BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book Chapter 5 I have a Dream Summary, Explanation, Question Answers from Rainbow Book  

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book Chapter 5 Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Summary and detailed explanation of the story along with meanings of difficult words. Also, the summary is followed by an explanation of the lesson. All the exercises and Question Answers given at the back of the lesson have also been solved.


 

 

BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow book Chapter 5 – Ideas That Have Helped Mankind

By Bertrand Russell

 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Introduction

 

In the lesson “Ideas That Have Helped Mankind”, Bertrand Russell talks about different aspects that might or might not have helped in the development of the human race. Ideas like happiness, population, language, writing, technique, knowledge, morals, agriculture etc. have been discussed in detail as to whether they have helped mankind or not and if they have, then upto what extent.

 
 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Summary

Bertrand Russell shares a few ideas in the beginning of the lesson that might or might not have helped mankind. Some of these include – increase in human population, being happier, evolving and becoming less like animals, being compassionate towards each other or having a variety of entertainment options. He begins by talking about how an increase in the population has helped the human race. Long time ago, humans were very few in number, barely surviving and they lived in jungles and caves fearing the wild animals. They were hardly able to procure their daily bread and receive basic nutrition but with an increase in their number, they surely have been able to make a dominant position for themselves. Their intelligence has played a vital part in their development. Moreover, these developments have only helped us in becoming less like animals primarily because of these two reasons – their inborn intelligence and ability to develop skills and second, the dominant position that came with being greater in number. 

Next is happiness – which has been explained with the example of birds that die in huge numbers in winters due to starvation. Despite the situation, they continue to live through summers without the fear of the past and worry of the future. On the other hand, this is not the case with human beings. This is because a man’s suffering is not only caused by the bad experiences he faces, but also by his own intelligence that turns against him and tells him that he has every reason to be fearful. The human instinct has the capacity to predict and carefully turn away any physical disaster but it causes a lot of worry and costs them their present joy. The author doubts that even the well-read and educated men he knows of, despite having a stable income, are more satisfied than the mice that eat the leftovers from their table as these intellectual minds sleep. Hence, he feels that when it comes to happiness, there has not been any development at all.

Talking about the varieties of means of entertainment, the case is opposite than that of happiness. When a few lions were shown a movie displaying their successful destruction in their own wild habitat, none of them showed any signs of happiness or delight. Not only this, music, poetry, science, sports and even alcohol have proven to be of no enjoyment to animals. Hence, it is our intelligence that has allowed us to enjoy many more varieties of entertainment than is available to animals but this has also come at a much higher cost – the burden on boredom.

The next aspect is civilization. This has been explained using an example of Robins who poke elderly Robins to death and on the other hand, human beings provide elderly men access to pension to be able to survive. Hence, when it comes to people within their own group, human beings are way more kind and compassionate but when it concerns people outside their herd, they can be far worse than animals. 

These ideas, however, can be broadly categorized into two types – one, concerning development in technology and knowledge and the second, contributing towards morals and politics. A great invention that has helped mankind is the invention of language because of which it has been made possible to pass on ideas from generation to generation. Similarly, the invention of fire has not only helped humans to keep away wild animals while they slept, but an accident involving a wrongfully thrown meat by a child in the fire led to the discovery of cooking. Life must have been made more easier and comfortable after the beginning of domestication of animals like the cow and the sheep. The tribes that worshiped lions and crocodiles went into extinction whereas those who considered cows and sheeps as sacred grew stronger and healthier. 

According to the author, the invention of agriculture has proved to be more useful than the domestication of animals but it led to the introduction of many blood thirsty and violent practices that stayed for a lot of centuries. The rituals to ensure abundance of food included human sacrifice and even cannibalism. Moloch, the ancient Hebrew deity, was offered children as a sacrifice only to guarantee good quality corn. During the beginning of industrialism, the Evangelicals of Manchester forced children as young as six-year-old to work for twelve to fourteen hours a day in circumstances that could lead to their death. It is only now that it has been established that the crops will grow themselves and cotton goods can be produced even without sacrificing the lives of young children. Thus, it can be considered as evidence for development in the world.

Lastly, the author calls the art of writing as the last of the greatest inventions of the prehistoric period. It acted as a precondition for history to be written. It developed slowly over time like speech. However, it has been a long journey from pictures to syllables to alphabets. In China, they still make use of syllables that have never been translated to alphabets.
 

 
 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Video Explanation

 

 

 
 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Lesson and Explanation

  1. Before we can discuss this subject we must form some conception as to the kind of effect that we consider a help to mankind. Are mankind helped when they become more numerous? Or when they become less like animals? Or when they become happier? Or when they learn to enjoy a greater diversity of experiences? Or when they come to know more? Or when they become more friendly to one another? I think all these things come into our conception of what helps mankind, and I will say a preliminary word about them.

Mankind- human beings considered collectively; the human race

Diversity- variety, multiplicity

Conception- idea, notion

Preliminary- introductory, initial

Before talking about the main topic, the author wants the readers to develop an idea about what our meaning of help to the human race is. He shares a few ideas that we would consider as being advantageous to the human population – being more in number or rather being fewer like animals, being more happy or learning to take delight in a variety of experiences, possessing more knowledge or maintaining a pleasant relationship with others. He feels that all of these topics must be included in our notion of helping mankind and he mentions that he would discuss all of these briefly.

 

  1. The most indubitable respect in which ideas have helped mankind is numbers. There must have been a time when homo sapiens was a very rare species, subsisting precariously in jungles and caves, terrified of wild beats, having difficulty in securing nourishment. At this period the biological advantage of his greater intelligence, which was cumulative because it could be handed on from generation to generation, had scarcely begun to overweigh the disadvantages of his long infancy, his lessened agility as compared with monkeys, and his lack of hirsute protection against cold. In those days, the number of men must certainly have been very small. The main use to which, throughout the ages, men have put their technical skill has been to increase the total population. I do not mean that this was the intention, but that it was, in fact, the effect. If this is something to rejoice in, then we have occasion to rejoice.

Indubitable- which cannot be doubted

Homo-sapiens- a Latin term for the human race 

Species- a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding 

Subsisting- to get enough food or money to stay alive, but no more

Precariously- in a way that is uncertain or dependent on chance.

Terrified- cause to feel extreme fear

Cumulative- increasing or increased in quantity, degree, or force by successive additions.

Scarcely- only a very short time before

Overweigh- oppress, outweigh

Infancy- the early stage in the development or growth of something

Agility- ability to move quickly and easily

Hirsute- covered with hair, furry

Intention- a thing intended; an aim or plan

Rejoice- feel or show great joy or delight

Undoubtedly, numbers have proved to be the most helpful for the human race. Long time ago, humans were very few in number, barely surviving and living in a sense of insecurity and uncertainty. They lived in jungles and caves fearing the wild animals. They were hardly able to procure their daily bread and receive basic nutrition. During this time, man’s intelligence proved to be most beneficial as it only grew with generations to come and began to outweigh the downsides of his early stages of existence which were, his quickness in comparison to the monkeys and lack of hair-covered bodies to protect against the cold. The number of humans were limited during those days and over a period of time, man has used his craft to expand the population. The author means to say that man’s motive was not just to increase in population, but it surely has been the end result. He feels that if these results are worth celebrating, then they have a reason to feel great joy and delight.

 

  1. We have also become, in certain respects, progressively less like animals. I can think in particular of two respects: first, that acquired, as opposed to congenital, skills play a continually increasing part in human life, and, secondly, that assuming more and more dominates impulse. In these respects we have certainly become progressively less like animals.

Progressively- in forward- looking, innovative manner 

Congenital- present from birth

Dominates- (here) be greater in significance than 

Impulse- a sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act 

Over the period of time, humans have also advanced towards having less similarities with animals. There are two major aspects where this has been observed – one, apart from having the intelligence they are born with, skills continue to grow with time while proving their importance in the evolution of man and second being the belief that with greater numbers comes more power. The author is definite that in these aspects, humans have become distinguished from animals.

 

  1. As to happiness, I am not sure. Birds, it is true, die of hunger in large numbers during the winter, if they are not birds of passage. But during the summer they do not foresee this catastrophe, or remember how nearly it befell them in the previous winter. With human beings the matter is otherwise. I doubt whether the percentage of birds that will have died of hunger during the present winter (1946-47) is as great as the percentage of human beings that will have died from this cause in India and central Europe during the same period. But every human death by starvation is preceded by a long period of anxiety, and surrounded by the corresponding anxiety of neighbours. We suffer not only the evils that actually befall us, but all those that our intelligence tells us we have reason to fear. The curbing of impulses to which we are led by forethought averts physical disaster at the cost of worry and general lack of joy. I do not think that the learned men of my acquaintance, even when they enjoy a secure income, are as happy as the mice that eat the crumbs from their tables while the erudite gentlemen snooze. In this respect, therefore, I am not convinced that there has been any progress at all.

Foresee- be aware of beforehand; predict

Catastrophe- sudden great disaster

Befell- to happen especially as if by fate

Starvation- suffering or death caused by lack of food 

Preceded- come before in order or position

Forethought- careful consideration of what will be necessary or may happen in the future

Averts- turn away (one’s eyes or thoughts)

Learned- well educated 

Acquaintance- a person one knows slightly, but who is not a close friend

Curbing- restriction

Erudite- intellectual, cultured

Talking about happiness as an idea that helped mankind, the author is quite not sure. He mentions that a large number of birds die in winters due to lack of food but during summers, they do not worry about this upcoming disaster nor do they recall how much they had to suffer during the last winter season. But it is not the case with human beings. The author highly doubts that the number of birds that died in the winter of 1946-47 is greater than the number of human deaths in India and central Europe during the same time frame and due to the same reason. But unlike birds, there was a lot of fear, dread and uneasiness before and during the time starvation took so many lives. This is because a man’s suffering is not only caused by the bad experiences he faces, but also by his own intelligence that turns against him and tells him that he has every reason to be fearful. The restriction of instinct that drives human beings has the capacity to predict and carefully turn away any physical disaster but it causes a lot of worry and costs them their present joy. The author doubts that even the well-read and educated men he knows of, despite having a stable income, are more satisfied than the mice that eat the leftovers from their table as these intellectual minds sleep. Hence, he feels that when it comes to happiness, there has not been any development at all.

 

  1. As to diversity of enjoyments, however, the matter is otherwise. I remember reading an account of some lions who were taken to a movie showing the successful depredations of lions in a wild state, but none of them got any pleasure from the spectacle. Not only music, and poetry, and science, but football, and baseball, and alcohol, afford no pleasure to animals. Our intelligence has, therefore, certainly enabled us to get a much greater variety of enjoyment than is open to animals, but we have purchased this advantage at the expense of a much greater liability to boredom.

Diversity- the state of being diverse; variety

Depredation- destruction

Spectacle- a visually striking performance or display

Liability- a person or thing whose presence or behaviour is likely to put one at a disadvantage

Boredom- the state of feeling bored

Talking about the varieties of means of entertainment, the case is opposite than that of happiness. The author shares an account that he recalls reading about a few lions that were made to see a movie displaying successful destruction of lions in their own wild habitat but none of them derived any happiness or delight out of this performance. Not only this, music, poetry, science, sports and even alcohol have proven to be of no enjoyment to animals. Hence, it is our intelligence that has allowed us to enjoy many more varieties of entertainment than is available to animals but this has also come at a much higher cost – the burden on boredom.

 

  1. But I shall be told that it is neither numbers not multiplicity of pleasures that make the glory of man. It is his intellectual and moral qualities. It is obvious that we know more than animals do, and it is common to consider this one of our advantages. Whether it is, in fact, an advantage, may be doubted. But at any rate it is something that distinguishes us from the brutes.

Multiplicity- a large number or a great variety of things

Glory- a state of high honor gained from great achievements

Intellectual- relating to thought or understanding

Brutes- animals especially large and fierce

The author clarifies that it is neither numbers nor the large variety of pleasures that make the glory of a man but it is the morals, values and mental capacity that make a difference. We often consider it as an advantage to have more knowledge than animals but if it is really an advantage or not is still a question. However, it is something that still differentiates us from the large and fierce animals.

 

  1. Has civilization taught us to be more friendly towards one another? The answer is easy. Robins (the English, not the American species) peck an elderly robin to death, whereas men (the English, not the American species) give an elderly man an old-age pension. Within the herd we are more friendly to each other than are many species of animals, but in our attitude towards those outside the herd, in spite of all that has been done by moralists and religious teachers, our emotions are as ferocious as those of any animal, and our intelligence enables us to give them a scope which is denied to even the most savage beast. It may be hoped, though not very confidently, that the more humane attitude will in time come to prevail, but so far the omens are not very propitious.

Civilization- the process by which a society or place reaches an advanced stage of social and cultural development and organization

Robins- any of a number of birds that resemble the European robin, especially in having a red breast

Peck- (of a bird) strike or bite something with its beak 

Pension- a regular payment made by the state to people of or above the official retirement age 

Herd- a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals, that live together or are kept together as livestock

Moralists- a person who teaches or promotes morality

Ferocious- savagely fierce, cruel, or violent

Savage- fierce, violent and uncontrolled

Humane- compassionate, kind

Prevail- prove more powerful or superior

Omens- an event regarded as a portent of good or evil

Propitious- prophetic significance

The next big question that the author rhetorically asks is whether human development has trained us to be more kind and friendly with each other. He specifies that the answer to this question is easy as he continues to talk about the British species of Robins who pokes an elderly Robin to death whereas, on the other hand, English men regard their old-age men with pension to support their livelihood. Hence, when it comes to human beings, they are more comfortable and kind with like-minded people than many species of animals but with people outside their group, they are not as friendly. Despite everything that has been done and taught to us by moralists and religious teachers, we continue to maintain an attitude more cruel than animals with people outside our group. Our intelligence makes them more unlikeable than a harmful beast. According to the author, one can only hope and not be confident about the scope for more compassionate and kind attitude towards each other in the future because uptil now, the predictions have not been very favorable.

 

  1. All these different elements must be borne in mind in considering what ideas have done most to help mankind. The ideas with which we shall be concerned may be broadly divided into two kinds: those that contribute to knowledge and technique, and those that are concerned with morals and politics. I will treat first those that have to do with knowledge and technique.

Borne- carried or transported by the thing specified

We must keep in mind all the elements that have been discussed above depending upon how helpful they are to the human race. These ideas, however, can be broadly categorized into two types – one, concerning development in technology and knowledge and the second, contributing towards morals and politics. The author will talk first about the ideas related to knowledge and technique. 

 

  1. The most important and difficult steps were taken before the dawn of history. At what stage language began is not known, but we may be pretty certain that it began very gradually. Without it it would have been very difficult to hand on from generation to generation the inventions and discoveries that were gradually made.

Dawn- (here) the beginning of a phenomenon or period of time, especially one considered favorable

The most crucial and hard decisions were made only before the beginning of history. We are not aware of the point in time when language originated but what we are sure of is that it came into practice in a gradual way. It is the source through which discoveries and inventions have been passed on from one generation to another. Without the discovery of language, none of this would have been possible.

 

  1. Another great step, which may have come either before or after the beginning of language, was the utilization of fire. I suppose that at first fire was chiefly used to keep away wild beasts while our ancestors slept, but the warmth must have been found agreeable. Presumably on some occasion a child got scolded for throwing the meat into the fire, but when it was taken out it was found to be much better, and so the long history of cookery began. 

Chiefly- for the most part, mostly

Agreeable- quite enjoyable and pleasurable; pleasant

Presumably- used to say what you think is likely to happen or be true even though you are not sure

Another big invention, which might have come before or after the discovery of language, is the usage of fire. According to the author, fire must have been initially used only to keep away wild animals while our ancestors slept, apart from providing warmth in the cold season. It was very likely an accident where a child must have thrown a piece of meat into the fire and would have probably gotten scolded for it. However, upon tasting that piece of meat, they would have discovered that it was better. Thus, it led to the invention of cooking. 

 

  1. The taming of domestic animals, especially the cow and the sheep, must have made life much pleasanter and more secure. Some anthropologists have an attractive theory that the utility of domestic animals was not foreseen, but the people attempted to tame whatever animal their religion taught them to worship. The tribes that worshipped lions and crocodiles died out, while those to whom the cow or the sheep was a sacred animal prospered. I like this theory, and in the entire absence of evidence, for or against it, I feel a liberty to play with it.

Taming- domesticate (an animal)

Pleasanter- more pleasant, enjoyable

Anthropologists- expert in anthropology

Sacred- connected with God or dedicated to a religious purpose and so deserving great respect

Prospered- flourish; grow strong and healthy

Liberty- the power or scope to act as one pleases (freedom)

Life must have been made more easier and comfortable after the beginning of domestication of animals like the cow and the sheep. Those who study aspects of human beings have a unique theory that the advantages of domestic animals were not predicted. However, people continued to domesticate animals whatever their religion taught them to. The tribes that worshiped lions and crocodiles went into extinction whereas those who considered cows and sheeps as sacred grew stronger and healthier. The author is fond of this theory and he feels that he has the freedom to play with it in the absence of any evidence. 

 

  1. Even more important than the domestication of animals was the invention of agriculture, which, however, introduced blood-thirsty practices into religion that lasted for many centuries. Fertility rites tended to involve human sacrifice and cannibalism. Moloch would not help the corn to grow unless he was allowed to feast on the blood of children. A similar opinion was adopted by the Evangelicals of Manchester in the early days of industrialism, when they kept six-year-old children working twelve to fourteen hours a day, in conditions that caused most of them to die. It has now been discovered that grain will grow, and cotton goods can be manufactured, without being watered by the blood of infants. In the case of grain, the discovery took thousands of years; in the case of the cotton goods hardly a century. So perhaps there is some evidence of progress in the world.

Domestication- the process of taming an animal and keeping it as a pet or on a farm 

Blood-thristy – having or showing a desire to kill 

Fertility rites- religious rituals that are intended to stimulate reproduction in humans and abundance of food

Cannibalism- the practice of eating flesh of one’s own species

Moloch- an ancient Hebrew deity to whom children were offered as sacrifices 

Evangelicals- a sect of orthodox Christian Protestants

According to the author, the invention of agriculture has proved to be more useful than the domestication of animals but it led to the introduction of many blood thirsty and violent practices that stayed for a lot of centuries. The rituals to ensure abundance of food included human sacrifice and even cannibalism. Moloch, the ancient Hebrew deity, was offered children as a sacrifice only to guarantee good quality corn. During the beginning of industrialism, the Evangelicals of Manchester forced children as young as six-year-old to work for twelve to fourteen hours a day in circumstances that could lead to their death. It is only now that it has been established that the crops will grow themselves and cotton goods can be produced even without sacrificing the lives of young children. It took almost thousands of years to break this myth for the growth of grains but in the case of cotton, it hardly took a century. Thus, it can be considered as evidence for development in the world.

 

  1. The last of the great prehistoric inventions was the art of writing, which was indeed a prerequisite of history. Writing, like speech, developed gradually, and in the form of pictures designed to convey a message it was probably as old as speech, but from picture to syllable writing and thence to the alphabet was a very slow evolution. In China the last step was never taken. 

Prehistoric- relating to or denoting the period before written records

Prerequisite- a thing required as a condition for something

Thence- from there

The author calls the art of writing as the last of the greatest inventions of the prehistoric period. It acted as a precondition for history to be written. It developed slowly over time like speech and one can say that it is as old as speech because pictures were used to convey messages. However, it has been a long journey from pictures to syllables to alphabets. In China, they still make use of syllables that have never been translated to alphabets.
 

 
 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind Question and Answers

 

B.1. Read the following sentences and write T for true and F for false statements:

i. Ideas help mankind.

ii. Survival was never a problem for homo sapiens.

iii. Long infancy was a biological advantage to mankind.

iv. Man’s earliest technical skill was devoted to increasing their population.

v. Congenital skills play a more important role than the acquired skills.

vi. Unlike birds, human beings can foresee a catastrophe.

vii. Forethought can avert physical danger.

viii. The intelligent qualities account for the glory of man.

viii. In a secure future there are neither worries nor lack of joy. 

 

Answer-

i. Ideas help mankind. – True

ii. Survival was never a problem for homo sapiens.– False

iii. Long infancy was a biological advantage to mankind.– True

iv. Man’s earliest technical skill was devoted to increasing their population.– False

v. Congenital skills play a more important role than the acquired skills.– True

vi. Unlike birds, human beings can foresee a catastrophe.– True

vii. Forethought can avert physical danger.– True

viii. The intelligent qualities account for the glory of man.– True

ix. In a secure future there are neither worries nor lack of joy. – True

 

B.2.1. Read the following sentences and write T for true and F for false statements:

i. Utilization of fire was a milestone in human progress.

ii. Fire was used only for cooking.

iii. Domestication of animals had nothing to do with religion.

iv. Our earliest form of writing was pictorial.

v. Invention of agriculture was less important than domestication of animals.

vi. In course of time we have progressed.

 

Answer-

i. Utilization of fire was a milestone in human progress.– True

ii. Fire was used only for cooking.– False

iii. Domestication of animals had nothing to do with religion.– False

iv. Our earliest form of writing was pictorial.– True

v. Invention of agriculture was less important than domestication of animals.– False

vi. In course of time we have progressed.– True

 

B.2. 2. Answer the following questions briefly :

1) Has civilization taught us to be more friendly towards one another?

Answer- 

Yes, civilization has most certainly taught us to be more friendly towards one another. This can be seen through the example of British species of Robins who pokes an elderly Robin to death whereas, on the other hand, English men regard their old-age men with pension to support their livelihood.

 

2) What is our attitude towards those ‘outside our herd’?

Answer- 

Our attitude towards those outside the herd, in spite of all that has been done by moralists and religious teachers, our emotions are as ferocious as those of any animal, and our intelligence enables us to give them a scope which is denied to even the most savage beast.

 

3) What are the two broad categories of ideas that have helped mankind?

Answer- 

The ideas that have helped the mankind can be broadly categorized into two types – one, concerning development in technique and knowledge and the second, contributing towards morals and politics.

 

4) Did language play a role in human development?

Answer- 

Yes, language played a very important role in human development. Without it, it would have been very difficult to hand on from generation to generation the inventions and discoveries that were gradually made.

 

5) How many languages do you know apart from your mother tongue? Has it helped you in any way?

Answer- 

Apart from my mother tongue, I know three languages – Punjabi, English and German. Fluency in these languages has not only helped me communicate with different diversities of people, but has also enabled me to understand them better. English is spoken worldwide and hence, it allowed me access to learn about a lot of cultures and their people.

 

C.1. Long Answer Questions

  1. Discuss the ideas that have helped mankind.

Answer- 

Bertrand Russell shares a few ideas that might or might not have helped mankind. 

He begins by talking about how an increase in the population has helped the human race. Long time ago, humans were very few in number, barely surviving and they lived in jungles and caves fearing the wild animals but with an increase in their number, they surely have been able to make a dominant position for themselves. Their intelligence has played a vital part in their development. Next is happiness – which has been explained with the example of birds that die in huge numbers in winters due to starvation. Despite the situation, they continue to live through summers without the fear of the past and worry of the future. On the other hand, this is not the case with human beings. This is because a man’s suffering is not only caused by the bad experiences he faces, but also by his own intelligence that turns against him and tells him that he has every reason to be fearful.

Talking about the varieties of means of entertainment, the case is opposite than that of happiness. Music, poetry, science, sports and even alcohol have proven to be of no enjoyment to animals. Hence, it is our intelligence that has allowed us to enjoy many more varieties of entertainment than is available to animals but this has also come at a much higher cost – the burden on boredom.

The next aspect is civilization. This has been explained using an example of Robins who poke elderly Robins to death and on the other hand, human beings provide elderly men access to pension to be able to survive. Hence, when it comes to people within their own group, human beings are way more kind and compassionate but when it concerns people outside their herd, they can be far worse than animals. 

A great invention that has helped mankind is the invention of language because of which it has been made possible to pass on ideas from generation to generation. Similarly, the invention of fire has not only helped humans to keep away wild animals while they slept, but an accident involving a wrongfully thrown meat by a child in the fire led to the discovery of cooking. Life must have been made more easier and comfortable after the beginning of domestication of animals like the cow and the sheep. The tribes that worshiped lions and crocodiles went into extinction whereas those who considered cows and sheeps as sacred grew stronger and healthier. 

According to the author, the invention of agriculture has proved to be more useful than the domestication of animals but it led to the introduction of many blood thirsty and violent practices that stayed for a lot of centuries. It is only now that it has been established that the crops will grow themselves and cotton goods can be produced even without sacrificing the lives of young children. Thus, it can be considered as evidence for development in the world.

Lastly, the author calls the art of writing as the last of the greatest inventions of the prehistoric period. It acted as a precondition for history to be written. It developed slowly over time like speech. 

 

  1. How are human beings different from animals? Explain.

Answer- 

Over the period of time, humans have advanced that has made them different from animals. There are two major aspects where this has been observed – one, apart from having the intelligence they are born with, skills continue to grow with time while proving their importance in the evolution of man and second being the belief that with greater numbers comes more power. The author is definite that in these aspects, humans have become distinguished from animals.

Talking about happiness as an idea that helped mankind, the author is quite not sure. He mentions that a large number of birds die in winters due to lack of food but during summers, they do not worry about this upcoming disaster nor do they recall how much they had to suffer during the last winter season. But it is not the case with human beings. Unlike birds, there was a lot of fear, dread and uneasiness before and during the time starvation took so many lives. This is because a man’s suffering is not only caused by the bad experiences he faces, but also by his own intelligence that turns against him and tells him that he has every reason to be fearful. The author doubts that even the well-read and educated men he knows of, despite having a stable income, are more satisfied than the mice that eat the leftovers from their table as these intellectual minds sleep. 

Not only this, the British species of Robins pokes an elderly Robin to death whereas, on the other hand, English men regard their old-age men with pension to support their livelihood. Hence, when it comes to human beings, they are more comfortable and kind with like-minded people than many species of animals but with people outside their group, they are not as friendly.

 

  1. How has the civilization helped us? Discuss.

Answer-

Civilization might have taught us to be more friendly towards one another? The english species of Robins peck an elderly robin to death, whereas British men give an elderly man an old-age pension. Within the herd we are more friendly to each other than are many species of animals, but in our attitude towards those outside the herd, in spite of all that has been done by moralists and religious teachers, our emotions are as ferocious as those of any animal, and our intelligence enables us to give them a scope which is denied to even the most savage beast. It may be hoped, though not very confidently, that the more humane attitude will in time come to prevail, but so far the omens are not very propitious.

According to the author, one can only hope and not be confident about the scope for more compassionate and kind attitude towards each other in the future because uptil now, the predictions have not been very favorable.

 

  1. Is it important for us to be civilized? Give examples of the civilized behaviour that you practise in your everyday life. 

Answer- 

Yes, it is very important to be civilized and act in a polite and well-mannered way. Civilization is one of the things that set human beings apart from other species. Civilized behavior can broadly be categorized into two types – one, moral and second, material. The moral aspect of civilized behavior includes greeting our elders, treating everyone equally and with respect, and helping others in need. On the other hand, the material aspect includes becoming educated, securing and maintaining a decent standard of living that earns an individual a reputable place in the society. 

 

C. 3. COMPOSITION

  1. Write a letter to your friend in Delhi about the culture of Bihar.

Answer- 

129, DLF Phase – 1

Gurgaon, Haryana – 1100XX

 

September 14, 2022

 

Dear Ram,

I hope you receive this letter in the best of your health. In this letter, I would like to make you familiar with Bihar, the third most populous state in the country. It is one of the strongest agricultural states. Bihar has a rich cultural heritage. It is the land of Buddhism and Jainism. It is a state with a culturally mixed population. We have Hindus, Muslims, Jain, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians living here. Bihar has a rich cultural background to be proud of. People here are shy, honest, helpful, and confident in themselves. I really hope that you get a chance to visit Bihar; I can assure you that you will love the state.

 

Yours lovingly

Naman

 

  1. Write a paragraph in about 100 words on the ‘significance of original thinking’. 

Answer- 

The art of original thinking is crucial because the problems of tomorrow can not be solved with the mindset of yesterday. The ideas for the greatest inventions of all times did not come to those who kept following the herd but to those who dared to think differently. Like-minded people may get along with each other but people with a different mindset walk ahead of everyone. It is easy to copy others but it takes courage, confidence and a lot of effort into thinking differently and acting upon it. The end result however, might not always be great but a mind put into the habit of original thinking will never fail in life.

 

D. WORD STUDY

D.1. Dictionary Use

Ex. 1. Correct the spelling of the following words.

                              

 

numerus prelimnarycontinualy
vareity tekniqueacquaintence

 

Answer- 

 

Numerus – Numerous Prelimnary – PreliminaryContinualy – Continually
Vareity – Variety Teknique – TechniqueAcquaintence – Acquaintance

 

Ex. 2. Look up a dictionary and write two meanings of each of the following words – the one in which it is used in the lesson and the other which is more common:

 

herdcatastrophenumbers
brutesbiological skill
century  passageerudite 

 

Answer- 

Herd

As per lesson- a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals, that live together or are kept together as livestock

Other meaning- move in a group.

 

Catastrophe- 

As per lesson- sudden great disaster

Other meaning- something very unfortunate or unsuccessful

 

Numbers-

As per lesson- a quantity or amount

Other meaning- an arithmetical value, expressed by a word, symbol, or figure, representing a particular quantity and used in counting and making calculations

 

Brutes-

As per lesson- animals especially large and fierce

Other meaning- an animal as opposed to a human being

 

Biological- 

As per lesson- relating to biology or living organisms

Other meaning- (of a member of a person’s family) genetically related; related by blood

 

Skill- 

As per lesson- the ability to do something well; expertise

Other meaning- train (a worker) to do a particular task

 

Century- 

As per lesson- a period of one hundred years

Other meaning- a score of a hundred in a sporting event, especially a batsman’s score of a hundred runs in cricket

 

Passage- 

As per lesson- the action or process of moving through or past somewhere on the way from one place to another

Other meaning- a narrow way allowing access between buildings or to different rooms within a building; a passageway 

 

Erudite- 

As per lesson- intellectual, cultured

Other meaning- having or showing great knowledge or learning

 

D.2. Word-formation

Read the following sentences, carefully:

Given below is a list of words from the lesson. Write their antonyms by adding prefixes like ‘in-‘, ‘un-‘, ‘dis-‘, ‘im-‘

 

advantagecertain definite
friendlymoralagreeable
sureforeseenpleasure

 

Answer- 

 

Advantage- DisadvantageCertain- UncertainDefinite- Indefinite
Friendly- UnfriendlyMoral- ImmoralAgreeable- Disagreeable
Sure- UnsureForeseen- UnforeseenPleasure- Displeasure

 

D.3. Word-meaning

Ex. 1. Match the words given in Column A with their meanings in Column B

 

Column AColumn B
hirsutenod off
catastropheauspicious
erudite    cultured
snoozebarbarism 
humanesudden great disaster
propitiouscompassionate
cannibalismcovered with hair, furry

 

Answer- 

 

Column AColumn B
hirsutecovered with hair, furry
catastrophesudden great disaster
erudite    cultured
snoozenod off
humaneCompassionate
propitiousauspicious
cannibalismbarbarism 

 

D. 4. Phrases

Ex.1. Read the lesson carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Use these phrases in sentences of your own:

 

at any ratehave to do with  hand onlast fortend to

 

Answer- 

At any rate- At any rate, I promise to be there even if I’m a little late

Have to do with- Billy and his father have had nothing to do with each other for nearly twenty years

Hand on- Increasingly, CEOs are taking a hands-on approach to information security

Last for- The room freshener did not last for long.

Tend to- I think you tend to eat more in the winter season.

 

E. GRAMMAR

Ex.1. Read the following sentences, taken from the lesson, carefully:

a) I will say a preliminary word about them.

b) Birds die of hunger in large numbers during the winter.

 

You see that the word ‘about’ in the first sentence is used before a pronoun ‘them’. Similarly, ‘of ‘, ‘in’ and ‘during’ in the second sentence are used before a noun ‘hunger’, a noun phrase ‘large number’ and a noun ‘winter’ respectively. Such a word or group of words used before a noun or pronoun to show relation in terms of place, position, time or method is known as reposition.

 

Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions:

a) Please read ………. line 5  ………………. page 10.

b) Birds die  ……………. hunger   …………….  the winter.

c) Mamta prefers coffee …………………  tea.

d) Mahatma Gandhi was born …………………  Porbandar ………………………  Gujarat.

e) Chhabi swam ………….. the river.

f) We have become ……………….  certain respects less like animals.

 

Answer- 

a) Please read in line 5 on page 10.

b) Birds die of hunger during the winter.

c) Mamta prefers coffee over

d) Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in

e) Chhabi swam across the river.

f) We have become in certain respects less like animals.