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Carbon and its Compound Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 4, Explanation

Carbon and its Compound | Carbon and its Compound Class 10 Notes, NCERT Solution

Carbon and its Compounds Notes of CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter with a detailed explanation of the chapter Carbon and its Compounds' along with meanings of difficult words. Given here is the complete explanation of the chapter, along with examples and all the exercises, Question and Answers given at the back of the chapter.

 

Science Class 10

Chapter 4 - Carbon and its Compounds

 

carbon and its compounds

 

 

 

 

 

See Video Explanation of Carbon and its Compound

organic chemistry

fermentation

Rules for IUPAC names

introduction to carbon

aldehyde

soaps and detergents

special properties of carbon

carboxylic acid

NCERT Book solutions

hydrocarbons

ester

 

 

 

Organic Chemistry

Carbon and its Compound - Organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon and its compounds.

Carbon is so versatile in nature that organic chemistry forms a separate branch of chemistry which deals mainly with carbon and its compounds.

 

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Introduction to Carbon

Carbon is an element with symbol C
Atomic number 6
Electronic configuration -2,4

As suggested by its configuration,  it belongs to second period and fourteen group.
Its valence electrons are 4

 

Its valency is also 4

 

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See Video for Explanation and Summary of the Lesson

 

Special Properties of Carbon

1. Catenation: It is the self linking property of carbon i.e. it links with its own kind of atoms, giving rise to long chains that are branched or ringed or can be straight.

carbon

 

catenation

 

2. Tetravalency: Carbon has 4 electrons in its valence shell that it can easily loose, gain or share with other atoms to attain stability

multiple bonding

3. Multiple Bonding: It can show multiple bonding. It means that it can form single, double or triple bonds

 

 

Due to these special properties carbon is versatile in naturei.e., it forms so many compounds that we have created a special branch to study it.

Firstly, it was concluded that organic compounds can not be made in laboratory as they require a mysterious force to form and that is present only in plants and animals but Fedrich Wohler gave a blow to this conclusion that he accidently prepared the first organic compound that was man made- urea

 

But the most common organic compound is hydrocarbons that we are going to study in this chapter
Let us study hydrocarbon in detail now :

 

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Also See : CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus 2019-2020 Session

 

Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon that contain hydrogen.

There are two types of hydrocarbons -

  • saturated hydrocarbons
  • unsaturated hydrocarbons

 

(Saturated)                                                                (Unsaturated)
     
  Alkanes                                                        Alkenes Alkynes
single bond                                                   double bond triple bond
Ane                                                              ene yne
F ? Cn + H2n +2                                                 CnH2n                                       CnH2n-2
                                                         n = no. of C atom

Numbers
CH4                                                                 C2H4                                           C2H2
(Methane)                                                       (ethane) (elkyne)
C2H6                                                               C3H6                                           C3H4
(ethane)                                                          (Propene) (Propyne)

F. gps:-                                                            gp .suffex
Alcohol    - OHgp                       ol
(Hydroxyl)
och
ketone                      ocr   One
carboxylic acid   COOH Oic acid
ocoh
ester   orcor Oate

 

R ? Alkyl gp. [ suffex- yl gp.)
for example: - CH3-
(Methyl)
C2H5-
(ethyl)

Alcohol
F.gp ______ OH
Suffex  ? ol
Ex ample - CH3OH,         C2H5OH        
         (Methanol)    (ethanol)

 

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Related - Tips to score 95% in Class 10 Science Paper 

 

Fermentation

The breakdown of complex substances in to simpler substances by action of enzymes released by anaerobic becteria is called fermentation. By this method we can prepare only ethanol. In this, firstly, sugarcane juice and water are mixed and heated to form sweet liquid called molasses.

Then, in presence of yeast and enzyme invertase, it breaks in to glucose and fructose and then further, glucose and fructose break into further simpler substances called ethanol and carbon dioxide. This method is generally carried out in breweries.

S.juice  + H2O   ? molasses

C12H22O11 + H2O yeast
(Sucrose)            (invertase ) (glucose)       fructose

C6H12O6            C2H5OH + Co2
                       (zymase) (ethanol)

 

Hydrolysis of ethane     (Hydration of alkene): This is a method by which any alcohol can be prepared and accordingly we take member of alkene.Suppose we need to prepare ethanol than we need to take ethene.
When water is added to ethene in presence of some weak acid like phosphoric acid then ethene undergoes addition reaction and leads to formation of ethanol.

hydrolysis?                

By alkyl holide: we can also prepare it by reaction of alkyl halide with aqueous KOH

rx

Physical properties  

Ethanol

1) lighter than water
2) volatile
3) inflammable
4) Rectified spirit-ethanol mixed with water

 

Chemical properties
1.oxidation
Alcohol undergoes oxidation in two ways : partial and complete  
In partial (P.oxide)  forms aldehyde . it is neither step down or step up reaction or we can say the number of carbon atoms remains same that is, if we start a reaction with eith member of alcohol, it will form the same eth member of aldehyde. The catalyst however, changes like in case of meth member we take Ag and in case of eth member we take chromic oxide and so on.
 alcohol
   ch3
                    c2h5
Complete Oxidation: in case of complete oxidation it forms carboxylic acid again with same number of carbon atoms. In this, the catalyst generally we use is a strong oxidising agent - alkaline potassium permagnate or alkaline potassium dichromate
     alk
ch3oh

 

2. Reduction
When we carry on reduction of alcohol it forms alkane in presence of reducing agents like Pt,Ni,Pd, etc. It is also neither step up or step down reaction.

h2o

 

3. Esterification

This is one of the important reaction of alcohol, when it is mixed with carboxylic acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms fruity smelling liquid called ester and  this ester is widely used in perfumes , icecreams, etc.
cooh
ch3cooh

 

 

4. Reaction with metal

When alcohol reacts with any metal that is reactive than hydrogen, it forms metal alkoxide due to displacement of H by metal.
na

 

5. combustion
Whenever any carbon compound or its derivative is heated in presence of oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, water vapour and respective gases if some other atom is also present as shown :energy
As we have noticed that alcohol is one of the major components of hard drinks and is also used as industrial solvent in industries, it is denatured that is :

Denatured alcohol: is to alter the nature of alcohol by adding poisonous substances like methanol, pyridine, etc.  in order to prevent its mis-use in industries by workers.

 

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Class 10 Science Chapters

Our Environment

Sources of Energy

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

The Human Eye and the Colourful World

Reproduction

Heredity and Evolution

Light- Reflection and Refraction

Control and Coordination

 

Aldehyde

Gp  - CHO
Sfex    - al
P :- HCHO                    CH3CHO �
      Methanal                ethanal
    (formaldehyde)        (acetaldehyde)

 

Preparation-

(i)  Oxide of Alcohol: by this method we can prepare any aldehyde. We have to proceed in this reaction by using catalyst depending upon the member of alcohol that we are using like for methanol we will use catalyst silver, etc.
       aldehyde
      hcho

 

Properties of aldehyde-
1.Oxidation: when aldehyde reacts with oxygen in controlled condition it in the presence of oxidizing agent, it forms respective carboxylic acid. For example, if we oxidize methanol in presence of alkaline potassium permagnate, it forms methanoic acid.
           02
    hcoh

 

 

2. Reduction:
When we carry out reducyion of aldehyde that is when we react it with hydrogen in presence of reducing agent, it forms alcohol. For example : when methanal is reduced in presence of nickel, it forms methanol.
           reduction
           reduction

 

3.Addition reaction:  
The aldehyde has double bond character so when any substance is added to it, it breaks its extra bond and adds the substance to it. Like if we add   HCN� then H gets attached to oxygen and CN also gets attached to carbon forming cyanohydrins as shown in the reaction.
  

addition reaction

 

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Carboxylic Acid

Fgp. ? COOH
Suffer ? Oic acid
oic acid
  (Formic acid)     (Acetic acid)

 

Preparation -  

(i)  by Oxidation of Alcohol: The carboxylic acids can be formed by complete oxidation of alcohols in presence of alkaline potassium permagnate.

For example: when we carry out complete oxidation of methanol in presence of strong oxidising agent, it forms methanoic acid.
           oxidation
hcooh

 

(ii) Oxidation of Aldehyde: it can also be formed by oxidation of aldehyde in presence of strong oxidizing agents .for example in given example methanal gets oxidized to methanoic acid
           ald
               methanol

 

Properties

1.  Reduction : when reduction of carboxylic acid is carried out, it forms respective aldehyde. For example in case of reduction of methanoic acid it forms methanal when reduction is carried out in presence of reducing agent like palladium, nickel, etc.
    alde
hcoo
(methanoic acid)    (methanal)

 

2.  Reaction with alcohol: when any carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms ester (a fruity substance liquid).
   alc
   methanol???

 

3.  Reaction with metal: when carboxylic acid reacts with metal, then metal, being more reactive, displaces hydrogen and forms sodium alkanoate.
      sodium

 

4. Rxn with metal hydroxide & metal carbonates : when carboxylic acid reacts with metal , then metal being more reactive displaces hydrogen aand form sodium alkanoate and also water and carbondioxide

ch3coona
na2

 

 

5.Decarboxylation � removal by cgp: This reaction involves removal of c=o group and leads to the formation of alkane. This reaction is step down reaction as the main product formed has one carbon less than the parent reactant. Kike in the given example, we started with eth member but the product formed has one carbon. So, it is step down and removal of c=o gp reaction.

ch3coohnach
ch4

 

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Ester

Preparation
when any carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid it forms ester (a fruity substance liquid)

ester
            coc

 

Properties-

Hydrolysis of ester: this is the property when
  naoh

 

Some important reactions-

1) Pyrolysis of alkanes: when alkanes are heated at high temperature at about 1500 degree celcius, they undergo cracking and form lower alkane and an alkene.
It means heating alkanes in absence of air
c2h
C2H6 ? 2C + 3H2

?            C6H14-------C4H10 + C2H4

 

2).  Oxidation of alkanes: when alkanes are oxidized in presence of copper they form alcohol and when oxidized in presence of moly carboxylic acid, bdenum oxide, it forms aldehyde and in presence of silver oxide it forms ether.
Alkane cu
o2ch3
mo
ch4o2

 

3) Subsitution Reaction : it is the reaction in which hydrogen is substituted by halogen. Like chlorination of methane. This reaction goes on occurying till the time all hydrogs are replaced by chlorine.
CH4 + Cl2 ? CH3Cl + HCl
CH3Cl + Cl2 ? CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 ? CCl3
CHCl3 + Cl2 ? CCl4 + HCl
This is called chlorination of methane and it take place in presence of sunlight.

 

 

4)  Addition Reaction :
It is shown only by alkenes & alkynes because they have extra bond. So, addition of any substance can be carried out.
i) Addition of Halogen
     hcl

ii) Hydrogenation of oils (Addition of H2): converting liquid vegetable oil into solid fat by adding hydrogen in presence catalyst nickel.
CH2 = CH2 + H2 nickel
Liquid vegetable oil solid fat

 

5)  Combustion- all hydrocarbons, on combustion give, CO2 + H2O + Heat energy + light

 

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Rules for IUPAC

1. Select the longest continuous carbon chain
2. Longest chain with maximum number of subsituents is selected
3. Numbering is done in such a way that substituent gets the lowest number
4. It two substituents are present then we follow the lowest sum rule
5. If the same subsequent appears twice or thrice, then di, tri is used
6. If different substituents are present then alphabetical order is followed
7.         If doule/triple bond is present along with substituent then double or triple bond gets lowest number
8.         If double and triple bond both represent, lowest number is given to double bond
9.         In IUPAC name is written in order
            Prefix wordroot.p.suffexsec. suffex

 

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Soaps and detergents

 

soaps detergents

 

As you all are familiar with soaps, detergents and their cleansing action, so, let us study it in detail.

They are sodium salt of long hydrocarbon chain carboxylic acid.

i.e.: RCOONa

Examples

Sodium Stearate

Sodium Palmitate

Preparation

The Raw Materials needed for it are:

  • Vegetable oil or animal fat
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Pinch of salt

Reaction involved: animal fat or vegetable oil ----------salt? soap + glycerol.

The function of salt is to precipitate soap so that it can be separated from glycerol.

Structure of Soap

Soap has tadpole like structure i.e.:

 

soaps molecule

 

Head is made up of ionic part that is water loving (hydrophilic) and tail is made up of non-ionic part that is water repelling (hydrophobic).

 

polar non polar covalent oil soluable

 

Cleaning action of Soap

In a bucket we take  water and add soap to it. Soap molecules gets randomly arranged as shown in figure.

Now when we add dirty cloth to it, soap molecules get arranged in such a way that hydrophobic part moves towards dirt and hydrophilic part moves towards water. This type of arrangement is called micelle formation as shown:

Now due to thermal agitation the different soap molecules attract dirt towards themselves in such a way that it breaks into smaller parts. Hence, dirt remains in water and cloth gets cleaned.

 

oil particle

 

Limitation of using Soap

1.It can�t be used with hard water as hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. So when soap is used, it interacts with it and forms insoluble precipitate called scum that sticks to cloth. Hence, interferes in cleansing properties of soap.

Advantage of using Soap

It is biodegradable, hence, does not cause any pollution.

Detergents

 

xtra

 

They are defined as sodium salt of long hydrocarbon chain sulphonic acid.

i.e. RSO3Na

Preparation: It is prepared from petroleum

Structure: Is same like soap i.e. hydrophilic and hydrophobic part

 

soaps molecule

 

Limitation of using Detergent

It is non-biodegradable, so leads to pollution as its disposal is the main problem.

Difference between soap and detergent

 

 

soap

detergent

sodium salt of carboxylic acid

sodium salt of sulphonic acid

less soluble in water

more soluble in water

less powerful cleansing agent

more powerful cleansing agent

required in more amount

required in less amount

biodegradable

non biodegradable

 

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Class 10 Science Chapters, Explanation, Notes

Life Processes

Chemical Reaction and Equation

Acids bases and Salts

Periodic Classification of Elements

Metals and Non-Metals

 

 

NCERT Book Solutions Carbon and its Compounds

Q1. Ethane, with the molecular formula C2H6 has
(a) 6 covalent bonds.
(b) 7 covalent bonds.
(c) 8 covalent bonds.
(d) 9 covalent bonds.

A: (c) 8 covalent bonds.

 

Q2. Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group
(a) carboxylic acid.
(b) aldehyde.
(c) ketone.
(d) alcohol.

A :(c) ketone.

 

Q3. While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that
(a) the food is not cooked completely.
(b) the fuel is not burning completely.
(c) the fuel is wet.
(d) the fuel is burning completely.

A : (b) the fuel is not burning completely.

 

Q4. Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in CH3Cl.

A: The nature of covalent bond : it is formed by mutual sharing of electrons

 

Q5. Draw the electron dot structures for
(a) ethanoic acid.
(b) H2 S.
(c) propanone.
(d) F2 .

A. The electron dot structure of :
Ethanoic acid

ethanoic acid
H2S
h2s
Propanone:
propanone
F2
f

 

Related - MCQs for Carbon and its Compound Class 10

 

Q6. What is an homologous series? Explain with an example.

A : Homologous series are the members of same family having same function group,similar properties but they differ their consecutive members by CH2 group and atomic mass by 14 amu.
Examples : homologous series of alkane is :

1.

Methane

2.

Ethane

3.

propane

4.

Butane

 

Q7. How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties?

A:

ethanol

Ethanoic acid

F.gp is -OH

F.gp is COOH

Ethanol forms sodium ethoxide when treated with sodium

Ethanoic acid forms sodium ethanoate when treated with sodium

Ethanol does not produce carbon dioxide on treatment with sodium carbonate

Ethanol  produce carbon dioxide on treatment with sodium carbonate .

 

Q8. Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also?

A. Soap has tadpole like structure i.e.:
Head is made up of ionic part that is water loving (hydrophilic) and tail is made up of non-ionic part that is water repelling (hydrophobic).
In bucket we take  water and add soap to it. Soap molecules gets randomly arranged as shown in figure:
Now when we add dirty cloth to it, soap molecules get arranged in such a way that hydrophobic part moves towards dirt and hydrophilic part moves towards water. This type of arrangement is called micelle formation.
No, it will not be in ethanol as soaps are soluble in ethanol

 

Q9. Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?

A :Carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications because when they get oxidised they produce a large amount of energy.

 

Q10. Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.

A: Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions so when soap is used, it interacts with it and forms an insoluble precipitate called scum that sticks to clothes. Hence, it interferes in cleansing properties.

 

 

Q11. What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?

A: When soap is treated with litmus solution it turns it blue .

 

Q12. What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?
A: Hydrogenation is the process in which unsaturated fat is converted in to saturated fat by adding hydrogen in presence of nickel .

It converts liquid vegetable oil to vanaspati ghee .

 

Q13. Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions: C2H6 , C3H8 , C3H6 , C2H2 and CH4 .

A :C3H6,C2H2 wiil undergo addition reactions because they have double bonds.

 

Q14. Give a test that can be used to differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

A: Saturated hydrocarbons when treated with bromine water have no effect but when they are treated with unsaturated hydrocarbons they decolourize bromine water

 

Q15. Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.

A: Soap has tadpole like structure i.e.:
Head is made up of ionic part that is water loving (hydrophilic) and tail is made up of non-ionic part that is water repelling (hydrophobic).In bucket we take  water and add soap to it. Soap molecules gets randomly arranged as shown in figure:

soap molecules

Now when we add dirty cloth to it, soap molecules get arrange in such a way that hydrophobic part towards dirt and hydrophilic towards water this type of arrangement is called micelle formation .

Now due to thermal agitation the different soap molecules attract dirt towards themselves such that it breaks into smaller parts hence remain in water and cloth gets cleaned.

 

Related - Take Free Online MCQs Science Test

 

Extra Qustions And Answers

1.Name the product formed other than soap during sponification?

A. Alcohol (glycerol) is the other product formed during sponification.

 

2.What is the structural formula of ester?

 

A. hoco

 

3. Write molecular formula for (a) ethanol  (b) propanoic acid ?

A. Ethanol �C2H5-OH  
propanoic acid CH3CH2COOH

 

4. What is common name for CH3CHO, HCHO, CH3COOH & CH3COCH3 ?

A. HCHO (formaldehyde) CH3COOH (acetic acid)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde) CH3COCH3 (acetone)

 

5. Which two belong to same homologous series?
C2H6O2 , C2H6O , C2H6 , CH4 O

A. C2H6O2  C2H6 C2H6
        C2H6O   C2H5OH      CH4O CH3OH

 

6.What is the end product of fermentation carried out at 20oC to 30oC ?

A. ethanol

 

7. Write molecular formula of 3rd member of carbon comp. with gp of CnH2n+1 OH ?

A.Cn H2n+1 OH Alcohols, 3rd mens C3H3x2H-OH => C3H7OH (propanol)

 

8. Write the name of alcohol derived from pentane?

A. Pentanol

 

9.How methanol is converted into methanal?

A. Alcohol poxid ( By partial oxidation in presence of catalyst)
        So, CH3OH ag

 

10. Complete : - C2H5COONa + NaOH arw

A. This is decorboxyletion  C2H5COONa + NaOH ? ethane


 

11.�Complete : - CH3COOH + C2H5OH conc

A. There is esterification . CH3COOH + C2H5OH   conc  cooc2

 

12.�What happens when methanol reacts with hydrogen cyanide ?

A. HCHO +HCN ?oh

 

13.What happens when methanol burns with excess of oxygen?

A. ch3oho2

 

14.Write first member of ketone?

A. CH3COCH3 ( acetone)

 

15. Name the enzyme that converts glucose to ethanol?

A. Invertase released by yeast.

 

16. Define sponification.

A. It is the process of  formation of soap when animal fat + NaOH --NaCl?soap + glycerol

 

17. How one can detect diabetes in patient?

A. Diabetic patients excrete sugar crystals in urine. The sugar present is aldehydic sugar. A sample of urine is taken & bendict�s solution is added. If red precipitate is formed that means sugar crystals are present in urine.

 

18. Convert ethanoic acid to methane?

A. CH3COOH + Na ? CH3COONa + H2

CH3COONa + NaOH ? CH4 + Na2CO3.

 

19.What is vinegar?

A. Vinegar is acetic acid (ethanoic acid)

 

20.Give chemical reaction of acetic acid with Na metal?

A. CH3COOH + Na ? CH3COONa + H2
     ( sodium Ethanoate)

 

21.Which ions ex present in hard water ?

A. Ca++ & Mg++ ions

 

22.Why does soap form white ppt. with hard water?

A. Hard water contains Ca++ & Mg++ ions & soap reacts with it to form scum ( white insoluble ppt.)

 

23. Name the category of compounds formed when one hydrogen of alkane is replaced by hydroxyl gp?

A. Hydroxyl gp;- means OH so, comp,. formed is alcohol

 

24.A organic compound is formed by reacting unsat.urated hydrocarbon with water in presence of H3PO4. The compound burns with blue flame. Identify compound?

A. Lens. Hydrocarbon + H2O h3so4
Eg. Hydration of ethene
ch2

 

25. What is formalin? Name product formed when it is treated with fehling�s solution?

A. Formalin is 35-40 % solution of formaldehyde (HCHO) in water. When it is treated with fehling�s, it forms- formic acid (HCOOH) as it gets oxidized.

 

26.Give the names : -

A. (a)Aldehyde formed from ethane ? ethanal
(b) comp. formed by oxidation of ethanol with CrO3 ? ethanal

 

27.Write reaction of sodium with ethanol ?

A. C2H5OH  + Na ? C2H5ONa + H2
  (sod. Ethoxide)

 

28. Convert acetic acid to methane ?

A.CH3COOH + Na ? CH3COONa + H2
CH3COONa + NaOH ? CH4 + Na2CO3

 

29. Define hydrogenation of oils?

A.The process of heating liquid veg. oils with H2 is process of hydrogenation which gives vanaspati ghee.

 

30. Complete CH2 = CH2 + H2 pd

A. ch2pd

 

31.Out of CH3OH, C2OH, C2H5OH which her lowest melting point?

A. A compound with less number of carbon atoms has lowest m.pt. i.e CH3OH .

 

32.What determines the property of organic compound?

A. F.gp.

 

33.How can you show CH3COOH is acidic in nature?

A. Add litmus solution, if it turns red it shows it is  acidic in nature

 

34. Which of them will undergo addition rxn C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C2H2, CH4?

A. Only unsaturated hydrocarbon will undergoes addition rxn i.e. C3H6, C2H2   

 

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