CBSE Class 10 English Communicative Word Meaning


CBSE Class 10 Communicative Book Meaning of Difficult Words from All Chapters


CBSE Class 10 Communicative Word Meaning of All Chapters.  Here, the difficult words and their meanings of all the chapters of CBSE Class 10 English Literature Reader (Communicative) Book have been compiled for the convenience of the students. This is an exhaustive list of the words and meanings of all the fiction, poem and drama from the Communicative book for CBSE Class 10 English . The difficult words’ meanings have been explained lucidly so that every student can understand them.




Chapter 1 – Two Gentlemen of Verona


  1. Verona : a city in Italy. Romeo and Juliet are believed to have lived there
  2. Shrugged: To raise and lower your shoulder in order to show disapproval.
  3. Shabby: Poor condition especially dressed in old and worn clothes.
  4. worn : old and damaged
  5. tunic : a loose outer garment that does not have sleeves
  6. Earnest: A serious mental state.
  7. Brisk: Quick, fast.
  8. Slackened: Slowed down or less active.
  9. Juliet’s tomb – The place where Juliet, the woman Romeo loved, was buried. Romeo and Juliet is a play written by Shakespeare.
  10. demeanour: A person’s appearance or behavior.
  11. artless : guileless; innocent
  12. Hawked: To offer for sale by calling out in the street.
  13. Errands: Short work or business trip.
  14. Deserted: Empty or sparsely occupied.
  15. Emigrate: Leave one’s own country in order to settle permanently in another.
  16. Vexation: Annoyed state.
  17. put out : offended; annoyed
  18. Humble Dwellings: A simple living space
  19. Steel-rimmed: The upper or outer edge of an object, especially when curved or circular.
  20. Vestibule: An entrance hall inside a building.
  21. Intrude: To interrupt someone’s privacy.
  22. Rubble: Waste or rough fragments of stone, brick, concrete, etc., especially as the debris from the demolition of buildings.
  23. Scarce: Very small in amount.



Chapter 2 – Mrs. Packletide’s Tiger


  1. Descended: Develop suddenly.
  2. Wholesome: “Better than before”, in general
  3. Inhabitants: A person or animal that lives in a particular place.
  4. Compelling motive: Aim backed by force and power.
  5. Deviation: An action, behavior, or condition that is different from what is usual or expected.
  6. Nimrod : Biblical character (great granson of Noah); a mighty hunter
  7. Algerian:  A native or inhabitant of Algeria.
  8. Aviator: A pilot.
  9. Procured: To get something by some effort.
  10. Harvest: Collect or obtain for future use.
  11. Ostensibly: Supposedly
  12. Foreground: The part of a scene or picture that is nearest to and in front of the viewer.
  13. Swayed: Influence
  14.  Propitious: Likely to have or produce good results.
  15. Boast: Possess.
  16. Rendezvous: A place or point where a group meets.
  17. Antecedents: Predecessor.
  18. Infirmities: The state of being weak or ill because of age.
  19. Prospect: Hope or likelihood.
  20. Stimulated: Encourage or arouse interest.
  21. Herd-robber: refers to a tiger that hunts and preys on other animals.
  22. Crouched: Adopt a position where the knees are bent and the upper body is brought forward and down, typically in order to avoid detection or to defend oneself.
  23. Persistent: Continuing beyond the usual or expected time.
  24. Bleat: The loud cry of sheep or goat.
  25. tethered: fastened
  26. thumb- nail pack of patience cards : small sized playing cards to play solitaire
  27. Quarry: Prey, victim
  28. Morbid: Unpleasant.
  29. Intervention: To become involved in something in order to have an influence.
  30. Instinctively: Feelings based on instincts.
  31. Speculations: Ideas or guesses about something that is not known.
  32. Depreciation: Decrease in value.
  33. Commenced: To begin.
  34. Ambling: To walk slowly in a free and relaxed way.
  35. Senile: Showing a loss of mental ability in old age.  
  36. Succumbed: To die.
  37. Tiger-claw brooch: A small piece of jewellery in the shape of a tiger’s claw with a pin at the back that is fastened to a woman’s clothes.
  38. Book of patterns : Book showing the colour patterns of racing, stables, with colours worn by jockeys.
  39. Post-time: The start of horse race and deadline for placing a bet
  40. Les Fauves: French for ‘ The Wild Animals’
  41. Incidental : secondary.


Chapter 3 – The Letter


  1. Dawn: the first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise.
  2. Tattered: Old and torn.
  3. Shield: a protection, guard
  4. Screech: A loud and very high sound.
  5. Inhabitants: A person or animal that lives in a particular place.
  6. Profound: Having great knowledge or understanding.
  7. Lulls: put to sleep.
  8. Victim: A person who is attacked/ robbed/ cheated by someone else.
  9. Caressing: To touch in a gentle way.
  10. Plodded: To walk slowly and usually heavily.
  11. Staff: Group of people who work for an organization.
  12. Crevices: A narrow opening or crack in a hard surface.
  13. Beholding : taking a look at; seeing
  14. Diwan Sahib : a senior government official
  15. Midst: The middle area or part of something.
  16. Crouching: To lower your body to the ground by bending your legs.
  17. Bewildered: confused.
  18. Bereft: sad and lonely, especially through someone’s death or departure.
  19. Devout: Deeply religious.
  20. Serenity: Calmness.
  21. Persevered: continue in a course of action even in the face of difficulty or with little or no indication of success.
  22. Scandals: An occurrence where people are shocked and upset because of wrong behavior.
  23. Customary: Usually done in particular way, in particular place or time. 
  24. Relic: Something that is from the past time, culture.
  25. Pitiable: Deserving pity or sympathy.
  26. Precinct: the area within the walls or perceived boundaries of a particular building or place.
  27. Chimed: Added to it.
  28. Lunacy: Extreme mental illness.
  29. Verse: Writing in which words are arranged in a rhythmic pattern.
  30. Hastily: Hurriedly
  31. Exhausted: State where all the mental or physical energy is completely used up.
  32. Guineas: An old British currency (coin).
  33. Suspense: Feeling or state of nervousness or excitement caused by wondering what will happen.
  34. Meek: Having or showing gentle nature.
  35. Perplexed: puzzled
  36. Deceived: made to believe something that is not true.
  37. Anxiety: Feeling of nervousness about what might happen.
  38. Remorse: Feeling of guilt.


Chapter 4 – A Shady Plot


  1. Live propositions: suggest or indicate a real life occurrence
  2. shade of an idea: slightest clue or idea
  3. mysterious: strange
  4. chased: ran after
  5. inspiration: idea
  6. vain: unsuccessful
  7. Healthy: here, suitable or favourable
  8. uncanny: mysterious, strange
  9. pestering: troubling
  10. dunned: persistently ask for something that is overdue, pressurized
  11. dig one up: to find something
  12. cocky: overconfident
  13. Wander: move away slowly
  14. material things: here, refers to living things which are part of the world and are different from ghosts.
  15. tendency: an inclination towards a particular behaviour
  16. fad: fashion or trend
  17. work it to death: to use till it gets finished due to overuse
  18. never get me any place: he realized that by merely thinking of it, he could do nothing to cure it.
  19. staring: look intently
  20. ceiling: the upper interior surface of the room
  21. Sarcastically: someone or something that mocks the other
  22. Imbecility: lack of intelligence
  23. Twilight: half light, dusk
  24. shirtwaist : a woman’s blouse shaped like a man’s shirt
  25. plaid: long piece of cloth
  26. Angular: sharp corners
  27. Enormous: huge
  28. Wad: rolled up
  29. laid eyes on the woman before: never seen her before.
  30. Gaping: staring with the mouth wide open
  31. Sections: parts
  32. Parts: here, body parts
  33. Crisped: spoke angrily
  34. spine got cold: the backbone could not move due to intense fear
  35. Stenographer: someone who types what people say
  36. drivelling: speak nonsense
  37. Assistance: help
  38. Yell: scream
  39. draped: covered loosely in fold of cloth
  40. reminiscent: with one’s mind full of memories, tending to remind
  41. long eagle nose: the shape of her nose
  42. purgatory: a place or state of suffering
  43. paradise: heaven
  44. made up my mind: decided
  45. Scout around: go to look in various places for something you want
  46. The case: here, a particular matter
  47. Groaned: a deep long sound showing unhappiness or pain
  48. Scarecrow:  an object made to resemble a human figure
  49. Beds: here, graves
  50. Patronizingly: to speak or behave with someone as if they are not important.
  51. Ouija board: a device used to communicate with ghosts, a board on which are marked the letters of the alphabet. Answers to questions are spelt out by a pointer or glass held by the fingertips of the participants, and are supposedly formed by spiritual forces
  52. Fanatics: person who is extremely passionate about something
  53. Haunt: scare
  54. to exert: to put effort to do  something
  55. acquaintances: a  person whom you have met but do not know well
  56. Demobilize: step back from action, discharge
  57. Evaporate: disappear gradually
  58. brogans: a heavy ankle-high work boot with laces
  59. misty: unclear
  60. affection: (here) condition; state of being affected
  61. vestige: trace
  62. Idiotic grin: smile broadly like a fool
  63. Twitch: tremble, shiver
  64. Conceal: hide
  65. affliction: disorder
  66. premonitory chill: prior warning, foreboding
  67. crept up the back of my neck: approached slowly and gave a shock
  68. Horrible: bad dreaded
  69. I felt things slipping: feeling that the situation is getting out of control
  70. Lingered: to stay in a place for longer than expected
  71. Hysterics: uncontrolled behaviour due to extreme fear or sadness.
  72. Napoleon: refers to Napolean Bonaparte, a historical figure who was a French military leader.
  73. William the Conqueror: refers to William I, a historical figure who was the king of England.
  74. Helen of Troy: A greek mythological character, considered the most beautiful woman in the world.
  75. wear your eyes out: damage them due to prolonged use
  76. musty: full of dust
  77. local colour: here, the finer details of the person
  78. speck: tiny particle
  79. premonitory: a foreboding.
  80. Darn: used to express disappointment
  81. Devilish: evil
  82. Propose: suggest or offer a plan
  83. slid down: to pass smoothly
  84. Huffily: angry or annoyed
  85. cloud up: gather up in the sky, here the formation of the ghost which appeared in parts
  86. let it go: leave it, keep it aside for later
  87. Bookkeeper: a person who records day to day financial transactions in business, accountant.
  88. Lumber: dealing in wood and timber
  89. Vanished: disappeared
  90. Churning: to move with great force
  91. Illuminated: lit up
  92. argify: (here) argue
  93. Parlour: a room
  94. Mournful: sad
  95. Squeak: sound made by the table
  96. Flirtatious: behaviour as if being attracted to someone.
  97. Coyly: flirtatious but pretending to be shy
  98. Cooed: spoke softly
  99. Hovered: moved around something
  100. Traitor: a person who betrays someone
  101. Dreadful: causing suffering
  102. Corrugated: bent into curves
  103. light of the huntress in her pale blue eyes: Her light blue coloured eyes were shining with excitement like those of a huntress.
  104. groaned: cried in pain
  105. inexorable: unstoppable, impossible to prevent
  106. simpered: smile in a silly, often coy manner
  107. Manipulators: a person who controls or influences others in a clever way
  108. Report: appear
  109. Peculiar: strange
  110. Squeak: high pitched sound
  111. Spasm: shiver
  112. Wretched: sad
  113. Semblance: outward appearance
  114. sly: dishonest
  115. Crawled: move slowly on hands and knees
  116. Gurgled: make a hollow bubbling sound
  117. Elapsed: passed
  118. turned the whites of her eyes up to the ceiling: prayed to God.
  119. Prickle: short slender, sharp pointed outgrowth
  120. Majestically: highest dignity
  121. Dreadful: terrible
  122. Fascination: interest
  123. Gait: walk
  124. Protruding: sticking out
  125. Exasperated: irritate intensely
  126. Faculties: inherent powers of body and mind
  127. Materialize: to appear
  128. hoodoos: placing curses and charms to bring bad luck on someone
  129. Abused: use something to bad effect
  130. leered: stared
  131. Brassily: rudely, insolently
  132. Agility: quickly and easily
  133. conceal: hide
  134. awful: horrible
  135. phantom: ghost
  136. wrest: pull out with force
  137. staccatoed: spoke in an abrupt, detached manner
  138. Skeered: scared
  139. Coon: the one doing a menial job
  140. Waspishly: in an irritated manner
  141. Elaborately: detailed
  142. Dratted: annoying
  143. concealed: hidden
  144. Denial: say no
  145. gurgled: bubbled
  146. hussy: an immoral woman
  147. lithely: flexibly
  148. gaze: stare or look
  149. Thrust: pushed
  150. Apparition: ghost
  151. Skewed: twisted
  152. Powder: make up
  153. Swoon: faint
  154. Telescoped: slid outwards in parts
  155. briskly: quickly
  156. Fervently: great warmth
  157. Shoved: pushed
  158. bulliest: best, excellent
  159. plot: idea


Chapter 5 – Patol Babu Film Star 


  1. Lane: a narrow road
  2. Genial: friendly, warm
  3. Bald: having no or little hair on the head.
  4. Pharmacy: a shop or hospital dispensary where medicinal drugs are prepared or sold.
  5. Nonentity: an unimportant person or thing
  6. beyond his wildest dreams: something which is next to impossible for a person
  7. A strapping young fellow: a person who is strong, tall and looks to be active and healthy.
  8. Aubergines: brinjals, a vegetable
  9. Verged: to be very close to
  10. Obsession: a state in which he could not think of anything else
  11. Amateur: non-professional
  12. Jatra: is a Bengali word. The original word is Yatra (Sanskrit) which means a journey. Jatras is a popular folk-theatre form of Bengali theatre.
  13. Theatricals: play performed in a theatre.
  14. Handbill: a small printed sheet for advertisement.
  15. smooth sailing: having no problems
  16. toying with the idea: considering an idea
  17. retrenchment: cutting down
  18. struggled to make a living: had a difficult time earning enough money
  19. scrap: a small piece or amount of something
  20. Twang: a strong ringing sound
  21. Mighty: powerful
  22. Gory: violent
  23. Whizzing: move quickly
  24. Dragged: pull roughly
  25. Diffidence: modesty or shyness resulting from a lack of self-confidence
  26. appraising look: to consider or examine somebody or something and form an opinion about that person or thing
  27. Storey: floor
  28. Anxiously: eagerly
  29. pedestrian: person travelling on foot
  30. Crucial: decisive or critical
  31. rise to fame and fortune: becoming famous and wealthy
  32. Equipment: the necessary tools or machines
  33. pavement: footpath
  34. Oblong: a rectangular object or flat figure with unequal adjacent sides
  35. beehive: a dome shape structure where bees are kept
  36. Tremor: tremble, shake
  37. Perspiration: the process of sweating
  38. Gesturing: sign or signal
  39. Punctual: doing something at the agreed or proper time
  40. Bump: crash
  41. Muffed: handle badly
  42. Stout: fat
  43. Telescope: an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear nearer
  44. Hubbub: noise
  45. smash hits: very successful
  46. Glanced: to take a brief look
  47. Throbbing: to beat
  48. Gigantic: huge size
  49. hoax: joke
  50. meek: quiet
  51. Executive: senior official
  52. Embezzlement: theft or misappropriation of funds placed in one’s trust or belonging to one’s employer.
  53. pavement: footpath
  54. preoccupation: concentration
  55. crucial: important
  56. Crumpled: crushed
  57. Stifling: Suffocating
  58. Pompous: too serious and full of importance
  59. Trivial: of little value
  60. Dignity: the state of being of respect
  61. Vanity: pride
  62. Edification: the moral or intellectual improvement of someone
  63. Obeisance: respect
  64. Devoid: lacking
  65. Inflection: change in tone of the sound
  66. Uttered: spoke
  67. Astonishing: amazing
  68. Provoked: to give rise
  69. Thesis: argument
  70. Monosyllabic: a word having a single vowel sound
  71. Syllable: a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound
  72. Tiptoe: to walk quietly and quickly
  73. Rehearsals: a practice
  74. Enunciating: to pronounce clearly
  75. Crouch: bend forward after the collision
  76. Fling: throw forcefully
  77. Apathy: lack of interest
  78. anticipation: expectation
  79. suppressed: forcibly put an end to
  80. Cue: a thing said or done that serves as a signal to an actor
  81. dash: to run in a great hurry
  82. collision: hit
  83. strides: walk
  84. resume: to begin after a pause
  85. Bystander: a person who is present at an event or incident but does not take part
  86. Moustache: a strip of hair left to grow above the upper lip
  87. snappy: quick
  88. commended: praised
  89. Perspicacity: ability to understand somebody or something quickly and accurately
  90. Spectators: a person who watches at a show
  91. saw stars before his eyes: an idiom which means to take a blow to the head that is hard enough that you see specks of light that resemble stars
  92. excruciating: very painful
  93. Heaved: produced a sound
  94. blunted his sensibility: reduced his acting talent
  95. Intense: extreme


Chapter 6 – Virtually True


  1. wheezy breath: to breathe with an audible whistling sound, with difficulty
  2. Coma: a prolonged state of deep unconsciousness
  3. motorway accident: car accident
  4. Critical: very serious
  5. Miracle: a very lucky event that is surprising and unexpected
  6. Muttered: speak in a low voice due to confusion
  7. Stared: looked carefully
  8. Nutty: crazy about, has a passion for
  9. Mhz: megahertz – one million hertz, the unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second
  10. RAM: Random-Access Memory
  11. CD ROM: Compact Disk with Read-Only Memory
  12. Fantastic: far away from reality, very good and attractive
  13. Gizmos: gadgets, especially mechanical or electrical devices
  14. virtual reality: computer generated realistic images and sounds which enable the user to interact with this space
  15. visor: helmet
  16. interactive: influencing each other
  17. psycho-drive: driven by mental power
  18. terrific: very good
  19. more futuristic: having or involving very modern technology or design
  20. converted: change the form
  21. loft: an upper storey or attic
  22. sheriff’s: an official
  23. Saloon: a public room or building used for a specific purpose
  24. Sarsaparilla: a carbonated drink flavoured with sarsaparilla root
  25. Fizzy: sparkling
  26. Spun: turned
  27. Silhouette: someone or something shown as a dark shape and outline against a brighter background
  28. Drawled: spoke slowly
  29. Grinning: smiling broadly
  30. Slammed: to shut with force
  31. Bar: the counter or table
  32. Notching: achieving
  33. Complicated: tough
  34. Characters: persons in the game
  35. Dived: jumped
  36. Posse: group
  37. Echoed: a sound which keeps on repeating after the original sound has stopped
  38. Groaned: moan
  39. Slumped: to fall heavily
  40. Visor: a helmet
  41. retrieve: bring back
  42. Sweatshirt: a loose, warm sweater
  43. lights out: time in the evening when the lights are switched off in the room where people sleep
  44. Dragon: a mythical monster like a giant reptile
  45. Lair: a secret hiding place
  46. Wicked: evil
  47. plaits: a hairstyle formed by taking three portions of hair and interlacing one over the other to form a braid.
  48. Squealed: to scream with delight
  49. Roaring: to make a long deep sound
  50. Wardrobe: a large, tall cupboard
  51. gasped: missed a breath due to astonishment
  52. Leapt: jumped to a great height
  53. Fiery: consisting of fire
  54.  Battlements: a broad path on the top of a castle’s outer wall.
  55. Spiral: curve
  56. tapestry: used as a wall hanging or soft furnishing
  57. close pursuit: to chase
  58. Dungeons: a strong underground prison cell, especially in a castle
  59. Sword: a weapon with a long metal blade
  60. Rescue: save
  61. swipe-card: a plastic card on which data has been stored magnetically and that can be read by an electronic reading device
  62. howled: cried
  63. tramping: walking heavily
  64. steel-barred: locked
  65. dodged: avoid
  66. pounded: strike or hit heavily
  67. Vicious: violent
  68. Dripping: very wet
  69. Jowls: the lower cheeks or jaw
  70. Tumbling: fall suddenly
  71. Riddled: making many small holes in something
  72. Dodging: avoiding
  73. sniper fire: gunshots fired by somebody in a concealed position
  74. Scuttling: run hurriedly
  75. Revved: to press the accelerator when the clutch is disengaged
  76. Skidding: turning too quickly
  77. Tumbled: fall suddenly
  78. Thud: heavy sound
  79. Hatch: a door in an aircraft
  80. Soared: fly or rise high in the air
  81. Jackpot: a large cash prize in a game or lottery, especially one that accumulates until it is won.
  82. Furiously: very fast
  83. Retrieve: bring back from somewhere




Chapter 7 – The Frog and the Nightingale


  1. Bingle: name of the bog
  2. bog: an area of land that is very wet and muddy
  3. awn: ‘on’ misspelt and mispronounced as ‘awn’ so that it rhymes with ‘dawn’
  4. loathed: hated
  5. crass: Rude and insensitive
  6. cacophony: a very loud and unpleasant noise
  7. minstrelled: sang
  8. elation: great pride and joy
  9. Casting forth: to emit or to send out
  10. Dumbstruck: so shocked or surprised as to be unable to speak
  11. Rapt: totally interested, so that you cannot think of anything else
  12. Heron: A water bird
  13. Serenaded: sang beautifully
  14. Solitary: alone, single
  15. loon: a large water bird
  16. teal: a small duck
  17. tiddlers: small fishes
  18. enraptured: filled with fascination and delight
  19. encore: ‘sing some more’
  20. Applause: Praise, appreciation
  21. Twitched: A short, sudden jerk or movement
  22. Startled: Taken aback, surprised and shocked
  23. baritone: a male singing voice, fairly deep
  24. wield: hold and use
  25. technique: a method of doing something
  26. Flattered: Happy and pleased
  27. Impressed: influenced
  28. Critic: A person who judges the merits of artistic works.
  29. art: Here, singing talent
  30. Boast: Praise oneself
  31. Mozart: Name of a very talented musician
  32. disguise: Cannot be recognized
  33. Modest: small
  34. flushed: full of, very excited and pleased
  35. adoration: Strong admiration
  36. sensation: Widespread reaction of interest and excitement
  37. Precision: exact and accurate
  38. Sash: a long piece of cloth that you wear round the waist or over the shoulder, usually as a badge of honour.
  39. Scale: a sequence of musical notes that go up and down, one after the another
  40. hoarse: rough and unclear
  41. quivering: shaking, trembling
  42. Subdued: quiet, with little energy
  43. deprived: Not getting enough of something
  44. revived: improved
  45. Tiaras: a semi – circular metal band decorated with jewels and worn by wealthy women on formal occasions.
  46. twittering: chatting
  47. Mid – flight: In the middle of the song
  48. Trills: singing two musical notes one after the other, repeatedly and very quickly
  49. Billings: publicity for a concert, show, etc.
  50. Zipped: sang quickly
  51. Morose: miserable, bad tempered
  52. Rage: anger
  53. Wits: intelligence
  54. Puff: take a very deep breath
  55. Passion: show strong emotions
  56. Stupid: unintelligent
  57. Prone: likely to suffer from
  58. panache: a very confident, elegant style
  59. foghorn: a very loud, unpleasant noise
  60. unrivalled: unopposed


Chapter 8 – Not Marble nor the Gilded Monuments


  1. gilded: covered with gold; gold-plated
  2. these contents: refers to this poetry
  3. unswept stone: a stone monument left uncared for
  4. besmear’d: tarnished
  5. sluttish: of unclean habits and behaviour
  6. broils: tumult, fighting, disturbances, esp. in war
  7. work of masonry: refers to monuments built by masons
  8. Mars: the god of war
  9. Sword: a weapon with a long metal blade
  10. quick: lively, fast moving, searching out
  11. living record: this written memory of your life which continues after you are dead
  12. Gainst: against
  13. oblivious enmity: enmity which is forgetful of everything and so seeks to destroy everything
  14. pace forth: stride forwards
  15. posterity: future generations
  16. doom: doomsday; the day on which the Last Judgment will occur
  17. judgement: the day of the last judgement
  18. Dwell: live


Chapter 9 – Ozymandias


  1. Antique: old
  2. trunkless: without the upper body (the main part of the body of a human being or an animal, excluding the head, neck, and limbs)
  3. sunk: to descend below the surface of something
  4. shattered: broken into pieces
  5. visage: face
  6. frown: expression of anger or displeasure
  7. wrinkled: marks of lines or folds
  8. sneer: facial expression of scorn or hostility in which the upper lip may be raised
  9. cold: without feelings for others
  10. command: domination or control
  11. sculptor: an artist who makes sculptures
  12. passions: refers to the expressions on the king’s face
  13. read: interpreted
  14. survive: continue to exist after his death
  15. stamped: sculpted, printed or engraved
  16. mocked: to copy something
  17. Pedestal: the base of a statue
  18. Mighty: the powerful kings of the world
  19. Despair: without hope
  20. beside: else
  21. decay: broken pieces of the statue
  22. colossal: extremely large or great
  23. wreck: ruins
  24. boundless: without limits
  25. bare: without the great statue of Ozymandias
  26. lone: the only survivor


Chapter 10 – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner


  1. Ancient: belonging to the olden times
  2. Mariner: sailor
  3. Stoppeth: stopped
  4. Thy: your Glittering: shining brightly, with flashing points of light
  5. wherefore: why
  6. stopp’st: stopping
  7. thou: you
  8. Bridegroom: the boy who is getting married
  9. kin : members of your family
  10. may’st: may
  11. din: sound of the wedding songs
  12. Skinny: thin
  13. quoth : said
  14. loon : a mad person
  15. Eftsoons : at once
  16. Dropt: dropped his hand
  17. holds him: captivates, hypnotizes
  18. hath: had
  19. hath his will: he succeeded in doing what he wanted to do
  20. Spake: archaic word for ‘spoke’
  21. kirk : church
  22. He: refers to the Sun
  23. bassoon : a musical instrument
  24. Hath: had
  25. Paced: walked into
  26. minstrelsy : singers and musicians
  27. tyrannous : cruel, severe, harsh
  28. chased: dragged along
  29. Sloping: slanting
  30. Mast: a tall pole on a ship or boat which supports the sails
  31. prow : the front part of a ship
  32. pursued : chased
  33. treads: walks
  34. foe : enemy
  35. aye: yes
  36. fled: to move swiftly
  37. emerald : a precious stone, which is clear and bright green
  38. drifts: floating ice
  39. clifts : steep sides of the ice-bergs
  40. dismal : gloomy, sad
  41. Sheen : a smooth and gentle brightness on the surface of something
  42. ken : see
  43. Swound: a fainting fit, the act of fainting
  44. Hailed it: welcomed it
  45. Split: broke into two parts
  46. Helmsman: the person steering the ship
  47. hollo : shout, call
  48. shroud : sail
  49. perched : sat on the edge of something
  50. vespers nine : a fixed time every day (the evening church service)
  51. Fiends: evil spirit, devil
  52. plague : to bother, trouble
  53. crossbow : a very powerful bow and arrow, with a trigger
  54. Hollo: call
  55. ‘em: them
  56. Woe: great unhappiness and sorrow
  57. Averred: said firmly
  58. Slay: kill
  59. Purist: rose up
  60. Slay: to kill
  61. Foam: the bubbles formed on the surface of the sea
  62. Furrow: the track formed behind the ship as it sailed ahead
  63. Deep: ocean
  64. Slimy: with slippery bodies
  65. reel and rout: types of dances
  66. Spirit: soul of the dead albatross
  67. Fathom: a measurement of depth
  68. Drought: a condition of intense heat and lack of water
  69. Withered: lifeless and dry
  70. Soot: solid smoke


Chapter 11  – Snake


  1. Water trough – a vessel which holds water
  2. Carob tree – a red flowered tree originally in the Mediterranean area
  3. Pitcher – tall, round container with an open top and a large handle
  4. Fissure – crack
  5. Gloom – darkness
  6. yellow-brown slackness – The yellow – brown coloured body of the snake moved slowly
  7. soft-bellied down – The snake’s belly is soft and slimy and is turned upside down. 
  8. Slack – loose, lazy
  9. Vaguely – not clear, passing glance
  10. Flickered – moved
  11. Mused – think about
  12. Stooped – bent forward
  13. Bowels – bottom of the Earth
  14. Sicilian July – Reference to the intense hot month of July on the island of Sicily
  15. Etna smoking – reference to Mount Etna located in Sicily is an active volcano and emits smoke.
  16. Venomous – poisonous
  17. Confess – admit his guilt
  18. Glad – happy
  19. Depart – leave
  20. Pacified – to be at peace
  21. burning bowels of this earth – Reference to the hot bottom of Mount Etna which is a volcano.
  22. Cowardice – lack of bravery
  23. perversity – the quality of being unreasonable, illogical
  24. Hospitality – friendly welcome
  25. dark door of the secret earth – Referring to the hole from where the snake has crawled out of the Earth.
  26. Wall–face – face of the wall of the poet’s garden
  27. Dreadful – terrible
  28. Horrid – causing horror
  29. Clatter: sound produced
  30. Convulsed: a violent movement
  31. Haste: hurry
  32. Writhed – twisted and turned
  33. Paltry – worthless
  34. Despised – hated
  35. Accursed – under a curse
  36. Albatross– an allusion to Coleridge’s “Rime of the ancient mariner“. He wishes for its return.
  37. Expiate – make amends
  38. Pettiness – feeling small
  39. exile – Sent away from his territory
  40. Clearness: puddle of clear water.




Chapter 12 – The Dear Departed


  1. Provincial town – a town considered to be old fashioned, narrow – minded and boring.
  2. Shabbyin poor condition through long use or lack of care.
  3. Chest of drawers a piece of furniture used for storage, consisting of an upright frame into which drawers are fitted.
  4. Sideboarda flat-topped piece of furniture with cupboards and drawers, used for storing crockery, glasses, and table linen
  5. Mantlepiece a structure of wood, marble, or stone above and around a fireplace
  6. Hearththe floor of a fireplace.
  7. Gaudy – very bright and showy.
  8. Carpet slippers a soft slipper whose upper part is made of wool or thick cloth
  9. TIT – BITS – A British weekly magazine founded by George Newnes in 1881, which was in mass circulation in England.
  10. PEARSON’s WEEKLY – A British weekly magazine founded by Sir Cyril Pearson (1866-1921) in 1890.
  11. Hat standa tall free-standing post fitted with large hooks for hanging hats on
  12. Vigorous –strong, healthy, and full of energy
  13. Vulgar – indecent
  14. straight talking – frank
  15. Mourning – the expression of sorrow for someone’s death.
  16. precocious – a person whose mental attitude is developed beyond his/ her age
  17. colours – wearing gay dress
  18. gallivanting – go about seeking pleasure
  19. tailcoat – a man’s black coat worn for formal daytime occasions and having a long rounded and split tail
  20. Sasha long piece of ribbon, silk, etc. worn around the waist like a belt or over one shoulder, as a symbol of rank
  21. till our new black’s ready– till a new dress of mourning is ready
  22. Pryingexcessively interested in a person’s private affairs
  23. You don’t seem to realize what it’s costing me to bear up like I am doing – the other person cannot realize what the speaker is going through to put up with the given situation
  24. Trifles – a thing of little value or importance
  25. Bureau – a writing desk with drawers
  26. drive a hard bargain:  to argue in an aggressive manner and force somebody to agree on the best possible arrangement.
  27. low money grubbing spirit an expression which means a dishonest tendency to be mean and greedy about money
  28. Daft – silly, foolish
  29. Shabbyin poor condition through long use or lack of care.
  30. Pinching steal or take without permission.
  31. Lift your end – here, to stand up
  32. Not to breathe a word – to speak nothing
  33. stagger walk or move unsteadily, as if about to fall.
  34. That was a near thing a situation in which you just managed to avoid danger.
  35. Ostentatiously – showily
  36. Furtively – secretively
  37. Plumes – feathers
  38. piqued – experienced indignation
  39. as merry as a sandboy – extremely happy and carefree
  40. Poetic license – freedom to change facts or normal rules of language
  41. ‘Ring-o’-Bells’- the name of a restaurant
  42. public-house – a pub, a place that is licensed to sell alcoholic beverages
  43. Swindling – cheating
  44. Timidlyin a manner that shows a lack of courage or confidence
  45. Disparagingly – criticizing someone, in a way that shows you do not respect or value them
  46. Gingerly – in a careful or cautious manner
  47. tomfoolery – foolish behaviour
  48. Cemetery – a burial ground
  49. dickens – informal way of saying that you are annoyed or surprised
  50. Vindictive – ill-natured
  51. Disconcerted – disturbed
  52. Retires – here, to sit back to indicate that he was no longer a part of the conversation.
  53. Appetite – hunger
  54. Fancy – imagination
  55. press him – force or pressurize
  56. what the devil did you mean – an expression used in questions to express anger or surprise.
  57. Drat – a fairly mild expression of anger or annoyance
  58. Hanged – being suspended by a rope around the neck until dead
  59. Double-facedtending to say one thing and do another; deceitful
  60. Working herself up – to get upset or angry about something
  61. Sneaked – to enter quietly to avoid getting noticed
  62. Willa legal document containing instructions as to what should be done with one’s money and property after one’s death.
  63. Lump – piece
  64. Consternation – shock


Chapter 13 – Julius Caesar

  1. Hath – has
  2. Hath – has
  3. Forth – ahead
  4. Stir – move
  5. stood on ceremonies – paid much attention to omens and forecasts
  6. whelped – give birth to
  7. right form of war – correct battle order
  8. hurtled – clashed
  9. beyond all use – most unnatural
  10. Comets – a heavenly object with a tail of fire
  11. Blaze – set on fire
  12. Coward – a person who lacks courage
  13. Valiant – the brave
  14. necessary – inevitable
  15. Augurers – soothsayers, foretellers
  16. Entrails – inner organs of a person or animal.
  17. Litter’d – to be born
  18. Hail – a greeting
  19. in very happy time– at the right moment
  20. graybeards– old men (contemptuously dismissing the senators)
  21. Spout – nozzle
  22. lusty– strong; vigorous
  23. blood– In Decius’ explanation the use of the term “blood” is metaphoric. It symbolizes Caesar’s spirit or influence
  24. great men shall press… cognizance – great men shall gather around Caesar and stain their handkerchiefs in his blood which will serve as colours added to a coat of arms, an object of reverence, mementos and a badge of service
  25. yield to – give in to
  26. robe – a long, loose outer garment
  27. That every like is … think upon– Brutus’s heart grieves when he thinks that being like a friend is not the same as being a friend
  28. Amiss – missing
  29. Redress – rectify, to correct
  30. Thy – your
  31. Puissant – powerful
  32. Thee – you
  33. couchings and these lowly courtesies – bowing and bending
  34. pre-ordinance – order that has existed from earlier times
  35. first decree – law passed earlier
  36. thy – your
  37. banished– punished
  38. thou – you
  39. dost – do
  40. fawn – praise to get a favour
  41. spurn – remove from the way
  42. cur – dog
  43. doth – does
  44. Repealing – cancelling, reversing
  45. Flattery – false praise
  46. Enfranchisement – freedom from prison
  47. I could pray to move – pray to others to change their minds.
  48. resting – permanent
  49. firmament – heavens or sky
  50. Stab –  to injure someone with a sharp pointed object such as a knife
  51. Et tu, Brute – even you, Brutus
  52. Tyranny – dictatorship, rule of terror
  53. Proclaim – to announce officially
  54. Pulpits – raised platform, stage
  55. Antony re – entered the senate.
  56. spoils – trophies of war
  57. shrunk – reduced in size
  58. little measure – small piece of ground on which your body lies
  59. beseech – beg
  60. bear me hard – bear a grudge against me
  61. purpled hands – the colour of the hands turned purple as they were soaked in Caesar’s blood which had dried and turned purple in colour
  62. reek – stench
  63. master – powerful
  64. Hath – has
  65. Leaden points – here, blunt edges
  66. in strength of malice – which may appear to be hostile
  67. reverence – respect
  68. dignities – honours
  69. conceit – consider
  70. foes – enemies
  71. corse – corpse
  72. modesty – understatement
  73. compact – agreement
  74. good regard – serious consideration
  75. Suitor – a person who makes a petition or request
  76. order– ceremony
  77. Pardon – to excuse
  78. will– will go
  79. protest- announce
  80. devise of– think of
  81. Prophesy – predict the future
  82. Dumb mouths – refers to the wounds which cannot speak
  83. Ope – open
  84. Ruby lips – refers to the wounds smeared in blood. They look like lips which are Ruby – red in colour.
  85. light – fall
  86. cumber – burden
  87. in use – common
  88. quarter’d with the hands of war – cut into pieces in the war
  89. custom of fell deeds – terrible deeds shall become so familiar
  90. Ate– Greek goddess of revenge
  91. carrion men – decaying flesh of animals
  92. my cause– the cause that I represent
  93. believe me for mine honour– believe me because you know I am honourable
  94. censure– judge, criticize me harshly
  95. senses– understanding
  96. rude– uncivilized
  97. vile – wicked
  98. do to Brutus– you may assassinate me if I become ambitious
  99. question– reasons for
  100. capitol – a government building
  101. enrolled– recorded
  102. extenuated – lessened, diminished
  103. enforced– exaggerated; emphasized
  104. the commonwealth – the free republic
  105. lover– friend
  106. parts– qualities
  107. Tyrant – a cruel ruler
  108. Lupercal– the feast of the god Lupercus. Lupercus was the protector of flocks and herds, the god of fertility
  109. disprove- contradict
  110. stood against – overcome the opposition of
  111. poor– humble
  112. wrong the dead- be unjust to Caesar, who has been assassinated, by calling him ambitious
  113. to wrong myself- by not speaking what I know
  114. you- by allowing you to be deceived by Brutus
  115. napkins– handkerchiefs
  116. meet– fitting, proper
  117. mantle– cloak
  118. Nervii- the most war-like of the Gallic tribes, defeated by Caesar in 57 B.C.
  119. envious– malicious
  120. Ingratitude– the blow struck by Brutus’ ingratitude
  121. Which all the while ran blood– which was covered with Caesar’s blood
  122. flourish’d– triumphed
  123. flood of mutiny– wave of violence
  124. wit– intelligence
  125. worth– authority
  126. Action- gestures
  127. utterance– eloquence
  128. right on– directly
  129. Wherein- in what way
  130. drachmas– silver coins
  131. royal- generous
  132. afoot– started
  133. Expounded – explained



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