List of Poetic Devices used in Class 10 English First Flight Book Poems
Poetic Devices in Class 10 English Poems – A “poetic device” refers to anything a poet uses to enhance the literal meaning of their poem. Poetic devices are an essential part of English poetry. It is therefore a tool that significantly enhances a poem’s substance, heightens its feel, or provides the essential rhythm. Let’s have a look at the poetic devices which have been used in class 10 English First Flight Book Poems.
Poem 1 – Dust of Snow
1. Alliteration- the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
The instances of alliteration are as follows-
1. Has given my heart
2. And saved some part
2. Assonance – the prominence of a vowel sound throughout a line is called assonance. In stanza 1, line 2 – “Shook down on me” – ‘o’ sound is prominent.
3. Enjambment – when the same sentence continues to the next line without the use of any punctuation marks, it is called enjambment. It has been used throughout the poem.
4. Inversion – when the structure of a sentence is changed by the poet to create rhyme, this poetic license is called inversion. In stanza 1, inversion can be seen.
5. Rhyme Scheme – abab cdcd
Poem 2 – Fire and Ice
1. Alliteration- alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound at the start of two or more closely placed words.
Example- The sound of “f” in “favour fire”, “w” in “world will”
2. Anaphora- the repetition of a word or expression at the start of two or more consecutive lines.
Example – “Some say” is repeated at the start of lines 1 and 2.
3. Assonance- it is repetition of vowel sounds in same line. The repetition is at different places in different words.
Example- The long sound of “o” in “I hold with those who favour fire”
4. Imagery- Imagery is used to make readers perceive things involving their five senses. Example- “Some say the world will end in fire”
“To say that for destruction ice Is also great”
5. Enjambment- it is defined as the thought or clause that does not come to an end at a line break, rather it moves over to the next line.
Example- “From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire”
6. Personification- Personification is to give human qualities to inanimate objects. In this poem, “fire” and “ice” are capable of destruction. Thus, the poet personifies fire and ice by giving them mind and power to destroy anything.
7. Rhyming scheme- Aba
Poem 3 – A Tiger in the Zoo
- Literary Devices
1. Alliteration: use of sound ‘b’ at the start of two words (behind bars)
use of sound ‘h’ in the starting of two words (he hears)
use of sound ‘p’ at the start of two words (plump pass)
2. Assonance: use of vowel sound ‘e’ (he, locked, concrete, cell)
use of vowel sound ‘o’ and ‘I’ (should, around, houses), (Baring, his, white, his)
use of ‘I’ sound (with, his, brilliant)
use of vowel sound ‘I’ (in his vivid stripes)
3. Consonance: use of consonant sound ‘s’ (his, fangs, his, claws)
use of consonant sound ‘s’ (his, strength, bars)
use of ‘s’ sound (stalks, his, stripes)
4. Enjambment: Line three continues to line four without any punctuation mark. (And stares with his brilliant eyes At the brilliant stars.)
Sentence is continuing to next line without any punctuation mark.
Line continues to next line without punctuation marks. (Sliding through….deer pass)
Line continues to next line without punctuation marks (He should be snarling around houses At the jungle’s edge,)
5. Imagery: poet tries to create an image about the tiger (He stalks in his vivid stripes The few steps of his cage)
The poet has tries to create an image of tiger’s activities (lurking in shadow).
6. Metaphor: Tiger’s paws are compared with velvet (pads of velvet)
7. Onomatopoeia: using words which denote sound (snarling)
8. Oxymoron: use of adjectives opposite in meaning (quiet rage)
9. Personification: The tiger is personified because the poet refers him as ‘he’.
10. Rhyme: rhyme scheme is abcb (grass-pass)
abcb rhyme scheme is followed (bars-visitors)
abcb rhyme scheme is followed (edge, village)
abcb rhyme scheme is followed (cars-stars)
Poem 4 – How to Tell Wild Animals
1. Alliteration: repetition of consonant sound ‘r’ at start of two or more closely connected words (roaming round)
use of consonant sound ‘h’ in the beginning of two words (he has)
use of ‘w’ sound (when-walking), use of ‘h’ sound (who- hugs), use of ‘b’ sound (be-bear)
use of consonant sound ‘n’ (novice-nonplus), use of ‘th’ sound (the-thus)
use of ‘h’ sound (he hasn’t)
2. Allusion: Reference to a famous thing, place, species of animal, etc (Bengal Tiger)
Reference to a famous thing, place, species of animal, etc (Asian Lion)
3. Assonance: use of vowel ‘e’ (meet a creature there)
use of vowel sound ‘o’ (strolling-forth-you, whose-spot, do no good to roar)
Use of vowel sound ’o’ (or if some time when roaming round)
use of vowel sound ’o’ (you should go, should to you, roars,)
4. Consonance: use of ‘g’ sound (single wing)
use of ‘l’ sound (he’ll only lep lep)
5. Enjambment: continuation of sentence to the next line (though to distinguish….might nonplus, The crocodile…..hyena thus)
Continuation of a sentence to the next line (if you were walking….creature there)
Continuation of a sentence to the next line (and if there…..tawny beast)
6. Inversion: Change in the format of a sentence (if there should to you advance)
Change in the format of a sentence (The Bengal Tiger to discern)
7. Poetic license: A liberty to the poet to change the spellings in order to create rhyme or rhythm in a poem (use of lept instead of leapt)
8. Repetition: use of ‘lep’ word in the last line.
9. Rhyme: Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (prey-may, nonplus-thus, smiles-crocodiles)
Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (round-ground, you-you learn-discern)
Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (small-all, thing-wing, tree-see)
Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (yard-hard, there- bear, guess-caress)
Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (view- you, peppered- Leopard, pain-again)
Rhyme scheme ababcc is followed (chance-advance, east-beast, dyin-lion)
Poem 5 – The Ball Poem
1. Alliteration: use of sound ‘b’ at the start of two consecutive words (buys a ball back)
2. Anaphora: use of repeated words in two or more lines (What is the boy… what, what and merrily bouncing… merrily over)
3. Assonance: repeated use of vowel ‘o’ (boy, now, who, lost)
use of vowel sound ‘e’ (He is learning, well behind his desperate eyes)
4. Asyndeton: no use of conjunction in a sentence (A dime, another ball, is worthless)
5. Imagery: when poet says merrily bouncing down the street
6. Repetition: ‘what’ is repeated
use of word ‘ball’
‘ball’ word is repeated
7. Rhyme scheme: There is no rhyme scheme followed in the poem.
Poem 6 – Amanda
1. Alliteration: ‘Stop that slouching and sit up straight’ – ‘s’ sound is being repeated at the start of closely placed words.
‘Stop that sulking’ – ‘s’ sound is repeated at the start of closely placed words
2. Allusion: ‘mermaid’ is a well known imaginary creature
use of famous fairy tale character Rapunzel
3. Anaphora: Repeated use of a word at start of two or more lines (don’t bite… don’t hunch)
Repeated use of a word at start of two or more lines (did you finish….did you tidy)
4. Assonance: use of vowel sound ‘o’ (Thought, told, you, your, shoes)
use of vowel sound ‘o’ (don’t hunch your shoulders)
use of vowel sound ‘e’ and ‘o’ (Will you please look at me when I’m speaking to you
5. Consonance: use of sound ‘r’ (I am Rapunzel; I have not a care …..Bright hair)
6. Imagery: drifting blissfully
7. Metaphor: use of word emerald sea for green colour of sea being similar to the colour of emrald
silence is golden – silence is said to be glorious like golden colour
freedom is sweet – freedom is said to be sweet in taste.
8. Repetition: use of word ‘Amanda’
9. Rhyme scheme: aaha (Amanda, Amanda, you, Amanda)
10. Rhyme: aaba ccc (Amanda, Amanda, straight, Amanda, sea, me, blissfully)
rhyme scheme aafa ggg (Amanda, Amanda, you, Amanda, care, rare, hair)
Rhyme scheme is aada eee (Amanda, Amanda, shoes, Amanda, street, feet, sweet)
Poem 7 – Animals
1. Anaphora: ‘I’ word used at the start of two consecutive lines
use of repeated words at the beginning of two or more consecutive lines (use of “they do not”)
2. Assonance: use of vowel sound ‘I’ (I, think, I, live, with, animals)
3. Metaphor: sweat and whine refer to the cries and complaints of human beings
The inner qualities of humans are referred to as tokens
4. Repetition: use of the word ‘long’
Poem 8 – The Trees
1. Alliteration: ‘long letters’ forest from’ ‘sky still’ ‘leaves and lichen’
2. Anaphora: 2 lines begin with ‘no’
3. Enjambment: Continuation of a sentence to the next line (the forest that was…… trees by morning).
continuation of sentence to the next line (the leaves strain……. Half dazed)
continuation of sentence to the next line (doors open….the house)
4. Imagery: “The trees inside are moving out into the forest” – shows kinestatic imagery
the poet has tried to create a scene in which she is observing all the things happening (the night is fresh…… in the rooms)
5. Personification: Sun bury it’s feet. Sun has been personified.
twigs and boughs have been personified.
6. Simile: The moon is compared to a mirror (Moon is broken like a mirror)
trees compared to patients (like newly discharged patients)
Poem 9 – Fog
1. Enjambment: When a sentence continues to next line (It sits looking….. then moves on)
2. Metaphor: Fog is compared to cat (On little cat feet)
3. Personification: fog has been personified – Fog comes, it sits
4. Rhyme scheme: There is no rhyme scheme followed. Poem is in free verse
Poem 10 – The Tale of Custard the Dragon
1. Alliteration: “coward, and she called him Custard” – “c” sound
Belinda was as brave as a barrel full of bears “b” sound is repeated
beard was black “b”, he held his “h”
gulped some grog “g”
glee did gyrate “g”
2. Allusion: reference to any person or place (Percival)
3. Anaphora: repeated use of word at the start of two consecutive lines. (And a little ….And a realio)
repeated use of word at the start of two consecutive lines (And the little grey…And the little yellow)
4. Assonance: use of vowel sound ‘o’ (no one mourned for), use of vowel sound ‘I’ (ink and blink in glee did), use of vowel sound ‘a’ (that ate the pirate)
use of vowel sound ‘a’ (Belinda was as brave as a barrel full of bears)
5. Consonance: use of consonant sound ‘s’ (Suddenly, suddenly they heard a nasty sound)
6. Imagery: An image is created about the appearance of the pirate.
They have shown the reaction and actions made by the pirate on seeing the dragon.
The attack by the dragon is expressed in a way to make an image in our minds.
7. Onomatopoeia: usage of sound words to create a dramatic effect (giggled, weeck)
usage of sound words to create a dramatic effect (Mustard growled, Meowch, cried ink)
usage of sound words to create a dramatic effect (clatter, clank, jangling)
8. Oxymoron: use of two words with opposite meanings ‘ “pet dragon”
9. Personification: Ink, Blink and Mustard, they rudely called him Percival
10. Poetic license: window is written as ‘winda’ to create rhyme.
use of the word mousehold to rhyme with household
realio, trulio for real, true. The spellings have been changed to create a musical effect
11. Refrain: Repetition of a sentence again and again (And a realio, trulio)
12. Repetition: stanza has been repeated
Custard cried for a nice safe cage
use of the word ‘tickled him’
use of the word ‘little’
13. Rhyme scheme: aabb (house-mouse, wagon-dragon)
aabb (ink-blink, mustard-custard)
aabb (bears-stairs, rage-cage)
aabb (unmerciful-Percival, wagon-dragon)
aabb (house-mouse, rage-cage)
aabb (sound-around, Belinda-winda)
aabb (right- bright, wood- good)
aabb (help-yelp, household – mousehold)
aabb (engine-dungeon, squirm-worm)
aabb (dragon-flagon, hit-bit)
aabb (him-victim, gyrate-pirate)
aabb (mustard-flustered, blink-ink, agree-me)
14. Simile: dog compared to mustard “And the little yellow dog was sharp as Mustard”
Belinda’s bravery is compared to that of a barrel full of bears (as a barrel full of bears), Mustard’s bravery is compared to that of an angry tiger (Mustard was as brave as a tiger in a rage)
sound of dragon is compared with sound of engine (snorting like an engine), Clashed his tail like irons in a dungeon, dragon’s attack on pirate is compared to robin bird (like a robin at a worm)
15. Transferred epithet: terrified yelp
Poem 11 – For Anne Gregory
1. Alliteration: repetition of consonant ‘s’ sound at the start of two consecutive words. (Set Such)
he had, your yellow
2. Anaphora: Repeated use of a word at the beginning of two lines (That he….That only god)
3. Metaphor: honey-coloured Ramparts at your ear (Anne’s hair is compared to the ramparts of a fort)
4. Rhyme Scheme: abcbdb