BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book Meaning of Difficult Words from All Chapters

BSEB Class 12 English Word Meaning of all Chapters. Here, the difficult words and their meanings of all the chapters of the BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book have been compiled for the convenience of the students. This is an exhaustive list of the words and meanings of all the fiction, poem and drama from the Rainbow book for BSEB Class 12 English. The difficult words’ meanings have been explained lucidly so that every student can understand them.


Chapter 1 Indian Civilization and Culture

1.Civilization– the stage of human social and cultural development and organization that is considered most advanced
2.Evolved – caused to develop
3.Beaten– having been defeated
4.Fate– destiny
5.Pharaohs– rulers of ancient Egypt
6.Westernized– be in the process of adopting or being influenced by the systems of the West
7.Glory– magnificence, beauty
8.Pitiable condition- a sad or weak state that makes you feel pity for someone
9.In the midst– in the middle of
10.Immovable– unwavering; firm
11.Uncivilized– (of a place or people) not socially, culturally, or morally advanced
12.Stolid– slow-witted
13.Induce– succeed in leading someone to do something (convince)
14.Anvil– a metal block on which a blacksmith shapes metal objects with hammer
15.Thrust– push suddenly in a specific direction
16.Sheet anchor– security
17.Mode of conduct– a manner or way of doing, acting or existing
18.Morality– the standard of society used to decide what is right or wrong behavior
19.Convertible– that can be converted; exchangeable
20.Equivalent– equal in value, amount, function, meaning, etc.
21.Indulge– allow someone to enjoy something desired
22.Unbridled– Unrestrained; uncontrolled
23.Dissuaded– advised against, persuaded against
24.Plough– a farm tool that breaks earth and soil; furrow
25.Former times– preceding in time; prior or earlier
26.Indigenous– native; home-grown
27.Life–corroding– destroying life gradually
28.Moral fibre– character
29.Deliberation– reflection, consideration and discussion
30.Reasoned– based on logic or good sense
31.Snare– trap
32.Encumbrance– burden
33.Prostitution– the practice or occupation of engaging in sexual activity with someone for payment
34.Vice– evil; wickedness
35.Flourishing– thriving, growing in a healthy manner
36.Ethics– moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity
37.Sovereigns– (here) a person who has supreme power or authority
38.Inferior– lower in rank, status or quality
39.Rishis– a Hindu sage or saint
40.Fakirs– a Hindu holy man
41.Superior– higher in rank, status or quality
42.Tolerably– moderately good or agreeable
43.Touts– persons employed in soliciting customers
44.Lure– entice, tempt
45.Home Rule– a political arrangement in which a part of a country governs itself independently of the central government of the country
46.Votaries– devotees
47.Attained– succeed in achieving something one has worked for
48.Tendency– proneness to a particular kind of thought or action
49.Elevate– raise; exalt
50.Propagate– spread ideas, beliefs etc more widely
51.Immorality– evil, sinful or wrong behavior
52.Latter– denoting the second or second mentioned of two people or things
53.Behoves– be right or necessary
54.Cling– adhere; stick
55.Frankly– in an open, honest or direct manner
56.Shun– keep away from
57.Brute– one who lacks intelligence, sensitivity or compassion
58.Unadulterated– complete
59.Materialism– a tendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual values
60.Triumph– achieve a victory; be successful
61.Distinguishing– characteristic of one thing or person that tells the difference between them
62.Indefinite– lasting for an unknown length of time
63.Multiplicity– a large number of variety
64.Imperative– of vital importance; crucial
65.Restriction– an act of limiting someone’s actions or movement
66.insatiableness (n): state of not being satisfied
67.Divinity– the quality or nature of God’s being; the state of being divine
68.Maddening– extremely annoying
69.Resist– withstand the action or effect of
70.Bartering– exchanging goods, property etc
71.Momentary– lasting for a very short time, brief
72.Hinduism– A religion of India that emphasizes freedom from the material world through purification of desires and elimination of personal identity
73.Marvelous– extremely good or pleasing; splendid
74.Dazzled– amaze or overwhelm someone with a particular impressive quality
75.Enamoured– be in love with, delighted with
76.Progressing– develop towards an improved or more advanced condition
77.Onrush– surge, flow
78.Witnessed– to see an event happen
79.Babylonian– an inhabitant of Babylon or Babylonia
80.Syrian– a native or inhabitant of Syria
81.Persian– a native or inhabitant of ancient or modern Persia (or Iran)
82.Cast a look – look quickly in the prescribed direction
83.Gibbon– the English historian of the eighteenth century who authored the famous book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
84.Attic– of, relating to, or having the characteristics of Athens or its ancient civilization
85.Constrained– severely restrict in scope, extent or activity
86.Dungheaps– a heap of dung or refuse, especially in a farmyard
87.Buried– covered up
88.Swaraj– self-government or independence for India
89.Self-indulgence- the act of allowing yourself to have or do anything you enjoy excessively
90.Self-denial– the denial of one’s own interests and needs; self-sacrifice
91.Ruin– destruction
92.Endeavour– an attempt to achieve a goal?
93.Assimilation– integration
94.Crept– move slowly and carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed
95.Incessant– continuing without pause or interruption
96.Remodel– change the structure or form of something
97.Perish– lose it’s normal qualities; rot or decay
98.Golden Fleece– an object very difficult to attain. The Golden Fleece of Greek mythology was well protected by snakes and flames, and to secure it Jason had to employ the magic of Media
99.Profess– claim
100.Deliberate– done consciously and intentionally
101.Contentment– a state of happiness and satisfaction
102.Harmony– agreement of ideas, feelings or actions
103.Hindrance– something or somebody that obstructs
104.Delusion– misleading; misconception
105.Degenerates– decline or deteriorate physically, mentally, or morally
106.Voluptuousness– relating to or characterized by luxury or sensual pleasure


Chapter 2 – Bharat is my Home

  1. Confess – to own or admit as true
  2. Overwhelmed – to cause to be overcome with emotion as a result of an amount of something that’s too much to handle
  3. Electing – choose (someone) to hold public office or some other position by voting
  4. Mental equipment – the personal qualities that you need in order to be able to do something
  5. Erudition – great knowledge or learning
  6. Devoted – to give or direct (Time, money, or effort, etc) to a cause, enterprise or activity
  7. Pursuit – process of trying to achieve something
  8. Ceased – stopped
  9. Champion – stand up for, support
  10. Dignity – the state or quality of being worthy of honor or respect
  11. Humility – the quality of having a modest or low view of one’s importance; humbleness, modesty
  12. Dedication – the quality of being dedicated or committed to a task or purpose
  13. Oath – a solemn promise, often invoking a divine witness, regarding one’s future action or behaviour
  14. Millennia – an anniversary of a thousand years
  15. Diverse – showing a great deal of variety; very different
  16. Ethnic – racial, cultural
  17. Striven – past participle of strive (make great efforts to achieve or obtain something)
  18. Timeless – not affected by the passage of time or changes in fashion
  19. Absolute values – actual magnitude
  20. Peculiar – different to what is normal or expected; strange
  21. Pledge – swear, an oath
  22. Inadequate – insufficient for a purpose
  23. Eternally – in a way that continues or lasts forever; permanently
  24. Static – lacking in movement, action, or change, especially in an undesirable or uninteresting way
  25. Dynamic – (of a process or system) characterized by constant change, activity or progress
  26. Prospects – the possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring
  27. Renewal – an instance of resuming something after an interruption
  28. Forgiven – stop feeling angry or resentful towards (Someone) for an offense, flaw, or mistake
  29. Presumption – an idea that is taken to be true on the basis of probability
  30. Inescapably – in a way that cannot be avoided or ignored; undeniably
  31. Distinctions – a distinction or contrast between similar things or people
  32. Creed – a system of religious belief; a faith
  33. Endeavour – earnest attempt
  34. Earnest – resulting from or showing sincere and intense conviction
  35. Fascinating – extremely interesting
  36. Prosperous – successful in material terms; flourishing financially
  37. Graceful – having or showing grace or elegance
  38. Inconveniently – in a way that causes trouble or problems, or that makes something more difficult
  39. Unsparingly – without having mercy
  40. Sheer – nothing other than; unmitigated (used for emphasis)
  41. Frustration – the feeling of being upset or annoyed as a result of being unable to change or achieve something
  42. Endemic – (of a disease or condition) regularly found among particular people or in a certain area
  43. Reconstruction – the process of building or creating something again that has been damaged or destroyed
  44. Mutually – in a way that shows that two or more people or groups feel the same emotion, do the same thing with or for each other
  45. Fruitful – producing good or helpful results; productive
  46. Urge – a strong desire or impulse
  47. Self-imposed – (of a task or circumstance) imposed on oneself, not by an external force
  48. Neglect – fail to care for properly
  49. Peril – serious and immediate danger
  50. Sustain – strengthen or support physically or mentally
  51. Approximation – coming near but not exactly
  52. Juster – comparative degree of ‘just’ (more just)
  53. Corresponding – analogous or equivalent in character, form, or function; comparable
  54. Collective – done by people acting as a group
  55. Social existence – living or preferring to live in a community rather than alone
  56. Resolve – settle or find a solution to (a problem or contentious matter)
  57. Whole-heartedly – with complete sincerity and commitment
  58. Dual – consisting of two parts, elements or aspects
  59. Temperament – a person’s or animal’s nature, especially as it permanently affects their behavior
  60. Inheritance – something passed down from your parents to you
  61. Liberation – the action of setting someone free from imprisonment, slavery, or oppression; release
  62. Dedicate – devote (time or effort) to a particular task or purpose
  63. Forth – out and away from a starting point
  64. Requisite – required, necessary
  65. Privilege – a special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group
  66. Enchanting – delightfully charming or attractive


Chapter 3 – A Pinch of Snuff

  1. Wire– send telegram or message
  2. Transferred– to move from one place to another
  3. Reassuringly– in a way that removes someone’s doubts and fears
  4. Loyal– giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution
  5. Complex– a feeling that you are not as good, as intelligent, as attractive, etc as other people
  6. Probation– a process of testing or observing the character or abilities of a person who is new to a role or job
  7. Under-Secretary– a subordinate official, a person who works for and has a slightly lower rank than the secretary
  8. Doorway– an entrance to a place through a door
  9. Striking– attracting attention by reason of being unusual, extreme, or prominent
  10. Impressive– make a strong positive impression
  11. Pugree– a light turban worn in India
  12. Deccani brahmin– Deccani caste is a last name of many people in the South Indian subcontinent
  13. Drapes– arrange (cloth or clothing) loosely or casually on or round something
  14. Angocha– towel, napkin, waistcloth
  15. Tucked– to put something into a safe or convenient place
  16. Enormous– very large in size, quanity, height or extent
  17. Marwari– a native or inhabitant of Rajasthan in India
  18. Burka– a long, loose garment covering the whole body from head to feet, worn in public by women
  19. Drowned– (here) got lost in
  20. Emanating– originate from; be produced by
  21. Outraged– to cause someone to feel very angry, shocked, or upset
  22. Ducked– lower the head or body quickly to avoid a blow or missile or so as not to be seen
  23. Mingled– mix or cause to mix together
  24. Station yard- the station area which lies within the specified place and/or specified distance (as prescribed by Railway Board) at either end of the station
  25. Tonga- a light horse-drawn two-wheeled vehicle used in India
  26. Emerged- move out of or away from something and become visible
  27. Escorted- accompany (someone or something) somewhere as an escort
  28. Fawning- displaying exaggerated flattery or affection
  29. Reservation– an arrangement by which something such as a seat in the train is kept for you to use later
  30. Amicably– in a friendly manner
  31. Frankness– the quality of being open, honest, and direct in speech or writing
  32. Merely– just; only
  33. Snuff– the charred part of a candle wick
  34. Delicately– in a very careful or finely judged manner; gently
  35. Puckering– knitting together
  36. Clucked– (of a person) make a short, low sound with one’s tongue to express concern or disapproval
  37. Pity– the feeling of sorrow and compassion caused by the suffering and misfortunes of others
  38. Wreathed– adorned
  39. Squeals– a long, high-pitched cry or noise
  40. Fuss– a display of unnecessary or excessive excitement, activity or interest
  41. Charpoy– a bed used especially in India consisting of a frame strung with tapes or light rope
  42. Insistence– the fact or quality of insisting that something is the case or should be done
  43. Mumbling- speaking or spoken in a quiet and indistinct way.
  44. Swearwords- bad language
  45. Chaprasi- a junior office worker who carries messages
  46. Tramping- marching; slogging
  47. Expletives- bad language
  48. Linguistic – relating to language
  49. Garnish– pretty
  50. Flashed- move or pass very quickly
  51. Chap- a boy or a man who’s a friend, acquaintance or a friendly stranger
  52. A.D.C. – aide-de-camp – a military officer acting as a confidential assistant to a senior officer
  53. Cautioned– warn or advise against (doing something)
  54. Convention– a meeting of people for a common purpose
  55. Zamindars– a landowner, especially one who leases his land to tenant farmers
  56. Cable– send a message to someone by cablegram
  57. Trailed off– used to say that someone’s voice becomes softer and softer and then stops
  58. Seldom– not often, rarely
  59. Adjoining– (of a building, room or piece of land) next to or joined with
  60. Unhurried– moving, acting, or taking place without haste or urgency
  61. Gurgle– make a bubbling sound like that made by water running out of a bottle
  62. Haughty- arrogantly superior and disdainful (proud)
  63. Steady– regular, even, and continuous in development, frequency, or intensity
  64. Waddling– strolling; walk with short steps and a clumsy swaying motion
  65. At his heels- following someone very closely
  66. Smothered- to conceal, suppress or hide
  67. Saccharine- excessively sweet or sentimental
  68. Courtesy- the showing of politeness in one’s attitude and behavior towards others
  69. Bustling- moving about in an energetic and busy manner
  70. Sweetmeats- an items of confectionery or sweet food
  71. Pan- an Indian after-dinner treat that consists of a betel leaf filled with chopped betel
  72. Sparred– talked, argued
  73. Guardedly- in a careful way that does not show feelings or give much information
  74. Brass tacks- hidden course
  75. Ingratiating- flattering
  76. Grin- smile broadly
  77. Touching– arousing feelings of sympathy or gratitude
  78. Humble– of low social, administrative or political rank
  79. Wheels within wheels- used to indicate that a situation is complicated and affected by secret or indirect influences
  80. Poisoned- to exert a baneful (harmful or destructive) influence on
  81. Evacuee-property- property of someone who has moved away from his home because of dangerous situation
  82. Legitimate- lawful, fair
  83. In the public eye– the state of being known or of interest to people in general
  84. Snuffbox- a small ornamental box for holding snuff
  85. Flicking- tapping
  86. Vanished- disappear suddenly and completely
  87. Ingratitude- a discreditable lack of gratitude
  88. At daggers drawn- at odds, quarrelling
  89. Snorted– make a sudden explosive sound through one’s nose, especially to express indignation
  90. Faugh- express disgust
  91. Confidential- intended to be kept secret
  92. Burnt his boats- destroy all possible ways of going back to that situation
  93. Auspicious- favorable, promising
  94. Disgraceful- shockingly unacceptable
  95. Twopenny- costing or worth two pence
  96. Bowing– to bend your head or body forward, especially as a way of showing someone respect
  97. Porch- a covered shelter projecting in front of the entrance of a building
  98. Chirpy– cheery, happy
  99. Appealed- make a serious, urgent, heartfelt request
  100. Liveried- uniformed
  101. Chauffeur- a person employed to drive a private or hired car
  102. Acquaintance- a person one knows slightly, but who is not a close friend
  103. Stately- impressive or grand in size, appearance, or manner
  104. Outlandish- extremely strange and unusual
  105. Breezily- lively and somewhat carefree
  106. Tout- (here) a person who is trying to sell, typically by a direct or persistent approach
  107. Blandly– unexcitingly
  108. Dhobi- a washerman or washerwoman
  109. Barely– only just
  110. Brandishing- waving so that others can see it
  111. Panted- breathe with short, quick breaths, typically from exertion or excitement
  112. Bearer cheque- the one in which the payment is made to the person bearing or carrying the cheque. These cheques are transferable by delivery, that is, if you are carrying the cheque to the bank, you can be issued the payment to.
  113. Regally- relating to or suitable for a king or queen
  114. Hereditary- (of a title, office, or right) conferred by or based on inheritance
  115. Stickler– perfectionist, hard taskmaster
  116. Entrusted- assign the responsibility for doing something to (someone)
  117. Glanced– take a brief or hurried look
  118. Khaddar-clad- someone clothed in khadi
  119. Peering- the exchange of data directly between internet service providers, rather than via the internet
  120. House-break- to train (a pet) to live cleanly in a house by excreting outdoors or in a specific place
  121. Puddle- a small pool of liquid


Chapter 4 – I have a Dream

  1. Symbolic– representing something else
  2. Momentous- of great importance or significance, especially in having a bearing on future events, significant
  3. Decree- an official order that has the force of law, pronouncement
  4. Beacon light – a tower with a light that gives warning of shoals (of fish) to passing ships
  5. Negro- a word that is used in the past to refer to someone with dark skin who comes from Africa or whose ancestors came from Africa
  6. Seared- burnt
  7. Withering- devastating; humiliating
  8. Injustice- lack of fairness or justice
  9. Daybreak- the time in the morning when daylight first appears; dawn
  10. Captivity- the condition of being imprisoned or confined
  11. Tragic– causing or characterized by extreme distress or sorrow
  12. Crippled- severely damaged or malfunctioning
  13. Manacles- handcuffs, restricting freedom
  14. Segregation- the act of isolating people according to race, religion and sex
  15. Discrimination- unfair treatment to a person or group
  16. Lonely island- isolated, without companions
  17. Prosperity- the state of being prosperous, successful and having a lot of money
  18. Languishing- to fail to be successful or improve
  19. Exile- deportee; refugee
  20. Dramatize- exaggerate the seriousness or importance of (an incident or situation)
  21. Appalling- causing shock or dismay; shocking 
  22. Defaulted- fail to fulfill an obligation, especially to repay a loan or to appear in law of court (that you legally have to do)
  23. Promissory note– a signed note containing a written promise to pay a stated sum to a specified person or the bearer at a specified date or on demand
  24. Insofar- to the extent that
  25. Sacred- considered to be holy and deserving respect
  26. Obligation- an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment
  27. Vaults- a large room or chamber used for storage, especially an underground one
  28. Hallowed- made holy
  29. Fierce- having or displaying an intense or ferocious aggressiveness
  30. Urgency- importance requiring swift action
  31. Tranquilizing- to make someone become calm, sleepy or unconscious by means of a drug
  32. Gradualism- a policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or revolution
  33. Desolate- (of a place) uninhabited and giving an impression of bleak emptiness
  34. Quicksands- loose wet sand that yields easily to pressure and sucks in anything resting on or falling into it
  35. Brotherhood- an association of community of people linked by a common interest, religion, or trade 
  36. Fatal– leading to failure or disaster
  37. Sweltering- uncomfortably hot
  38. Legitimate- to give legal status or authorization to
  39. Discontent- dissatisfaction with one’s circumstances; lack of contentment
  40. Invigorating- making one feel strong, healthy and full of energy
  41. Blow off steam– get rid of pent-up energy or strong emotion
  42. Business as usual- an ongoing and unchanging state of affairs despite difficulties or disturbances
  43. Grated- to reduce to shreds, fragments or powder by rubbing against an abrasive surface
  44. Whirlwinds- a column of air moving rapidly round and round in a cylindrical or funnel shape
  45. Revolt- take violent action against an established government or ruler; rebel
  46. Threshold- a strip of wood or stone forming the bottom of a doorway and crossed in entering a house or room
  47. Deeds- an action that is performed intentionally or consciously
  48. Bitterness- anger and disappointment at being treated unfairly; resentment
  49. Hatred- intense dislike; hate
  50. High plane- being more spiritual and less concerned with ordinary things
  51. Creative protest– a way to express your feelings to help the community around you without violence
  52. Degenerate- to pass from a higher to a lower type or condition
  53. Majestic- having or showing impressive beauty or scale
  54. Marvellous- extremely good or pleasing; splendid
  55. Militancy- the fact of using, or being willing to use, force or strong pressure to achieve your aims, especially to achieve social or political change
  56. Engulfed- powerfully affect (someone); overwhelm
  57. Inextricably- in a way that is impossible to disentangle or separate; closely
  58. Pledge- a solemn promise or undertaking
  59. Devotees- a person who is very interested in and enthusiastic about someone or something
  60. Civil rights– the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality
  61. Fatigue- extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness
  62. Lodging- temporary accommodation
  63. Motels- a roadside hotel designed primarily for motorists, typically having the rooms arranged in low blocks with parking directly outside
  64. Mobility- the ability to move between different levels in society or employment
  65. Ghetto- slum area densely populated by an isolated community
  66. Righteousness- the quality of being morally right or justifiable
  67. Unmindful– not conscious or aware
  68. Trials- a formal examination of evidence by a judge, typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings
  69. Tribulations- a cause of great trouble or suffering
  70. Quest- a long search for something
  71. Battered- worn out, crushed, whacked
  72. Persecution- hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of race or political or religious beliefs; oppression
  73. Staggered- reeling, dropped, fallen
  74. Police brutality– Police brutality is an offense which is a violation of civil rights of an individual. The brutality done by the police occurs when a police officer acts with excessive force by using more force towards a civilian or public or an individual which is not necessary.
  75. Veterans- a person who has had long experience in a particular field
  76. Unearned- not earned or deserved
  77. Redemptive- giving salvation, releasing
  78. Wallow– to spend time experiencing something without making any effort to change your situation, feelings, etc
  79. Creed– a system of religious belief; a faith
  80. Sweltering– hot and perspiring
  81. Oasis- a fertile or green area in an arid region (such as a desert); refuge; haven or safe place
  82. Interposition– to come between things; an intervening position
  83. Nullification- the action of attempting to prevent the operations and enforcement within its territory of a law of the US
  84. Exalted– in a state of extreme happiness
  85. Crooked- bent or twisted out of shape or out of place
  86. Glory- magnificence or great beauty
  87. Hew– chop or cut with an ax/, pick, or other tool
  88. Despair- the complete loss or absence of hope
  89. Jangling- harsh or unpleasant sound
  90. Discords- disagreement between people
  91. Symphony- a usually long musical composition for a full orchestra 
  92. Tis– it is
  93. Thee- you
  94. Pilgrim- a person who journeys to a sacred place for religious reasons
  95. Prodigious– very great in size
  96. Curvaceous- having an attractively curved shape 
  97. Molehill– a small mound of earth thrown up by a mole burrowing near the surface
  98. Hamlet– a very small village
  99. Jews- everybody will someday see each others as equals and that no one is better than the other.
  100. Gentiles- a person who is not Jewish
  101. Protestants- everybody will someday see each other as equals and that no one is better than the other.
  102. Catholics- everybody will someday see each other as equals and that no one is better than the other.


Chapter 5 – Ideas That Have Helped Mankind

  1. Mankind– human beings considered collectively; the human race
  2. Diversity- variety, multiplicity
  3. Conception- idea, notion
  4. Preliminary- introductory, initial
  5. Indubitable– which cannot be doubted
  6. Homo-sapiens– a Latin term for the human race
  7. Species- a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding
  8. Subsisting- to get enough food or money to stay alive, but no more
  9. Precariously- in a way that is uncertain or dependent on chance.
  10. Terrified- cause to feel extreme fear
  11. Cumulative- increasing or increased in quantity, degree, or force by successive additions.
  12. Scarcely- only a very short time before
  13. Overweigh– oppress, outweigh
  14. Infancy- the early stage in the development or growth of something
  15. Agility- ability to move quickly and easily
  16. Hirsute- covered with hair, furry
  17. Intention- a thing intended; an aim or plan
  18. Rejoice- feel or show great joy or delight
  19. Progressively– in forward- looking, innovative manner
  20. Congenital- present from birth
  21. Dominates- (here) be greater in significance than
  22. Impulse- a sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act 
  23. Foresee- be aware of beforehand; predict
  24. Catastrophe- sudden great disaster
  25. Befell- to happen especially as if by fate
  26. Starvation- suffering or death caused by lack of food
  27. Preceded- come before in order or position
  28. Forethought- careful consideration of what will be necessary or may happen in the future
  29. Averts- turn away (one’s eyes or thoughts)
  30. Learned- well educated
  31. Acquaintance- a person one knows slightly, but who is not a close friend
  32. Curbing- restriction
  33. Erudite- intellectual, cultured
  34. Diversity– the state of being diverse; variety
  35. Depredation- destruction
  36. Spectacle- a visually striking performance or display
  37. Liability- a person or thing whose presence or behaviour is likely to put one at a disadvantage
  38. Boredom- the state of feeling bored
  39. Multiplicity- a large number or a great variety of things
  40. Glory- a state of high honor gained from great achievements
  41. Intellectual- relating to thought or understanding
  42. Brutes- animals especially large and fierce
  43. Civilization- the process by which a society or place reaches an advanced stage of social and cultural development and organization
  44. Robins- any of a number of birds that resemble the European robin, especially in having a red breast
  45. Peck- (of a bird) strike or bite something with its beak
  46. Pension- a regular payment made by the state to people of or above the official retirement age
  47. Herd- a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals, that live together or are kept together as livestock
  48. Moralists- a person who teaches or promotes morality
  49. Ferocious- savagely fierce, cruel, or violent
  50. Savage- fierce, violent and uncontrolled
  51. Humane- compassionate, kind
  52. Prevail- prove more powerful or superior
  53. Omens- an event regarded as a portent of good or evil
  54. Propitious- prophetic significance
  55. Borne– carried or transported by the thing specified
  56. Dawn– (here) the beginning of a phenomenon or period of time, especially one considered favourable
  57. Chiefly– for the most part, mostly
  58. Agreeable- quite enjoyable and pleasurable; pleasant
  59. Presumably- used to say what you think is likely to happen or be true even though you are not sure
  60. Taming– domesticate (an animal)
  61. Pleasanter- more pleasant, enjoyable
  62. Anthropologists- expert in anthropology
  63. Sacred- connected with God or dedicated to a religious purpose and so deserving great respect
  64. Prospered- flourish; grow strong and healthy
  65. Liberty- the power or scope to act as one pleases (freedom)
  66. Domestication– the process of taming an animal and keeping it as a pet or on a farm
  67. Blood-thristy – having or showing a desire to kill
  68. Fertility rites– religious rituals that are intended to stimulate reproduction in humans and abundance of food
  69. Cannibalism- the practice of eating flesh of one’s own species
  70. Moloch- an ancient Hebrew deity to whom children were offered as sacrifices
  71. Evangelicals- a sect of orthodox Christian Protestants
  72. Prehistoric– relating to or denoting the period before written records
  73. Prerequisite- a thing required as a condition for something
  74. Thence– from there


Chapter 6 – The Artist

  1. Gourds- large fleshy fruits of a trailing plant
  2. Sen- Japanese currency
  3. Sizeable- fairly large
  4. Bore- make (a hole) in something with a tool or by digging
  5. Unpleasant- unlikeable
  6. Fetched- go for and then bring back something
  7. Sake- a Japanese drink made from rice
  8. Dregs- the last few drops left in a glass
  9. Passionately- keenly, fervently
  10. Strolling- walk in a leisurely way
  11. Startled- feeling or showing sudden shock or alarm
  12. Unusual- remarkable or interesting because different from or better than others
  13. Glimpse- a momentary or partial view
  14. Elongated- long in relation to width, especially unusually so
  15. Splendid- magnificent; very impressive
  16. Wagging- move or cause to move rapidly to and fro
  17. Pine- (here) long and sharp
  18. Pate- head
  19. Curio-shop- a souvenir shop that sells curios (strange or interesting collectible object) and other novelty items Confectioner’s sweet seller’s
  20. Appraising- assessing, reviewing
  21. Fashioned- make into a particular form
  22. Damp- slightly wet
  23. Overnight- for the duration of a night
  24. Adoringly- in a way that shows you love someone very much
  25. Set out for- to begin a journey
  26. Harbour- an area next to water coast
  27. Gnarled- twisted or wrinkled
  28. Peculiarly- odd, strange and unique
  29. Favoured- preferred or recommended
  30. Appealed- the power to attract, please, stimulate or interest
  31. Symmetrical- well-shaped
  32. Lad- a boy or young man
  33. Disgusted- shocked, stunned
  34. Inwardly- within the mind
  35. Stir-  a feeling of excitement
  36. Clumsy- awkward
  37. Back-street- a street apart from the main or business area of town
  38. persimmons (n): yellow fruits, date plum
  39. Commonplace- not unusual, ordinary
  40. Panting- breathing with short, quick breaths; out of breath
  41. Dashed- run or move very quickly or hastily
  42. Incensed- angry, infuriated
  43. Ethics- the study of morality
  44. Offensive- causing someone to feel upset or angry
  45. Effeminate- womanish
  46. Pastimes- an activity that someone does regularly for enjoyment rather than work; a hobby
  47. Naniwabushi- a sob story
  48. Ballads- any light, simple song, especially one of sentimental or romantic character
  49. Raucously- harshly, roughly
  50. Trembled- (of a person, or part of the body or voice) shake involuntarily, typically as a result of anxiety, excitement or fear
  51. Fury- extreme anger
  52. Confiscated- took away, seized
  53. Pale- used to describe a person’s face or skin if it has less color probably due to illness or fear
  54. Stern- very serious; not smiling
  55. Agony- great pain or suffering
  56. Muttered- top speak in a low, quiet voice that is often difficult to hear
  57. Inconspicuous- not easily noticed, ordinary
  58. Terrified- very afraid
  59. Vindictive- determined to punish
  60. Rhetoric- forceful speech
  61. Stamped- to put your foot down very heavily and noisily
  62. a sigh- to let out a deep breath
  63. Querulous- complaining in a rather whining manner
  64. Whine- moan
  65. Grabbed- took hold of, seized
  66. Bawled- cried, roared
  67. Confiscated- to take something away from someone as a punishment
  68. Porter- attendant
  69. Sooty- covered with or coloured like soot (black powder that comes from burning things and collects in chimneys)
  70. Hard-pressed- having a lot of difficulties, especially too much work and too little money
  71. Coppers- brown coins of low value made of copper
  72. Yen- units of currency in Japan
  73. Astounded- amazed
  74. Astute- clever, smart
  75. Adamant- unyielding, resolute
  76. Engrossed- absorbed, engaged


Chapter 7 – A Child is Born

  1. Childbirth– the process of giving birth to a child
  2. Varied- incorporating a number of different types or elements; showing variation or variety
  3. Psychic- mental, related to the laws of the mind
  4. Reinvention- the action or process through which something is changed so much that it appears to be entirely new
  5. Catastrophes- disaster, extreme suffering
  6. Rituals- activities which are part of a religious ceremony
  7. Index- a sign or measure of something
  8. Hems- surrounds or hedges something to control
  9. Taboos- culturally forbidden activities
  10. Prohibitions- works not allowed by law to be done
  11. Anxiety- worry or nervousness
  12. Reinforcements- acts of making something stronger
  13. Rites- a social custom, practice or conventional act
  14. Bay- at a distance, at arm’s length
  15. Kinsfolk- a group of people related by birth
  16. Conviction- a firmly held belief or opinion
  17. Remnants- remains
  18. Prophylaxis- action which is taken to prevent a disease
  19. Persistence- the fact of continuing in an opinion or course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition
  20. Superrational- beyond the scope or range of reason; intuitional
  21. Acquaintance– a person who knows slightly, but who is not a close friend
  22. Meticulously- in a way that shows great attention to detail; very thoroughly
  23. Footnote- an explanatory or documenting note or comment at the bottom of a page
  24. Clung- adhere or stick firmly or closely to; be hard to part or remove from
  25. Pre-natal – before birth
  26. Physical exploit- a brave, exciting act
  27. Virtually– nearly, almost
  28. Unattended- not supervised or looked after
  29. Non-technocratic– not so expert in science or technology
  30. Remarkable- worthy of attention; striking
  31. Infant mortality– the death of an infant before his or her first birthday
  32. Mother mortality– deaths due to complications from pregnancy or childbirth
  33. Obstetric– branch of medicine concerned with birth of children
  34. Perverse– contrary to the accepted or expected standard or practice
  35. Perinatal– relating to to the time, usually a number of weeks, immediately before and after birth
  36. Truism– a statement that is obviously true and says nothing new or interesting
  37. Anthropology- the study of human race (the origins, beliefs, etc)
  38. Borne- carried or transported by the thing specified
  39. Interpretation- the action of explaining the meaning of something
  40. Mores- conventions
  41. Perfunctory- done as duty without real interest
  42. Unjust- not based on or behaving according to what is morally right and fair
  43. Vindictive- spiteful, harmful
  44. Feminists– the believers of the idea that women and men should have equal rights and opportunties
  45. Chauvinistic- related to an aggressive belief that one’s own country or culture is better
  46. Opposition- resistance or dissent, expressed in action or argument
  47. Fora- places of meeting for exchange of ideas
  48. Sudanese- relating to or characteristic of Sudan or its people
  49. Tremendous- very great in amount, scale or intensity
  50. Outrageous– shocking and unacceptable
  51. Lineage– direct descent from an ancestor; ancestry or pedigree 
  52. Kin-group– a group of people related by blood or marriage
  53. Permitted- authorize or allow (something)
  54. Intimacy- close familiarity or friendship
  55. Deliberately- consciously and intentionally; on purpose
  56. Enforced- caused by necessity or force; compulsory
  57. Abstinence- the practice of restraining oneself from indulging in something
  58. Whim- a sudden desire or change of mind, especially one that is unusual or unexplained.
  59. Longings– a yearning desire
  60. Dramatise-  exaggerate the seriousness or importance of (an incident or situation)
  61. Sylheti- a native or inhabitant of the region around Sylhet, a city in north-eastern Bangladesh
  62. Feasting- eat and drink sumptuously
  63. Garlands- a wreath of flowers and leaves, worn on the head or hung as a decoration
  64. Ward off – prevent someone or something from harming or affecting one
  65. Pan- betel leaves prepared and used as a stimulant
  66. Nostalgic– related to fascination for the past
  67. Tinged- added
  68. Contrast- when compared to another
  69. Embrace-hold (someone) closely in one’s arms, especially as a sign of affection
  70. Rearing- the process of raising, feeding and taking care of a child
  71. Modernization– the process of adapting something to modern needs or habits
  72. Prestige- widespread respect and admiration felt for someone or something on the basis of a perception of their achievements or quality
  73. White-coats – a long white protective garment worn by doctors, hospital attendants
  74. Miraculous- like a miracle, extraordinary
  75. Hypodermics- related to the science of injection
  76. Withstand- remain undamaged or unaffected by; resist
  77. Enormous– huge, immense
  78. Ghettos- suffocating separations
  79. Groaning- sound emitted involuntarily under pressure of pain or suffering
  80. Whirling- characterized by rapid movement round and round
  81. Oxytocin drip- a natural hormone that causes the uterus to contract used to induce labor, strengthen labor contractions during childbirth, control bleeding after childbirth
  82. Widespread- found or distributed over a large area or number of people
  83. Sacrificial outpourings- blood offered as a sacrifice to spiritual agencies
  84. Sophisticated- advanced and of a higher standard
  85. Plethora- a large or excessive amount of something
  86. Climactic– acting as a culmination or resolution to a series of events; forming an exciting climax
  87. Levelheaded– having or showing sound judgment
  88. Sceptical- having doubts
  89. Intrusion- the process of intruding
  90. Hovel- a small home, especially one that is dirty and in bad condition
  91. Hegemony- dominance
  92. Humming– to make the buzzing noise of a flying insect
  93. Throbbing- beating with a strong, regular rhythm; pulsating
  94. Population explosion- a sudden, large increase in the size of a population


Chapter 8 – How Free Is The Press

  1. Free Press- the rights of newspapers, magazines, etc., to report news without being controlled by the government
  2. Take for granted- assume, accept without questioning
  3. Restrictions- limitations
  4. Liberties- the state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one’s way of life, behavior, or political views
  5. Wholesome- good, healthy
  6. Tyranny- cruel and oppressive government or rule
  7. Impose- force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone
  8. Censorship– the policy of suppressing publication of any item
  9. Diplomacy- the management of relationship between countries
  10. Subvert- cause the downfall of
  11. Incite- stir to action
  12. Discontent- dissatisfaction
  13. Rebellion- opposition to one in authority or dominance
  14. Scandals- rumors, gossips, serious breach of social or moral behavior
  15. Foment- provoke, excite
  16. Harry- harass, bother
  17. Belabour- attack someone physically and verbally
  18. Coerce- force, intimidate
  19. Conform- comply with rules, standards, or laws
  20. Asserts- state a fact or belief confidently and forcefully
  21. Disastrous– causing great loss
  22. Hesitations- doubt or reluctance
  23. Inconsistencies- the quality or state of not being in agreement or not being regular
  24. Hamper- hinder the movement or progress of
  25. Swift- happening quickly or promptly
  26. Execution- the carrying out of a plan, order, or course of action
  27. Doctrine- the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief
  28. Democracy- a system of government in which people choose their rulers by voting for them in elections
  29. Contrive– arrange, cook up, invent
  30. Forum- a meeting or medium where ideas and views on a particular issue can be exchanged
  31. Gravely- to a degree that gives cause for alarm
  32. Shackled- chained up, fettered
  33. Overlords- absolute rulers
  34. Unmerciful- cruel or harsh; showing no mercy
  35. Bondage- the state of being a slave
  36. Editorial– relating to the commissioning or preparing of material for publication
  37. Advertisers- a person or company that advertises a product, service, or even
  38. Circulation- the public availability or knowledge of something.
  39. Vested- confer or bestow (power, authority, property, etc.) on someone.
  40. Oppose- disagree with and attempt to prevent, especially by argument.
  41. Lofty- rising to a great height
  42. Denounced- publicly declare to be wrong or evil
  43. Smashed- violently or badly broken or shattered
  44. Dissociates- disconnect or separate
  45. Bankruptcy- having no money at all
  46. Revenue- income
  47. Perpetual- constant, everlasting
  48. Subserve- serve as a means in promoting
  49. Precarious- dangerous
  50. Spite– grudge
  51. Ambitions- something a person hopes to do or achieve
  52. Proprietor- owner
  53. Magnate- a wealthy and influential businessman or businesswoman
  54. Unleashing- turn loose or free from restraint
  55. Virulent- venomous, spiteful
  56. Bias- a tendency to prefer one person or thing to another, and to favor that person or thing
  57. Savage- extremely cruel, violent and uncontrolled
  58. Persistent- continuing to do something or to try to do something even though it is difficult or other people want you to stop
  59. Condemnation- the expression of a very strong disapproval (criticism)
  60. Exceptionally- to a greater degree than normal; unusually
  61. Shrewd- intelligent, cunning
  62. Cynical- skeptical
  63. Resolute- determined
  64. Exceptionally- to a greater degree than normal; unusually
  65. Scarcely- barely, hardly
  66. Subtle– not obvious and therefore, difficult to notice
  67. Disseminates- spread
  68. Exploits- make use of (a situation) in a way considered unfair or underhand
  69. Wit- keen intelligence; cleverness
  70. Falsehood- the state of being untrue
  71. Flattering- pleasing or gratifying
  72. Titillating- pleasantly stimulating
  73. Lord Northcliffe, Alfred Charles William Harmshort (1865-1922)- British newspaper proprietor who acquired a chain of newspapers and founded the Daily Mail (1896) — the first cheap, popular English daily. Through this he influenced public opinion especially during the First World War
  74. Slipshod– careless, casual
  75. Tendentious- deliberately biased
  76. Illustrate– serve as an example of
  77. Trivial- of little value or importance
  78. Distorted- giving a misleading or false account or impression, misrepresented
  79. Smear- damage the reputation (of someone) by fake accusations
  80. Unreality- the quality of being imaginary, illusory or unrealistic
  81. Sensational– causing great public interest and excitement
  82. Emphasis- special importance, value, or prominence given to something
  83. Suppression- to put down by authority or force
  84. Theological- relating to the study of the nature of God and religious belief
  85. Complementary-  given or supplied free of charge
  86. Pietism- The stressing of personal feelings rather than the dogma of intellectual truth
  87. Caesarism- absolute dictatorship
  88. Incarnation doctrine- the theory of the union of god and man in the person of Christ
  89. Undue- excessive
  90. Contrasted- compare in such a way as to emphasize differences
  91. Allusion- indirect reference
  92. To wit- that is to say; namely
  93. Fornication- voluntary sexual relationship between an unmarried man and unmarried woman
  94. Pressman- a journalist
  95. Ecclesiastical- religious, related to the Christian church
  96. Emanated- issue or spread out from (a source)
  97. Remonstrated- to present and urge reasons in opposition
  98. Disavow- refuse to accept responsibility of
  99. Garbling– giving a confused version of
  100. Notwithstanding- in spite of
  101. Canterbury Festival- a festival of plays held at Canterbury, a city in Kent, England
  102. Bland perversions- outright and deliberate distortions
  103. Attributing- regard something as being caused by
  104. Vivid- producing a clear or strong impression on the senses
  105. Oxford– the main town of Oxfordshire, England, the seat of Oxford University
  106. Alleged- said, without proof, to have taken place or to have a specified illegal or undesirable quality.
  107. King’s Garden Party– a social gathering at the lawns of Buckingham Palace, with the ruling British Crown as host /hostess where social celebrities are invited
  108. Intruders- a person who intrudes, especially into a building with criminal intent.
  109. Probable- likely to happen or be the case.
  110. Mis-statements– an incorrect statement, or giving of false information
  111. Conceal- prevent (something) from being known; keep secret
  112. Snob- value– value attached to something for its power to indicate supposed social superiority.
  113. Altered- changed
  114. Blunder- a stupid or careless mistake
  115. Adorned- make more beautiful or attractive
  116. Buckingham Palace- The London home of the British sovereign constructed by Nash (1821-36) and partly designed early in the 20th century
  117. Summons– an order to appear before a judge or magistrate, or the writ containing such an order.
  118. Unshaded- not having a shade or cover
  119. Distress- extreme anxiety
  120. Gratuitous– intentional
  121. Consulting- seek information or advice from
  122. Detest- hate, despise
  123. Peculiarly- in an unusual way
  124. Detest- dislike intensely
  125. Handyman- a person able or employed to do occasional domestic repairs and minor renovations
  126. Daily woman- female who performs housework
  127. Deliberate– done consciously and intentionally
  128. Miracle-mongering– intentional spreading of stories, outstanding achievement etc.
  129. Libel– defamation, false or insulting statement
  130. Veracity- habitual truthfulness
  131. Monopolize– have or take the greatest share of
  132. Provincial- belonging to a province
  133. Manoeuvre- carefully guide or manipulate (someone or something) in order to achieve an end
  134. Honoris causa- intended to do honour
  135. Fleet street- a street in Central London where most British newspapers have their offices 
  136. Entails– to make something necessary
  137. Correspondence- communication by means of letters or email
  138. Syndicated- expressed, collectively circulated
  139. Fuss- the condition of being annoyed or not satisfied about something
  140. Ventures- a risky or daring journey or undertaking
  141. Accuse- charge (someone) with an offence or crime
  142. Lurks- be or remain hidden so as to wait in ambush for someone or something
  143. Genteel- characterized by exaggerated or affected politeness, refinement, or respectability.
  144. Allusions– an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference
  145. Sneering- mocking
  146. Libellous- defamatory 
  147. Dissemination– the action or fact of spreading something, especially information, widely
  148. Concerted- concentrated, combined
  149. Howl- make a long, loud cry sound
  150. Despairing– showing the loss of all hope
  151. Indiscretion- behaviour or speech that is indiscreet or displays a lack of good judgement
  152. Symptomatic– suggestive, indicative
  153. Disquieting- inducing feelings of anxiety or worry
  154. Wresting- forcibly pull (something) from a person’s grasp (snatch; grab)
  155. Propagandist- a person who tries to persuade people to support a particular idea or group, often by giving inaccurate information
  156. All-pervading- occurring or having an effect through or into every part of something.
  157. Trifling- unimportant or trivial
  158. Smudging- make blurred or indistinct
  159. Blurring- make or become unclear or less distinct
  160. Cynicism- an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism
  161. Mistrust- be suspicious of; have no confidence in
  162. Frivolous– (of a person) carefree and superficial
  163. Resent- feel bitterness or indignation at (a circumstance, action, or person)
  164. Contempt– disregard for something that should be considered
  165. Withheld- suppress or hold back (an emotion or reaction)
  166. Smothered- covered completely
  167. Absurdity- the quality or state of being ridiculous or wildly unreasonable
  168. Badger– making unclear
  169. Heckle- harass
  170. Invoked- appealed


Chapter 9 – The Earth

  1. Possessions – the state of having, owning, or controlling something.
  2. Plough – a large farming implement with one or more blades fixed in a frame, drawn over soil to turn it over and cut furrows in preparation for the planting of seeds.
  3. Acre- a piece of land measuring 480 sq yards
  4. Bony – very thin
  5. Mare – the female of a horse or other equine animal.
  6. Surrendered – to give up
  7. imbecile– weak in mind, stupid
  8. Insane – mad
  9. Anxious – feeling or showing worry
  10. Simplicity -the quality or condition of being easy to understand or do.
  11. Gradually – slowly
  12. Cunning – clever
  13. persuaded – convinced
  14. Strengthen – make or become stronger.
  15. Occupation – a job or profession.
  16. Development – a process that creates growth or progress
  17. wire coop– an enclosed place shut in with wire netting
  18. Dozen- group or set of twelve.
  19. Speckled- spotted
  20. Scraps- food left in pates
  21. seeded cabbages– cabbages which had been left in the ground too long and had flowered and produced seeds
  22. on corn-ears- husk of corns
  23. Gleaned- collected, gathered, picked up
  24. Stubble- a stalk of grain
  25. Thrives- prospers, flourishes
  26. Commercialized- made commercial, run on strict business lines so as to make as much money as possible
  27. Mysteriously- in a way that is strange, not known, or not understood
  28. pecked nourishment- picked up food
  29. Nesting-box– nest made of box or box like nest
  30. Basin- bowl
  31. in scores- a score is a group of twenty
  32. Half -scores- half of in score which is ten
  33. Fivers- five
  34. Religiously- regularly
  35. laying pullets -young hens that have begun laying eggs
  36. Hawk – unload
  37. Castol -a small wheel
  38. Segregate-separate
  39. white leghorn- Rhode island: two famous breeds of hen
  40. Coops- cage
  41. Hygienic- clean or sanitary
  42. Precious- important
  43. vainly – uselessly,  without success
  44. Belief- trust, faith,
  45. Cherished- protect and care lovingly
  46. Stubbornly-  obstinately
  47. yielded- produced or provided
  48. Preacher – a person who preaches
  49. Congregations-  assembly (of worshipers)
  50. Chapel – a small building or room used for Christian worship
  51. Gnawed-  nibbled, sank teeth into
  52. Thistles- a widely distributed herbaceous plant of the daisy family,
  53. Providence- the protective care of God or of nature as a spiritual power.
  54. Steadfastly- firmly
  55. Quivering – trembling or shaking with a slight rapid motion.
  56. Chequer-board– a square board divided into a number of small black and white square patches for playing certain games. The rectangular hen coops, each containing a different colour of hen, made part of the field resemble a chequer board
  57. Supper– evening meal
  58. diligent-: hard-working, industrious
  59. Thrift- the quality of using money and other resources carefully and not wastefully.
  60. Industry – hard work
  61. Tremor–  quiver, shudder
  62. Peculiar- different to what is normal or expected; strange.
  63. Amassed- gather together or accumulate
  64. Finality-  a tone or manner which indicates that no further comment or argument is possible
  65. Concession- a thing that is granted
  66. Momentarily- for a very short time
  67. Acquired– buy or obtain
  68. Scarcely- only a very short time before.
  69. Stockmarket– where investors buy and sell shares of companies.
  70. Tenancy– possession of land or property as a tenant
  71. Pulpit- podium, dais
  72. Distracted– sidetracked
  73. Vague- uncertain or unclear
  74. Rear- at the back
  75. Infinite- limitless
  76. Fertilizers-  chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility.
  77. Inviolate- not open to any threat or attack
  78. Michaelmas– the feast of St Michael, 29 September.
  79. Assurance– a positive declaration intended to give confidence; a promise
  80. Former– prior, earlier
  81. Possessed- controlled
  82. Lorries- a large, heavy motor vehicle for transporting goods or troops; a truck.
  83. Gauge- an instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something.
  84. Unreflective- not reflecting light.
  85. Apparent- clear
  86. Smock- a dress or top for a woman or girl, gathered at the chest and having a loosely fitting lower part.
  87. Undistinguished– lacking distinction; unexceptional
  88. Lad– a boy or a young man
  89. Vacated– leave
  90. Chronicle– account, record
  91. Antagonism- ill feeing
  92. Scoured-  rubbed, cleaned
  93. Scour- clean
  94. Confined– restricted
  95. Enormous- Big
  96. Antagonism- active hostility or opposition
  97. Bewilderment–   the quality or state of being lost,
  98. Despair- the complete loss
  99. Lodgings– temporary accommodation.
  100. Immobile– motionless
  101. Stupefied- bewildered, stunned
  102. Grief- intense sorrow
  103. Allowances- something that is permitted
  104. Alighted- to come down from something (such as a vehicle)
  105. Pavement-  the hard surface of a road or street.


Chapter 10 – India Through a Traveller’s Eyes


  1. Hue– a colour or shade.
  2. Barbarian- savage, uncivilized
  3. Invaders-  to enter for conquest or plunder
  4. Penetrated- go into or through (something), especially with force or effort.
  5. Auburn-haired– having hair of golden brown colour
  6. Classic- standard
  7. Reckoned- establish by calculation.
  8. Caucasian race- a fair skinned race, belonging to the Caucasus region in the USSR
  9. Dramatic- relating to drama or the performance or study of drama.
  10. Passionate- having, showing, or caused by strong feelings or beliefs.
  11. Permeating- penetrating
  12. exquisitely enunciated- pronounced in an extremely fine way
  13. Blustering- angry talk
  14. Idealism- he unrealistic belief in or pursuit of perfection.
  15. Accusations- a charge or claim that someone has done something illegal or wrong.
  16. Glories- magnificence or great beauty.
  17. Intellectuals-  a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of societ
  18. Peasants- a poor smallholder or agricultural laborer of low social status
  19. Inevitable- certain to happen; unavoidable.
  20. Bitterly- in an angry, hurt, or resentful way
  21. Tutelage- instruction especially of an individual.
  22. Conquerors- a people ruled over by a foreign conqueror
  23. Restless- unable to relax
  24. Embittered- resentful
  25. Rebel- a person who rises in opposition or armed resistance against an established government or leader.
  26. Complication- the difficult situation
  27. Reckon- establish by calculation.
  28. Savagery- barbaric cruelty
  29. Perceived- become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand
  30. Nazism- The philosophy believed in by the National Socialist German Workers Party, reorganised on military lines by Hitler
  31. Aggression- anger
  32. Prophecy- forecast
  33. blood bath- bloodshed
  34. Invincible- unconquerable
  35. Triumph- a great victory or achievement.
  36. Peril- serious and immediate danger.
  37. Noble- having or showing fine personal qualities or high moral principles.
  38. Indictment- charge or accusation of a serious crime
  39. Colonisation- the process by which colonies are set up and governed
  40. Rot- a process of deterioration; a decline in standards.
  41. Civil service- the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial.
  42. Frothing- bubbling
  43. Superstructure-  structure built on top of something else
  44. Evil- profoundly immoral and wicked
  45. Profound- very great or intense.
  46. Innately- Naturally
  47. Miserable- wretchedly unhappy or uncomfortable
  48. Philosophical- relating or devoted to the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence.
  49. Famished- starved
  50. artesian wells– wells through which water comes to the surface due to high water level.
  51. Enervated- weakened
  52. Reverence- deep respect
  53. Renunciation- process of giving up self interest
  54. Venal- corrupt
  55. Devotion– love, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person or activity.
  56. Homage- special honour or respect shown publicly.
  57. Thatch- a roof covering of straw, reeds, palm leaves, or a similar material.
  58. Curious- Strange; unusual.
  59. Posts- a long, sturdy piece of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used as a support or marker.
  60. Amazement- a feeling of great surprise or wonder.
  61. Stroke– an act of hitting or striking someone or something; a blow.
  62. Paralysis- the loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury.
  63. Scrupulously– in a very careful and thorough way
  64. Seldom– not often; rarely.
  65. Squatting- crouch or sit with one’s knees bent and one’s heels close to or touching one’s buttocks or the back of one’s thighs.
  66. Earnestly- with sincere and intense conviction; seriously.
  67. Saint-  very virtuous, kind, or patient person.
  68. Condiments– a substance such as salt, mustard, or pickle that is used to add flavour to food.
  69. Ewer- jar
  70. Homespun- made at home
  71. Preliminary- prior
  72. Lowly- to a low degree; in a low manner
  73. Stimulates– activates, arouses
  74. Inhospitality– the quality of being unfriendly and unwelcoming towards people
  75. Fanaticism- the quality of being fanatical.
  76. Evil- sin, wrong
  77. Missionaries- persons sent to propagate religion
  78. Alas- used to express unhappiness, pity, or concern
  79. Creed-  system of religious belief; a faith.
  80. Idealism- belief in ideal ways of life
  81. Puzzlement- confusion, bafflement




Poem 1 – Sweetest Love, I Do Not Goe

  1. Wearinesse- weariness (modern spelling) tiredness
  2. Jest- something done to amuse, joke
  3. Dye- die (Donne’s special way of writing ‘y’ for ‘i’ )
  4. Yesternight– last night
  5. Spurres- spurs (ME) motive, appendage (example of pun)
  6. Then- than
  7. Feeble– frail, weak
  8. Fortune- chance or luck as an arbitrary force affecting human affairs.
  9. Sigh’st- sighs, moan, groan
  10. Divining– perceiving, heavenly (example of pun)
  11. Part- favour you, take your role
  12. Parted- left


Poem 2 – Song of Myself

  1. Celebrate- rejoice, have a good time
  2. Assume- accept that something is true, suppose
  3. Atom- the smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist.
  4. loafe (old spelling): loaf (modern spelling), wander, walk or move in a leisurely or aimless way.
  5. Lean- take support, rest
  6. Spear- mast, spike, top point
  7. Cease- come or bring to an end
  8. Creeds- religious beliefs
  9. Schools– systems of thought
  10. in abeyance- suspended, withheld
  11. Sufficed- to be enough
  12. Harbour- believe, keep feelings or thoughts in mind
  13. hazard- peril, danger


Poem 3 – Now the leaves are falling fast

  1. Nurse’s flowers– flowers growing under or beside a supporting tree called ‘nurse’.
  2. Prams- (perambulators) a four wheeled baby carriage.
  3. Pluck- detach, take away
  4. Freeze- become ice cold after death
  5. Wooden– in wooden coffins
  6. Stiffly- in a hardened, difficult way
  7. Reprove- rebuke
  8. Attitudes- ways of thinking
  9. Starving– suffering or dying from hunger.
  10. Trolls- wicked and ugly creatures in Scandinavian mythology.
  11. Nightingale- a small migratory bird
  12. Angle– artistic or human perspective.
  13. last distress- end of life, death


Poem 4 – Ode To Autumn

  1. Mists- a cloud of tiny water droplets
  2. Mellow- soft and sweet in taste
  3. Fruitfulness- abundance
  4. Bosom-friend– a very close or intimate friend
  5. Conspiring- scheming
  6. Vines- climbing plants whose fruit is the grape
  7. Thatch-eaves- a sheltering cover such as a house roof made of such material
  8. Gourd- a kind of vegetable or fruit that swells up like balloons. Cucumbers belong to the gourd family, as well as pumpkins and melons.
  9. Plump- make fleshy or fat
  10. Hazel- small trees that produce small nuts
  11. Kernel- seed, core
  12. o’er brimm’d- filled so much that some spills over
  13. Granary- store-house for grain
  14. Winnowing- blowing a current of air to remove its outer covering
  15. Swath- a long strip of land on which crops have been cut
  16. Gleaner- one who collects or gathers
  17. Cyder-press- a device that squeezes the juice out of apples, to make wine
  18. Choir– chorus
  19. Gnats- a small fly with two wings that bite
  20. Sallows- of an unhealthy yellow colour
  21. Bourn- domain, land
  22. Hedge-cricket- brown green pink insect which makes shrill noise in the bush
  23. Redbreast- a bird called robin
  24. Ripeness– ready to be gathered


Poem 5 – An Epitaph

  1. Epitaph– inscription on a tomb in memory of the dead
  2. light of step and heart– had the habit of moving here and there and had no commitment
  3. Vanishes– disappears
  4. Rare- not common
  5. Crumble– fall down in pieces, here, die


Poem 6 – The Soldier

  1. Foreign- a land or country other than one’s own
  2. Concealed- hidden
  3. Vanishes– hidden
  4. Bore- gave birth
  5. Roam- walk or travel without a definite aim
  6. Pulse– vibration
  7. Eternal– lasting forever
  8. Gentleness– mildness, tenderness


Poem 7 – Macavity: The Mystery Cat

  1. Defy- flout, disobey, challenge
  2. Bafflement– bewilderment, perplexity
  3. Scotland Yard- headquarters of London Police
  4. Law of gravity– every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
  5. Levitation- capacity to rise and float in air (esp. by magic)
  6. Fakir- a holy man who lives by begging
  7. Ginger- tall and thin
  8. Domed– shaped like a dome
  9. Fiend- an evil spirit
  10. Feline- (of or like) an animal of the cat family
  11. Depravity- corruption, wickedness
  12. Outwardly- superficially
  13. Larder- a cupboard used for storing food
  14. Rifled- searched thoroughly
  15. Stifled- suffocated, strangled
  16. Trellis- framework to support climbing plants
  17. Treaty’s gone astray- agreement contravened or violated
  18. Disclosed- revealed, made known
  19. a-licking of thumbs– evaluation of success of one’s deed
  20. Deceitfulness– fraudulence, dishonesty
  21. Suavity– treachery; he is deceitful but conceals it with great skill and elegance
  22. Alibi- excuse, defence


Poem 8 – Fire-Hymn

  1. Phosphorescence– light emitted by a substance without combustion or perceptible heat.
  2. Hymn- a song of praise
  3. Erupted- break out, thrown out
  4. Scuttled- scurry, run fast
  5. Strolling- walking, leisurely
  6. Embers- pieces of wood or coal that are not burning but are still red
  7. Debauchery- immoral behaviour
  8. Stubs- the remains that have not been burnt
  9. Zoroastrian- a Parsi, who believes that there is a continuing struggle in the world between the forces of light and dark
  10. Clenched- closed into a tight ball
  11. Consigned- sent off, delivered
  12. Tower of Silence– The Parsis dispose of the dead bodies on this structure
  13. Hymn- a religious song or poem of praise to God or a god.
  14. Rebellious- unwilling to obey rules
  15. Swore– took oath (for something)


Poem 9 – Snake

  1. Water-trough- a container for animals to eat and drink from
  2. Carob tree- a southern European tree with dark brown fruit
  3. Fissure- a long deep crack, gap
  4. Gloom- feeling of being sad and without hope
  5. Trailed- pulled behind
  6. Vaguely- not clearly
  7. Flickered- kept going on and off as it shone
  8. Mused- thought
  9. Sicilian July with Etna smoking- extreme heat like the one caused when Etna erupted
  10. Venomous- poisonous, full of venom
  11. Bowels- the tube in the stomach along which the food passes
  12. Cowardice- lack of courage
  13. Perversity- wrong or immoral thinking
  14. Longed- wanted eagerly
  15. Humility- the quality of being humble
  16. Hospitality- receiving with warmth
  17. Horrid- horrible
  18. Deliberately- intentionally
  19. clumsy Iog- awkward/ not proper piece of wood
  20. Clatter- a loud noise
  21. Convulsed- caused a sudden shaking movement
  22. Undignified- appearing foolish and unseemly
  23. Haste- excessive speed or urgency of movement or action
  24. Writhed- twisted or moved body out of pain
  25. Fascination- strong attraction
  26. Paltry- meagre, two small
  27. Vulgar- not decent
  28. Despised- hated strongly
  29. Accursed- having a curse, a bad magic spell
  30. Albatross- a large white sea-bird, it is sportingly killed in Coleridge’s the Ancient Mariner resulting in psychological and spiritual crisis
  31. Exile- the state of being barred from one’s native country
  32. Expiate- to accept punishment for sin
  33. Pettiness- small and unimportant


Poem 10 – My Grandmother’s House

  1. Peer- observe closely, carefully or with attention
  2. Wild- strong feelings, untamed
  3. Brooding- contemplative, threatening
  4. Despair- anguish, hopelessness