दों में कहना परोक्ष वाक्य (या indirect speech) कहलाता है।

 

Generally, the tense changes when we convert direct speech into indirect speech.

 

अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा कि वे जा सकते थे।

 

The teacher said to the students that they could go.


PARTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Both direct and indirect speech have two parts which are complete sentences in themselves. They are -

     

  1. Reported verb
  2.  

  3.  Reported speech

 

प्रत्यक्ष / परोक्ष वाक्यों के दो भाग होते हैं जो की अपने में सम्पूर्ण वाक्य हैं।


1. Reporting verb – Who said to whom.

पहला भाग यह बताता है कि किस व्यक्ति ने किस व्यक्ति से बात कही।

 

अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा,"तुम जा सकते हो।”

The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”

 

2. Reported speech –The exact words spoken, put within inverted commas “_______”.

दुसरे भाग में कही गई बात बताई जाती है जो प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य में “_____''  में आती है।

 

अध्यापिका ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा,"तुम जा सकते हो।”

The teacher said to the students, “You can go.”

 

DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH

In Indirect speech, Conjunction ‘that’, ‘if’, ‘whether’, ‘to’ is used to join the two sentences.

Also, the tense of speech changes to past tense. The rules for change of tense have been discussed in detail under the heading of ‘Rules for changing tense’.

 

हम परोक्ष वाक्य में ‘कि’ (संयोजक) का प्रयोग करते हैं।

 

अध्यापिका ने कहा, "तुम जा सकते हो।”

The teacher said, “You can go.”

 

अध्यापिका ने कहा कि हम जा सकते थे।

The teacher said that we could go.

 

RULES TO CONVERT DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH WITH EXAMPLES

 

1.Rules for changing the pronoun

Rule 1: When the pronoun in Reporting speech is in first person, it changes according to the subject of the Reporting verb.
Let us see an example-

 

राम ने मुझे कहा, “मैं जा रहा हूँ।”

राम ने मुझे कहा कि वो जा रहा था।

Ram said to me, “I am going.”

Ram said to me that he was going.

 

‘I’ (first person singular) in direct speech becomes ‘he’ (third person singular) in indirect speech as the subject of reported verb ‘Ram’ is also a third person singular noun.

 

Let us see another example-

तुमने राधा से कहा, "मैं पढ़ रहा हूँ। "

तुमने राधा से कहा कि तुम पढ़ रहे थे।

You said to Radha, “I am studying.”

You said to Radha that you were studying.

‘I’ (first person singular) in direct speech becomes ‘you’ (second person) in indirect speech as the subject of reported verb ‘you’ is also a second person pronoun.

Let us see another example-

उनहोंने मुझे कहा, "हम खेल रहे हैं।"

उनहोंने मुझे कहा कि वे खेल रहे थे।

They said to me, “We are playing.”

They said to me that they were playing.

‘we’ (first person plural) in direct speech becomes ‘they’ (third person plural) in indirect speech as the subject of reported verb ‘they’ is also a third person plural pronoun.

 

Rule 2: When the pronoun in Reporting speech is in second person, it changes according to the object of the Reporting verb.

Let us see an example-

मैंने राम से कहा ,"तुम नालायक हो।"

मैंने राम से कहा कि वो नालायक है।

I said to Ram, “You are unworthy.”

I said to Ram that he was unworthy.
‘you’ (second person) in direct speech becomes ‘he’ (third person singular) in indirect speech as the object of reported verb ‘Ram’ is also a third person singular noun.

Let us see another example-

टीचर ने मुझे कहा,"तुम अच्छे विद्यार्थी हो।”

टीचर ने मुझे कहा कि मैं अच्छा विद्यार्थी था।

Teacher said to me, “You are a good student.

Teacher told me that I was a good student.

‘you’ (second person) in direct speech becomes ‘I’ (first person singular) in indirect speech as the object of reported verb ‘me’ is also a first person singular pronoun.

Let us see another example-

मैंने तुम्हें कहा,"तुम चुप रहो।“

मैंने तुम्हें कहा कि तुम चुप रहो।

 

I said to you, “You keep quiet.”

I said to you that you keep quiet.
‘you’ (second person) in direct speech remains ‘you’ (second person) in indirect speech as the object of reported verb ‘you’ is also a second person pronoun.

 

Rule 3: When the pronoun in Reporting speech is in third person, it will remain unchanged in the Reporting verb.

Let us see an example-

मैंने उसे कहा,"राम मूर्ख है।"

मैंने उसे कहा कि राम मूर्ख था।

I said to him, “Ram is a fool.”

I said to him that Ram was a fool.

‘Ram’ (third person) in direct speech remains ‘Ram’ (third person) in indirect speech.

Let us see another example-

माँ ने पापा को कहा ,"वे शाम को आएँगे।”

माँ ने पापा को कहा कि वे शाम को आएँगे।

Mom said to dad, “They will come in the evening.”

Mom said to dad that they would be coming in the evening.

‘they’ (third person) in direct speech remains ‘they’ (third person) in indirect speech.

 

2. Rules for changing the tense

Rule 1: If there is Present or Future tense in the direct speech, then tense of indirect speech will not change.

अगर प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य  में वर्तमान काल या भविष्य काल हो तो परोक्ष वाक्य  का काल नहीं बदलेगा।

Example of present tense

वह मुझे कहता है, "तुम समझदार हो।

वह मुझे कहता है कि मैं समझदार हूँ।

He says to me, “You are wise.”

He says to me that I am wise.

Example of future tense

राम मुझे कहेगा,"मैं सच्चा हूँ।“

राम मुझे कहेगा कि वो सच्चा है।

Ram will say to me, “I am true.”

Ram will say to me that he is true.

Rule 2: If there is Past tense in the direct speech, then tense of indirect speech change as mentioned below.

अगर प्रत्यक्ष वाक्य  में भूत काल है, तो परोक्ष वाक्य  में काल इस  प्रकार से  बदलेगा।

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Past indefinite

Past perfect

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect

Past perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

 

He had said to me, “We play.”

He had said to me that they played.

He had said to me, “We are playing.”

He had said to me that they were playing.

He had said to me, “We have played.”

He had said to me that they had played.

He had said to me, “We have been playing.”

He had said to me that they had been playing.

He had said to me, “We played.”

He had said to me that they had played.

He had said to me, “We were playing.”

He had said to me that they had been playing.

He had said to me, “We had played.”

He had said to me that they had played.

He had said to me, “We had been playing.”

He had said to me that they had been playing.

 

3. Rules for changing the Auxiliary verbs

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Will

Would

Shall

Should / would

May

Might

Can

Could

Do / does

Did

Is/am/are

Was / were

Has / have

had

 

He had said to me, “We will be playing.”

He had said to me that they would be playing.

He had said to me, “You shall be playing.”

He had said to me that I should be playing.

He had said to me, “You may play.”

He had said to me that I might play.

He had said to me, “Do you play?”

He had asked me that did I play?

He had said to me, “Does he play?”

He had asked me that did he play?

He had said to me, “Raj is fat.”

He had said to me that Raj was fat.

He had said to me, “I am fat.”

He had said to me that he was fat.

He had said to me, “We are fat.”

He had said to me that we were fat.

He had said to me, “I have a camera.”

He had said to me that he had a camera.

He had said to me, “The boy has a camera.”

He had said to me that the boy had a camera.

 

4. Rules for changing some more words

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Here

There

This

That

These

Those

Now

Then

Thus

So

Hence

Thence

Ago

before

Today

That day

Tomorrow

The next day

Yesterday

The previous day

Last night

The previous night

Last week

The previous week

tonight

That night

The next day

The following day

 

5. Rule for changing historical truths, universal truths, habitual facts

Irrespective of the tense of the direct speech, the tense of indirect speech will not change.

Let us see the following examples-

टीचर ने मुझे कहा,"हमने आज़ादी की लड़ाई १९४७ में जीती थी।“

टीचर ने मुझे कहा कि हमने आज़ादी  लड़ाई १९४७ में जीती थी।

Teacher said to me, “We won the freedom struggle in 1947.”

Teacher said to me that we won the freedom struggle in 1947.

उसने मुझे कहा, "बुद्ध गृह सूरज के सबसे पास है।“

उसने मुझे कहा कि बुद्ध गृह सूरज के सबसे पास है।

He said to me, “Mercury is the nearest planet to the Sun.”

He said to me that Mercury is the nearest planet to the Sun.

राधा ने हमें कहा, "मैं हररोज़ पढ़ती हूँ। "

राधा ने हमें कहा कि वो हररोज़ पढ़ती है।

Radha told us, “I study everyday.”

Radha told us that she studies everyday.

 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH – EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences and convert into indirect speech. The  answers follow-

  1. उसने मुझे कहा,"मेरा भाई हर सुबह छः बजे उठता है।“
  2.  

  3. अध्यापक ने लड़कों से कहा, "पृथ्वी सूरज के चारों ओर घूमती है। “
  4.  

  5. तुम्हें मुझे कहा, "मैं काम कर रहा हूँ।“
  6.  

  7. मैंने सीता को कहा, "मैं आज नहीं आऊंगी। “
  8.  

  9. उनहोंने हमसे कहा, "आप अच्छे हैं ।

Answers

 

1. He told me, “My brother wakes up at six every morning.

उसने मुझे कहा कि उसका भाई हर सुबह छः बजे उठता है।

He told me that his brother woke up at six every morning.

 

2. Teacher told the boys, “The Earth revolves around the Sun.”

अध्यापक ने लड़कों से कहा कि पृथ्वी सूरज के चारों ओर घूमती है।

Teacher told the boys that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

 

3. You said to me, “I am working.”

तुमने मुझे कहा कि तुम काम कर रहे थे।

You said to me that you were working.

 

4. I said to Sita, “I will not come today.”

मैंने सीता को कहा कि मैं उस दिन नहीं आऊंगी।

I said to Sita that I would not be coming today.

 

5. They told us, “You are good.”

उनहोंने हमसे कहा की अच्छे थे।

They told us that we were good.

 

Also See: