Terrorism- The word ‘terrorism’ refers to the intentional acts of violence that leads to the harming and killing of innocent people and creating an atmosphere of fear in the society. The ultimate aim is to bring a political change using forceful attacks.
- History of terrorism
- The present day nature of terrorism
- International terrorism
- Ecoterrorism/ Bioterrorism
- Religious terrorism
- Terrorism in India
History of terrorism
In the 1790s, the French revolutionaries coined the term terrorism. Maximilien Robespierre was the government head in France during this period. This period saw the mass execution of people and was known as the Reign of terror. He believed that violence could bring in a better system. Long before the French revolution, brutal killings of traitors took place in Jerusalem, the Roman empire, etc. Terrorism was a legal policy during the Nazi period in Germany. Under the rule of dictatorial leaders like Joseph Stalin, millions of citizens were killed in the Soviet Union.
The present day nature of terrorism
Today, terrorism is not a state-supported act. It is a lethal instrument to attack an existing political system. Terrorist groups have extreme nationalist fervor but engage in forms of attack that harm masses, and shake the public’s sense of security. They involve in hijackings, kidnappings, hostage-takings, and bombings. They plan their activities carefully and ensure that the number of casualties is high. The terrorist organizations try to brainwash people such that their fighters do not fear death. They have a strong feeling of fighting for the right cause, and they can do any harm to society. It is worse than guerrilla warfare. The guerrilla fighters aim at a military victory and do not rely on fear generation like terrorism.
Revolt against the state and its ideologies existed in every part of the world. For instance, the Irish republican army wanted an independent status for Ireland. The Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Iraq fought for autonomy of a Kurdish state. The battle of the LTTE group in Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese majority government was highly atrocious and led to large scale devastation. The terrorist groups gain ground when a few countries support and others oppose their movement of liberation. That is, a terrorist for one person becomes another person’s freedom fighter. State-sponsored terrorism could lead to wars among various countries. The hijackings of international flights, the killing of people in global events like the Olympics are a few tactics of the terror groups to jitter people across the world.
It refers to the destruction of the environment. Threats and ideas to contaminate, deploy biological agents, and destroy energy sources like oil fields also fall under this category. Presently, this form of terrorism is declining among large terrorist groups but continues in the domestic circles.
Terrorism based on religion has become the norm of the day in the 21st century. Several terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah exist as extremist groups due to the religious bias among the people. Religious terrorism is a menace for the progress of humanity. The attack on the twin towers was deadly and led to the policing role of the United States in the world. Leaders across the world have pledged to decimate these groups. Unfortunately, religion is one of the most significant causes of terrorism and often results in war.
Terrorism in India
Terrorism has existed in India ever since the formation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The terrorists are extremists. They attack places like Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, etc. They take revenge from the entire nation. Our neighboring country of Pakistan is the breeding ground for many terror groups. It gets support either from the USA or China. We also face cross-border terrorism. One of the reasons could be the long borders that India shares with other countries. Our borders are easy to cross and are not guarded regularly.
To solve the issue of terrorism, we not only require trained human resources but also a change in the mindset of the people. People are not born as terrorists; they are made one in the name of religion, ethnicity, and nationality.
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