Class X NCERT First Flight Book difficult word meanings 


Here, the difficult words and their meanings of all the chapters of CBSE Class 10 English First Flight book have been compiled for the convenience of the students. This is an exhaustive list of the words and meanings of all the Chapter from the First Flight book for CBSE NCERT Class 10 English. The difficult words’ meanings have been explained in an easy language so that every student can understand easily.



Chapter 1 – A Letter To God


  1. Crest: Top of a hill
  2. Dotted: Full Of
  3. Downpour: Heavy Rain
  4. Intimately: Closely
  5. Regarded- Consider Or Think Of In A Specified Way
  6. Draped- Adorn, Cover, Or Wrap (Someone Or Something) 
  7. Hailstones- A Pellet Of Hail
  8. Resemble- Have A Similar Appearance To Or Qualities In Common With (Someone Or Something); Look Or Seem Like.
  9. Exposing- make (something) visible by uncovering it.; reveal
  10. plague- a destructively numerous inflow or multiplication of a harmful animal, infestation
  11. locusts- Insects which fly in big groups and destroy crops
  12. solitary:  Existing alone; lonely.
  13. conscience- an inner sense of right and wrong. 
  14. ox of a man- hardworking
  15. daybreak- The time in the morning when daylight first appears
  16. Pesos- the basic monetary unit of Mexico, several other Latin American countries, and the Philippines
  17. Amiable- Friendly And Pleasant
  18. Correspondence- Communication by exchanging letters with someone.
  19. goodwill- friendly, helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitude
  20. resolution- a firm decision to do or not to do something.
  21. obliged- grateful
  22. contentment- Satisfaction


Chapter 2 – Nelson Mandela – Long Walk to Freedom


  1. Dawned- (of a day) began
  2. Pleasantly- giving a sense of happy satisfaction or enjoyment; satisfying
  3. Besieged- to be surrounded by
  4. Dignitaries- a person considered to be important because of high rank or office.
  5. Sandstone- sedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains cemented together, typically red, yellow, or brown in colour.
  6. Amphitheatre- an open – air theatre
  7. Supremacy- the state or condition of being superior to all others in authority, power, or status
  8. Deputy- Second in command
  9. Sworn- given under oath; determined to stay in the role specified
  10. Pledged- committed (a person or organization) by a solemn promise.
  11. Assembled- (of people) gather together in one place for a common purpose
  12. Confer- grant 
  13. Glory- honour
  14. Outlaws- because of its policy of apartheid, many countries had earlier broken off diplomatic relations with South Africa  
  15. On our own soil- in our own country
  16. Possession- ownership
  17. Dignity- the state or quality of being worthy of respect.
  18. Emancipation- the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions
  19. Liberate- free; release
  20. Bondage- the state of being a slave
  21. Discrimination- being treated differently or unfavourably
  22. Deprivation- the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society
  23. Oppression- prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or exercise of authority.
  24. Glorious- having, worthy of, or bringing fame or admiration.
  25. Reign- rule; govern
  26. Awe- amazed
  27. Spectacular- beautiful in a dramatic and an eye-catching way
  28. Array- an impressive display
  29. Troop- soldiers or armed forces
  30. Precision- accuracy
  31. Bedecked- decorate
  32. Unmindful- not conscious or aware
  33. Chevron- a pattern in the shape of a V
  34. Trail- series; chain
  35. Symbolised- be a symbol of
  36. Lyrics- the words of a song
  37. Despised- hated, had a very low opinion of
  38. Overwhelmed- have a strong emotional effect
  39. Erected- build; construct
  40. Racial domination- when people of one race have power over another race
  41. Inhumane-cruel, brutal
  42. Overturned- reverse.
  43. Unimaginable- difficult or impossible to imagine
  44. Patriots- a person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies
  45. Apartheid- a policy or system of segregation on grounds of race
  46. Profound- very great or intense
  47. Unintended- not planned or meant
  48. Comrades- a colleague or a fellow member of an organisation
  49. Resilience- the ability to deal with any kind of hardship and recover from its effects
  50. Defies- refuse to obey
  51. Triumph- great victory or achievement
  52. Grimmest- very serious or gloomy
  53. Glimmer- shine faintly with a wavering light
  54. Pushed to our limits- pushed to the last point in our ability to bear pain
  55. Reassure- say or do something to remove the doubts
  56. Obligations- a duty or a commitment
  57. Civil- courteous and polite
  58. Inclination- natural tendencies of behaviour
  59. Inevitably- unavoidably
  60. Twilight- half-light, semi-darkness
  61. Secrecy- the action of keeping something secret
  62. Rebellion- the action or process of resisting authority, convention or control 
  63. Stream- a small, narrow river
  64. Mealies- a maize plant
  65. Abided- obeyed
  66. Boyhood- the state or time of being a boy 
  67. Illusion- a false idea or belief
  68. Transitory- not permanent
  69. Yearned- have an intense feeling or longing for something
  70. Curtailed- reduce; impose a restriction on
  71. Dignity- the state or quality of being worthy of honour or respect 
  72. Frightened- afraid or anxious
  73. Monk- a member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
  74. Virtuous- having or showing high moral standards
  75. Indivisible- unable to be divided or separated
  76. Prejudice- a strong dislike without any good reason


Chapter 3 – Two Stories about Flying – Part 1 – “His First Flight”

  1. Seagull- a bird that lives near the sea and has short legs, long wings, and white and grey feathers
  2. Ledge- a narrow horizontal shelf projecting from a wall (or here) a cliff
  3. Brink- the extreme edge of land before a steep slope or a body or water
  4. Expanse- a wide continuous area of something
  5. Flapped- (of a bird) move (its wings) up and down when flying or preparing to fly
  6. Muster- gather
  7. Plunge- jump or dive
  8. Shrilly- with a high pitched and piercing voice or sound
  9. Upbraiding- scold
  10. Herring- a soft-finned sea fish
  11. Devour- eat quickly
  12. Cackle- laugh in a loud, harsh way
  13. Cowardice- lack of bravery
  14. Ascending the sky- the act of rising up through the air
  15. Preening-to tidy and clean its feathers
  16. Hump- a rounded raised mass of earth or land
  17. Scrapped- discard
  18. Derisively- in a manner expressing contempt or ridicule.
  19. Plaintively- sad
  20. Uttered- make a sound with one’s voice
  21. Halted- stopped
  22. Monstrous- horrible
  23. Seized- grab
  24. Headlong- with the head foremost
  25. Soaring- flying or rising high in the air
  26. Swooped- (especially of a bird) move rapidly downwards through the air
  27. Curvetting- perform a series of jumps on the hind legs
  28. Shrieking- making a high-pitched piercing cry or sound
  29. Shrilly- loudly and forcefully
  30. Ridges- a long, narrow hilltop, mountain range, or watershed
  31. Cawed- utter a caw
  32. Beckoning- gesture


Chapter 3 – Two Stories About Flying – Part 2 – Black Aeroplane

  1. Compass- instrument for telling direction
  2. Runway- a strip of hard ground along which aircraft take off and land
  3. Frightened- terrified
  4. Followed- chased
  5. Obedient- one who obeys
  6. Glad- happy
  7. Radar- a system for detecting the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft, ships, and other objects, by sending out pulses of radio waves which are reflected off the object back to the source
  8. Strangely- in a strange manner


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Chapter 4 – From the diary of Anne Frank

  1. Musings- a period of reflection or thought
  2. Listless- with no energy or interest
  3. Brooding- engaged in or showing deep thought about something that makes one sad, angry, or worried.
  4. Prompted- provoke
  5. Confide- to tell personal things privately to a person that one trusts
  6. Liable- likely (here)
  7. Enhance- intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of.
  8. Plunge- jump or dive quickly
  9. Adorable- lovable, cute
  10. Emigrated- leave one’s own country in order to settle permanently in another.
  11. Plunked- to put down
  12. Farewell- an act of parting or of making someone’s departure
  13. Intended- planned 
  14. Solemn- characterised by deep sincerity
  15. Dedication- commitment
  16. Quaking- shake or tremble
  17. Staked- bet, chanced
  18. Pleading- to make an emotional appeal
  19. Glances- take a brief or hurried look
  20. Outbursts- a sudden release of strong emotion
  21. Dummies- an object designed to resemble and serve as a substitute for the real or usual one
  22. Unpredictable- not able to be predicted; changeable
  23. Not to lose heart- not be discouraged
  24. Old fogey- an old fashioned person
  25. Annoyed- slightly angry; irritated
  26. Chatterbox- a person who likes to chatter; talkative
  27. Jotted- write (something) quickly
  28. Ramble- to talk or write at length in a confused or inconsequential ways 
  29. Convincing- capable of causing someone to believe that something is true or real; powerful
  30. Trait- quality
  31. Inherited- derived genetically from one’s parents or ancestors.
  32. Proceeded- to begin a course of action
  33. Incorrigible- not able to be changed
  34. Mistress- a woman in a position of authority or control
  35. Roared- laughed (here)
  36. Exhausted- completely used up
  37. Ingenuity- the quality of being clever, original and inventive
  38. Verse- writing arranged with a metrical rhythm, typically having a rhyme
  39. Ridiculous- deserving or inviting derision or mockery; absurd
  40. Contrary- opposite in nature, direction, or meaning


Chapter 5 – The Hundred Dresses Part 1

  1. Scuffling of feet- noisy, dragging movements of the feet on the ground
  2. Didn’t hang right- didn’t fit properly
  3. Hopscotch- a game in which children hop into and over squares marked on the ground
  4. Nudge- a gentle push
  5. Incredulously- showing unwillingness to believe
  6. Courteous- polite, respectful
  7. Stolidly- calm, dependable, and showing little emotion and animation
  8. Shrieks- scream
  9. Exaggerated- overemphasise
  10. Her eyes dull- having eyes wanting brightness, liveliness, and vivacity
  11. Bullies- someone who hurts or frightens someone else, often over a period of time, and forcing them to do something that they do not want to do. 
  12. Mistreated- to treat someone badly
  13. Absentmindedly- distracted
  14. Shuddered- shake, tremble 
  15. Disguise- to give a different appearance to conceal its identity
  16. Scarcely- hardly; barely
  17. Trimmings- decoration
  18. Sash- a long strip or loop of cloth worn over one shoulder or round the waist, especially as part of a uniform or official dress
  19. Pretended- not genuine
  20. Admiration- respect and warm approval
  21. Drizzling- rain lightly
  22. Hurried- quick
  23. Gasped- catch one’s breath with an open mouth, owing to pain or astonishment.
  24. Ledge- shelf
  25. Windowsill- ledge or sill forming the bottom part of a window
  26. Dazzling- extremely impressive, beautiful, or skilful
  27. Lavish- gorgeous
  28. Murmured- say something in a low or distinct voice
  29. Admiringly- in a way that shows respect or warm approval
  30. Assembled- gather together in one place for a common purpose


Chapter 6 – The Hundred Dresses – Part II


  1. Listened closely- listened with attention
  2. Damp and dismal- wet and sad (here, expressing a state of hopelessness)
  3. Forbidding- Unfriendly or threatening in nature
  4. (To) make amends- to show that one is sorry by doing something else
  5. Picking on someone- criticising someone
  6. Cornucopias- decorative containers (usually containing flowers and fruits)
  7. Holly- a shrub having prickly dark green leaves, small white flowers, and red berries. It is used in Christmas decorations.


Chapter 7 – Glimpses of India (Part 1) A baker from Goa

  1. Reminiscing nostalgically- thinking fondly of the past 
  2. Loaves- (plural form of loaf) bread that is shaped and baked in a single piece and can be sliced for eating 
  3. Vanished- disappear suddenly and completely
  4. Moulders- a person who moulds dough into a shape 
  5. Furnaces- an enclosed structure in which materials can be heated to very high temperatures
  6. Extinguished- cause a fire to cease to burn
  7. Heralding- announcing
  8. Pader- word for baker in Portuguese language
  9. Companion- a person with whom one spends a lot of time
  10. Jingling- make or cause to make a light metallic ringing sound
  11. staff – stick
  12. Rebuke- an expression of disapproval; a scolding
  13. Fragrance- a pleasant, sweet smell
  14. Parapet- railing, a low protective wall
  15. bangles- here, refers to the bread in the shape of a bangle called ‘Kankon’
  16. Feast- a large meal, typically a celebratory one
  17. bolinhas – another name for coconut cookies
  18. Plump physique- pleasantly fat body
  19. Open testimony- public statement about a character or quality


Chapter 7 – Glimpses of India (Part 2) Coorg


  1. Drifted from- been carried along gently by hair
  2. Martial- having to do with war
  3. Canopies- roof-like coverings made of trees that form a shelter
  4. Prime- here, best
  5. Invigorating- strong (here)
  6. Mainstream- a tradition which most people follow
  7. Tales of Valour- stories of courage and bravery, usually in a war
  8. Descent- origin
  9. Most decorated- having received the maximum number of awards for bravery in a war
  10. Mischief- playful behaviour
  11. Ripple effect- a small wave or series of waves on the surface of water, especially as caused by a slight breeze or an object dropping into it
  12. Mahouts- a person who works with, rides, and tends an elephant
  13. Laidback-relaxed, not in a hurry
  14. Rafting- travelling in a river in a raft (a floating platform made by tying planks together)
  15. Canoeing- travelling in a river in a canoe (a large, narrow boat)
  16. Rappelling- going down a cliff by sliding down a rope
  17. Trails- paths created by walking
  18. Panoramic view- a view of a wide area of land


Chapter 7 – Glimpses of India (Part 3) Tea from Assam


  1. Chai- Tea
  2. Garam- hot
  3. Sa’ab- Sahab or Sir
  4. Steaming- extremely hot
  5. Exclaimed- cry out suddenly in surprise
  6. Paddy fields- a field where rice is grown
  7. Backdrop- lie behind or beyond; serve as a background to
  8. As far as eye could see- for a long distance until something is so far away and small it cannot be seen anymore
  9. Dwarfing- cause to seem small or insignificant in comparison
  10. Sturdy- strong
  11. Amidst- in the middle of
  12. Billowing- moving or flowing outwards
  13. Concentration- cluster
  14. Ascetic- characterized by severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons. 
  15. Banished- get rid of
  16. Clattered- (loud noise made by the train brakes)
  17. Veered- change direction
  18. Gravel- small, rounded stones often mixed with sand
  19. Pruned- cut away from a tree
  20. Sprouting period- when a plant sends out new growth (second harvest of tea leaves in a season)


Chapter 8 – Mijbil the Otter

  1. Crossed my mind- (a thought) came into my mind
  2. A stone’s throw- a very short distance
  3. Otter- a semi aquatic fish-eating mammal of the weasel family, with an elongated body, dense fur, and webbed feet
  4. Eminently- highly; very
  5. As common as mosquitoes- easily found  
  6. Tamed- domesticate (an animal)
  7. Cabled- sent a message by telegraph (an old method of communication)
  8. Breakdown- a mechanical failure
  9. Squatting- crouch or sit with one’s knees bent and one’s heels close to or touching one’s buttocks or the back of one’s thighs
  10. Squirmed- twisted about
  11. Thraldom- (old fashioned) being under the control of
  12. Fixation- a very strong attachment or feeling
  13. Medievally conceived- an imagination of the middle ages
  14. Christened- named
  15. Hostile- unfriendly
  16. Aloof and indifferent- keeping a distance
  17. Apathy- absence of interest
  18. Crook of my knees- soft inside part where you bend your knee 
  19. So as to speak- as it were (one could say this)
  20. Provoking- causing anger or some other reaction
  21. Plunging- falling; sinking
  22. Sploshed- splashed
  23. Static- motionless
  24. Fumbling- trying to do something in a clumsy manner
  25. Trickle- flow in a small stream
  26. Chittering- make a twittering or chattering sound
  27. chromium- a hard white metal used to make taps
  28. Flick- a quick, light movement
  29. Shuffling- dragging (here)
  30. Dribble- repeated hits on a ball to make it go ahead
  31. Pastime- distraction; entertainment
  32. Accustomed- familiar
  33. Dreaded the prospect- was in great fear of something that would happen in the future
  34. An appalling spectacle- a shocking scene
  35. Whipped off- quickly took off
  36. Trickled- drip, flow
  37. Shreds- pieces
  38. Ricocheting bullet- a bullet with changes direction after hitting a surface
  39. Infuriated- very angry
  40. Took her into my confidence- here, shared with her my experiences or secrets
  41. Portly- stout
  42. Craning- stretch out one’s body or neck in order to see something
  43. Distressed- troubled
  44. Recognition- identification; acknowledgement 
  45. Nuzzle- to rub gently with the nose
  46. Bounded on to- climbed up quickly
  47. Terrapin shell- the shell of small turtle found in North America
  48. Engrossed- completely interested in
  49. Ambush- to attack suddenly from a hidden position
  50. Crouching- squat; adopt a position where the knees are bent and the upper body is brought forward and down, typically in order to avoid detection or to defend oneself
  51. Trot off- to leave
  52. compulsive: irresistable
  53. rituals: a religious ceremony
  54. tug: pull
  55. gallop: run fast
  56. Barrage of conjectural questions- a stream of questions filled with guesses
  57. affront: insult
  58. spat: past tense of spit


Chapter 9 – Madam Rides the Bus

  1. Curious- eager to know or learn something
  2. Wistfully- longingly
  3. Kindle- set alight (fire), here, feelings
  4. A slang expression- informal words, often used within a close group
  5. Discreet questions- careful questions 
  6. Commandingly- in a controlling tone
  7. Slack time-a time when there is not much work
  8. Devoured- read quickly and eagerly (here)
  9. Canvas- a coarse fabric
  10. Blind- a partition
  11. Haughtily- proudly
  12. Repulsive- causing strong dislike
  13. Curtly- rudely brief or abrupt
  14. Drivel- silly nonsense
  15. Thriftily- spend money carefully
  16. Resolutely stifled- suppressed/ controlled with determination
  17. Ventured out- went cautiously, courageously
  18. Hamlet: a small settlement with a few houses.
  19. Gobbling up: to swallow or eat hastily
  20. Glee- happiness and joy
  21. Thoroughfare- a busy public road
  22. Merchandise- things  for sale
  23. Railroad crossing- an intersection where a railway line crosses a road or path 
  24. Spreadeagled- spread out
  25. Haunted- returned repeatedly to her mind; was impossible to forget
  26. Pokes her nose- takes an interest in something that doesn’t concern her


Chapter 10 – Sermon at Benaras

  1. Sacred- embodying the laws or doctrines of a religion 
  2. Scriptures- the sacred writings of a religion
  3. Befitted- be appropriate for; suit
  4. Chanced upon- came across by chance
  5. Alms- money or food given to poor people; charity
  6. Enlightenment- a state of high spiritual knowledge
  7. Wandered- to move without a fixed course 
  8. Vowed- solemnly promise to do a specified thing 
  9. Preached- deliver a religious address to an assembled group of people 
  10. Sermon- a talk on religious or moral subject 
  11. Holy- sacred
  12. Dipping places- bathing
  13. Inscrutable- something which cannot be understood
  14. Kinsmen- a man who is one of a person’s blood relations
  15. Lamenting- express regret or disappointment about something
  16. Slaughter- killing of animals for food
  17. Afflicted- affect adversely


Chapter 11 – The proposal

  1. Farce: a comic dramatic work
  2. Privilege- advantage
  3. Shan’t- shall not
  4. Pardon- forgive or excuse (a person, error or offence)
  5. Awfully- very; extremely
  6. Assistance- the action of helping someone
  7. Go round and round- not coming to the main point
  8. Spit it out- speak out
  9. To seek the hand of a girl in marriage- to propose
  10. By Jove- By God
  11. Desire- a strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen 
  12. Idiotic- very stupid; silly
  13. Consent- agreement to do something
  14. Egad- exclamation (expressing surprise, anger, or affirmation)
  15. Lovesick- longing, yearning or desiring
  16. Trembling- shaking or quivering, typically as a result of excitement, anxiety or frailty
  17. Hesitate- pause in indecision before saying or doing something
  18. Housekeeper- a person who manages a household
  19. Palpitations- a noticeably rapid, strong or irregular heartbeat due to agitation, exertion or illness
  20. Twitch- a sudden quick moment or feeling
  21. Lunatic- a person who is mentally ill (not in technical use)
  22. Neglige- form of nightgown
  23. Inherited- received as an heir at the death of the previous holder
  24. Affectionate- readily feeling or showing fondness or tenderness
  25. Oxen meadows- a land full of grass for animals to graze in
  26. Birchwoods- a wood of birch trees
  27. Perpetuity- the state or quality of lasting forever
  28. Reckoned- established by calculation
  29. Implore- Beg someone earnestly to do something
  30. Gypsies-  a group of nomadic people who travel from one place to another
  31. Impudent- not showing due respect for another person
  32. Carafe- an open-topped glass flask used for serving wine or water in a restaurant
  33. Mowers- a person who cuts grass with a mower
  34. Hoarse- sounding rough and harsh
  35. Restrain- prevent from doing something; keep under control or within limits
  36. Excruciating- intensely painful; sever; acute; extreme
  37. Palpitation- heartbeat
  38. Pettifogger- an inferior legal practitioner, especially one who deals with petty cases or employs dubious practices
  39. Embezzlement- theft or misappropriation of funds placed in one’s trust or belonging to one’s employer
  40. Lunacy- the state of being a lunatic; insanity (not in technical use)
  41. Drunkard- a person who is habitually drunk
  42. Hump- A rounded protuberance found as an abnormality on the back of a person
  43. Guzzling- greedy (here)
  44. Gambler- a person who gambles; speculator
  45. Intriguer- someone who tricks, deceives or cheats
  46. Malicious-intending or intended to do harm
  47. Numb- deprived of the power of physical sensation
  48. Rascal- devil
  49. Impudence- audacity
  50. Lame- unable to walk without difficulty as the result of an injury or illness affecting the leg or foot; limping
  51. Patridge- a short-tailed game bird with mainly brown plumage, found chiefly in Europe and Asia

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