Class 8 NCERT It So Happened Book Chapter wise difficult word meanings 

 

Here, the difficult words and their meanings of all the Chapters of CBSE Class 8 English It So Happened Book have been compiled for the convenience of the students. This is an exhaustive list of the difficult words and meanings of all the Chapters from the It So Happened book for NCERT Class 8 English. The difficult words’ meanings have been explained in an easy language so that every student can understand them easily.


 

Chapter 1  How the Camel got his hump

 

  1. Cud- partly digested food returned from the first stomach of ruminants to the mouth for further chewing
  2. Djinn: (pronounced ‘jin’ and variously spelt as ‘genie’, ‘genii’, ‘jinnee’, ‘djinni’, ‘djinny’): a spirit that has strange powers and can assume any form, human or animal
  3. Fetch- go and then bring back (something) for someone
  4. Howling Desert- a desert where you hear howling noises of both animals and the wind 
  5. Hump- a rounded protuberance found on the back of a camel or other animal
  6. I’ll humph him: I’ll deal with him appropriately./I’ll set him right. 
  7. Panchayat- a council
  8. Plough- turn up the earth of (an area of land) with a plough, especially before sowing
  9. Prickles- a short pointed outgrowth on the bark or epidermis of a plant; a small thorn
  10. Puffing up- becoming bigger
  11. Saddle- a seat fastened on the back of a horse or other animal for riding, typically made of leather and raised at the front and rear
  12. Thorns- a stiff, sharp-pointed woody projection on the stem or other part of a plant
  13. Trot- run at moderate pace with short steps
  14. Whew- used to express surprise 
  15. Yoke- a wooden cross piece that is fastened over the necks of two animals and attached to the plough or cart that they are to pull

Chapter 2  Children at work

 

  1. Blasted- (here) strike
  2. Blockhead: fool
  3. Chutney: (here) run over/killed; crushed and ground into chutney
  4. Crookedly- at an irregular or improper angle. 
  5. Glumly- in a depressed way
  6. Grimace- an ugly, twisted expression on a person’s face, typically expressing disgust, pain, or wry amusement 
  7.  Grinned- smile broadly
  8. Gulped- swallow (drink or food) quickly or in large mouthfuls, often audibly
  9. Making his head spin: giving him a headache/making him feel dizzy
  10. Mandapam- (in southern India) a temple porch; a temporary platform set up for weddings and religious ceremonies
  11. Miserable- unhappy
  12. Panicked: was very worried
  13. Peeped over- To glance or peer shyly, quickly, or inconspicuously over the top of something 
  14. Porter- a person employed to carry luggage and other loads, especially in a railway station, airport, hotel or market
  15. Posing: looking important, hoping to impress others
  16. Puddles- a small pool of liquid, especially of rainwater on the ground
  17. Pulled in- arrived 
  18. Sack- a large bag made of a strong material such as hessian, thick paper, or plastic, used for storing and carrying goods
  19. Shaking her thumb under his nose- express scorn or ridicule
  20. Shove- push (someone or something) roughly
  21. Squashy- easily crushed or squeezed into a different shape; having a soft consistency
  22. Squinted- look at someone or something with one or both eyes partly closed in an attempt to see more clearly or as a reaction to strong light
  23. Tar- a dark, thick flammable liquid distilled from wood or coal, consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons, resins, alcohols, and other compounds. It is used in road-making and for coating and preserving timber
  24. Tiffin: snack (not a proper meal)
  25. Trickle- (of a liquid) flow in a small stream 
  26. Triplicane- Triplicane, also known as Thiruvallikeni, is one of the oldest neighbourhoods of Chennai, India.
  27. Weeding: working in a field removing grass/Digging, etc

Chapter 3  The Selfish Giant

 

  1. Art- here, are
  2. Awe- a feeling of reverential respect mixed with fear or wonder
  3. Casement- window that opens on hinges like a door
  4. Chimney pots- an earthenware or metal pipe or deflector, often cylindrical, fitted on the top of the chimney to increase draft and reduce or disperse smoke
  5. Cloak- a sleeveless outdoor overgarment that hangs loosely from the shoulders; cape
  6. Cornish Ogre- a giant of Cornwall (in the U.K.)
  7. Crept- move slowly or carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed 
  8. Feeble- weak
  9. Gruff- rough; surly
  10. Hastened- move hurriedly 
  11. Hath- an old-fashioned third person singular form of the verb ‘have’
  12. Linnet- a brownish songbird found in Europe 
  13. Longed- have a strong wish or desire
  14. Marvellous- extremely good or pleasing; splendid
  15. Nay- no 
  16. Ogre- (in legends and fairy stories) a cruel giant who eats people; (in common usage) a very frightening person
  17. Prosecuted- tried in a court of law (here, punished)
  18. Rattled- make or cause to make a rapid succession of short, sharp knocking sounds
  19. Slate- a fine-grained grey, green, or bluish-purple metamorphic rock easily split into smooth, flat plates
  20. Slay- kill someone in a violent way
  21. Snow, Frost, North Wind, Hail- All these have been presented as characters or persons. North Wind is the chilly wind, and Hail is the hailstorm 
  22. Stole up- to move somewhere quietly and secretly
  23. Thee- an old-fashioned word for ‘you’
  24. Trespassers- a person entering someone’s land or property without permission
  25. Twittering- (of a bird) give a call consisting of repeated light tremulous sounds; chirp

Chapter 4  The Treasure Within

 

  1. Academics: academic or educational matters (books, discussions, debates, etc.)
  2. Ammunition- bullets
  3. Arithmetic- the branch of mathematics dealing with the properties and manipulation of numbers
  4. As far as my things are concerned- perhaps he is referring to matters other than course materials and their details
  5. Cakewalk- smooth ride/something easy to achieve
  6. Caning- punishment/ beating
  7. Chor police- children’s game in which one child (thief) hides and others (policemen) try to find him/her Eat to my heart’s content- eat as much as I wanted; eat my fill 
  8. Contention- view; belief or opinion
  9. Cope- manage/handle/deal with 
  10. Curriculum- (here) school subjects or prescribed courses of study 
  11. Defied- broke
  12. Distinction- a grade in an examination denoting excellence
  13. Distraction- something amusing and pleasurable 
  14. Giftedness- having special abilities
  15. Incurred- become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behaviour or actions 
  16. Incurred the wrath of your teacher- made your teacher furious
  17. Insecure- anxious (here)
  18. Instinctively- naturally (not coming from training or based on reasoning)
  19. Nightmare- haunting fear/frightening dream
  20. Psyche- mind or mentality
  21. Pull you up-reprimand or scold someone
  22. SSC- Secondary School Certificate
  23. Strategies- methods of winning fights 
  24. Street smart- smart by doing things independently/ by choice rather than force
  25. Wrath- extreme anger

Chapter 5  Princess September

 

  1. Absurd- inappropriate
  2. Alighted- came down
  3. Dawn- the first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise
  4. Dew- tiny drops of water that form on cool surfaces at night, when atmospheric vapour condenses
  5. Disagreeable- unpleasant 
  6. Dreadful- causing or involving great suffering, fear, or unhappiness; extremely bad or serious
  7. Dreadful- terrible
  8. Fancy- feel a desire or liking for
  9. Firm- unlikely to change
  10. Glided- move with a smooth, quiet continuous motion
  11. Glum- looking or feeling dejected; gloomy
  12. Good gracious- Exclamation of surprise, dismay, or alarm
  13. Handy- immediately available
  14. Hawks- a bird of prey with broad rounded wings and a long tail, typically taking prey by surprise with a short chase
  15. Heart go thump- If your heart thumps, it beats more strongly and quickly than usual, because of exercise, fear, or excitement 
  16. Hop- jump
  17. I dare say- I agree/ accept (that it is true)
  18. Lark- a small ground-dwelling songbird with elongated hind claws and a song that is delivered on the wing, typically crested and with brown streaky plumage
  19. Maids of Honour- Women attending the Princess
  20. Mocked- tease or laugh at in a scornful or contemptuous manner
  21. Nightingale- a small migratory thrush with drab brownish plumage, noted for its rich melodious song which can often be heard at night
  22. Obstinate- stubbornly refusing to change one’s opinion or chosen course of action, despite attempts to persuade one to do so
  23. Ominously- threateningly – suggesting that something bad was about to happen
  24. Oriental- of the east (the Orient means the countries of the far East. its opposite is the Occident)
  25. Peculiar- different o what is normal or expected 
  26. Perch-  place where a bird sits or rests
  27. Pop- put; push
  28. Pound- a unit of weight
  29. Pretty Polly-  This simply means ‘God save the king’ as said by the parrot. This was the tradition that to pray for the long life of a king
  30. Prowling- (of a person or animal) move about restlessly and stealthily, especially in search of prey
  31. Put  their head together- discussed amongst themselves to take a decision 
  32. Saucer- a shallow dish, typically having a circular indentation in the centre, on which a cup is placed
  33. Siam- now Thailand 
  34. Siamese- old fashioned term for Thai (language)
  35. Sill- a shelf or slab of stone, wood, or metal at the foot of a window opening or doorway
  36. Snares- traps for catching birds or animals
  37. Sob- cry noisily, making loud, convulsive gasps
  38. Startled- feeling or showing sudden shock or alarm  
  39. Stiff- hardened; non-flexible
  40. Suking- be silent, morose, and bad-tempered out of annoyance or disappointment
  41. Supper- an evening meal, typically a light or informal one
  42. Thank you for nothing- dismissive and contemptuous way of telling somebody that they were no help at all; it is as empty of gratitude as the speaker thinks the offer of help is of no use.
  43. Vexed- annoyed, frustrated
  44. Willow- a tree or shrub of temperate climates which typically has narrow leaves, bears catkins, and grows near water. 

Chapter 6  The Fight

 

  1. Acquiesce- accept quietly
  2. Adversary- opponent/ enemy 
  3. Assaillant- the person who attacks; (here) enemy/ adversary
  4. Astonished- greatly surprised or impressed; amazed
  5. At each other’s throats- fighting
  6. Bony- (of a person or part of the body) so thin that the bones can be seen
  7. Cascading- coming down (like a waterfall)
  8. Clawing- scratching (here)
  9. Cluster- a group of similar things positioned closely together
  10. Conceded- admitted 
  11. Dashed- destroyed (hopes or expectations)
  12. Dissolved- subside uncontrollably into (an expression of strong feelings); break into
  13. Dive- plunge head first into water with one’s arms raised over one’s head
  14. Dizzy- having or involving a sensation of spinning around and losing one’s balance
  15. Emerged- move out of or away from something and become visible 
  16. Encounter- unexpectedly be faced with or experience (something hostile or difficult) 
  17. Exhaustion- tiredness/ fatigue
  18. Feat- clever act; special skill
  19. Ferocity- fierceness (suggesting anger/ cruelty)
  20. Frenzied- violent  
  21. Gasping- catch one’s breath with an open mouth; owing to pain or astonishment
  22. Glistened- shine with a sparkling light
  23. Gushing- exaggeratedly enthusiastic
  24. Heaving- produce (a sigh)
  25. Hissing- to make a long ‘s’ sound
  26. Hostile- showing or feeling opposition or dislike; unfriendly
  27. Hostility- ill will/ enmity
  28. Impasse- (also pronounced ampass) deadlock;  place or position from which there is no way out 
  29. Impulse- a sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act
  30. Interminably- endlessly 
  31. Leapt- jumped
  32. Limpid- (of a liquid) completely clear and transparent
  33. Limpid- clear
  34. Listless- lacking energy or enthusiasm 
  35. Muster- (here) use; collect or gather
  36. Outwit- deceive by greater ingenuity
  37. Parched- hot and dry
  38. Penetrated- gone through/ into
  39. Plunge- jump 
  40. Proclaimed- announce officially; make something clear
  41. Quench- cool (his body)
  42. Sal trees- a North Indian tree that yields hard, durable timber and dammar resin
  43. Scowled- looked angrily  
  44. Seer- same as ser, a unit of weight used previously in India. A ser, a little less than a litre, was one-fortieth of a maund
  45. Solace- comfort or consolation in a time of great distress or sadness
  46. Sore- (of a part of one’s body) painful or aching
  47. Spluttering- speaking quickly/ confusedly
  48. Spouting- send out (liquid) forcibly in a stream
  49. Staggered- felt weak/unsteady (due to the blow)
  50. Stripped- without clothes
  51. Strode- (past of stride) walk with long decisive steps in a specified direction
  52. Supple- bending and moving easily and gracefully; flexible
  53. Swaying-moving from side to side 
  54. Taken aback- surprised 
  55. Thickset- stout/ solidly built 
  56. Torrent- rushing stream (of water)
  57. Translucency- clarity (possible to see through) 
  58. Treading water- keeping oneself upright in deep water by moving the feet 
  59. Tremendous- great
  60. Trickle- weak or thin flow of water
  61. Tumbling- fall suddenly, clumsily or headlong
  62. Unflinching- (without blinking) looking straight at each other
  63. Vigour- strength 
  64. Vividly- in a way that produces powerful feelings or strong, clear images in the mind 
  65. Wallowed- rolled about (in mud or dirty water)  
  66. Wandered- walk or move in a leisurely or aimless way

Chapter 7  The Open Window

  1. Ailments and infirmities- (relating to health) complaints of sickness/weakness  
  2. Bog- wet, spongy ground (one may sink into it) 
  3. Bolted out- leave suddenly and as if in a hurry
  4. Briskly- in an active, quick, or energetic way
  5. Bustled- entered (the room) noisily
  6. Communion- (here) communication 
  7. Dashed off- to leave a place suddenly or quickly
  8. Dazed- unable to think or react properly 
  9. Delusion-false impression or belief 
  10. Discounting- regard (a possibility or fact) as being unworthy of consideration because it lacks credibility
  11. Distinct- recognizably different
  12. Dreadful- causing or involving great suffering, fear, or unhappiness; extremely bad or serious
  13. Duly- in accordance with what is required or appropriate 
  14. Dusk- sunset
  15. Endeavoured- tried
  16. Engulfed- sweep over (something) so as to surround or cover it completely; bury
  17. Falteringly- a ‘faltering’ voice is shaky, hesitant; haltingly 
  18. Flatter- make (her) happy
  19. Gravel drive- A gravel road is a type on unpaved road surfaced with gravel 
  20. Grinning- smiling broadly so as to reveal teeth
  21. Headlong- in a rush; with reckless haste
  22. Hedge- a fence or boundary formed by closely growing bushes or shrubs
  23. Imminent- about to happen
  24. Laboured-  done with great effort
  25. Lose their nerve- to suddenly panic and become too afraid
  26. Mackintosh- a full-length waterproof coat
  27. Marshes- an area of low-lying land which is flooded in wet seasons or at high tide, and typically remains waterlogged at all times; bog; swamp
  28. Moor- grassland 
  29. Moping- wander about listlessly and aimlessly because of unhappiness or boredom
  30. Out of place- unsuitable
  31. Pursued- (here) continued
  32. Rattled on- went on 
  33. Retreat- a quiet or secluded place in which one can rest and relax. 
  34. Romance at short notice- finding occasions for fun and enjoyment, wherever possible
  35. Scarcity of birds-  no birds or very few (‘scarcity’ means acute shortage)
  36. Self-possessed- calm and confident; sure of herself 
  37. Shudder- (of a person) tremble convulsively, typically as a result of fear or revulsion; shake; shiver; tremble
  38. Snarling-(of an animal such as a dog) make an aggressive growl with bared teeth
  39. Snipe-  water bird that lives in marshes 
  40. Spaniel- a dog of a breed with a long silky coat and drooping ears
  41. Straying- straying: moving (she was not looking at him) 
  42. Suggest masculine habitation- suggest that the room belonged to a man 
  43. Sympathetic comprehension- understanding and showing sympathy 
  44. Tragedy- an event causing great suffering, destruction, and distress
  45. Treacherous- dangerous (though it seems safe) 
  46. Unduly- overly; unnecessarily
  47. Whirl of apologies-   many apologies (in quick succession)

Chapter 8  Jalebis

 

  1. Assault- attack
  2. Ayat-al-kursi- title of a verse in the Holy Quran
  3. Bismillah- in the name of God (words spoken before starting something)
  4. Blabbering- talking confusedly
  5. Cane- walking stick
  6. Chabutara- platform 
  7. Chachajaan- Uncle (often used as a respectful form of address to a man around the same age as one’s father)
  8. Chaprasi- peon 
  9. Choo- sound of ‘blowing over the bag’ (to ward off evil) 
  10. Clamour- loud noise
  11. Clenched- (of the fingers or hand) closed into a tight ball
  12. Clutched- grasp (something) tightly
  13. Coiled up- to curl oneself or something into a small, compact position.
  14. Crouching- sitting (as if hiding)
  15. Dashed- run somewhere in great hurry.
  16. Devour- eat (food) quickly
  17. Farishta- angel 
  18. Followed my nose- go straight ahead 
  19. Gali- narrow lane
  20. Gobbled- eat (something) hurriedly and noisily 
  21. Halwai- sweetmeat seller 
  22. Id- the festival of Eid
  23. Jalebis- syrupy Indian sweet 
  24. Jalebi-wielding hand- the hand that held jalebis 
  25. Kadhao- large, open pot for cooking/boiling
  26. Khanak-khanak- sound of jingling of coins 
  27. Kissa khatam, paisa hazam- end of story (literally: story ends, money disappears)
  28. Mob- a large crowd of people
  29. Mound- a large pile or quantity of something
  30. Persuasion- coaxing
  31. Prestige- respect
  32. Qayamat- Judgement day 
  33. Racket- uproar/ loud noise
  34. Rupiyas- rupees 
  35. Saheb- a word of Arabic origin meaning “companion”
  36. Shriek- utter a high-pitched piercing sound or words, especially as an expression of terror, pain, or excitement; scream
  37. Strangle- squeeze or constrict
  38. Summoned- sent for/ called
  39. Surats- verses from the Holy Quran 
  40. Tonga- two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle 
  41. Treasury- wealth 
  42. Virtuous- good and noble
  43. Wazu- ablution (washing face, hands and feet before praying)
  44. Wretched- terrible
  45. Wriggled- twist and turn with quick writhing movements 

Chapter 9  The Comet – I

 

  1. Acquired- (here) bought
  2. Amateur- a person who is incompetent or inept at a particular activity
  3. Ananda Bazar Patrika- an Indian Bengali-language newspaper
  4. Aspersions- harsh remarks
  5. Astronomer- a scholar of the science of the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.
  6. Bangalore*-  now, Bengaluru
  7. Barring- except for; if not for; with the exception of
  8. Beckoned- summon (someone) by beckoning (making a gesture) to them 
  9. Bowler-hatted- a person wearing a bowler hat 
  10. Butler- the chief manservant 
  11. Calamities- disasters/misfortunes 
  12. Calcutta*- now, Kolkata
  13. Catastrophic- involving or causing sudden great damage or suffering
  14. Civil servant- a member of the civils service; government official
  15. Correlation- a mutual connection between two or more things 
  16. Counter-measure- step or action in the opposite direction
  17. Deferentially- respectfully 
  18. Designing- acting in a calculating, deceitful way
  19. Disgust- strong dislike or disapproval 
  20. Dreadful- causing or involving great suffering, fear, or unhappiness; extremely bad or serious 
  21. Eccentric- unusual/ unlike the orbits of other planets 
  22. Ensnared- catch in or as in a trap
  23. Faint stars- (of a sight) barely perceptible; unclear
  24. Fleeting- lasting for a very short time
  25. Fortuitous- (happening) by chance
  26. Gigantic- of very great size or extent; huge or enormous
  27. Glanced- take a brief or hurried look
  28. Hobnob- have friendly talk/ spend time together
  29. Huddled-  crowd together; nestle closely
  30. Implications- the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated
  31. Imposition- unfair demand that one is obliged to accept
  32. Inevitable- certain to happen; unavoidable
  33. Interjected- interrupt
  34. Introvert- one who is preoccupied with his/her own thoughts and feelings—not interested in things outside oneself 
  35. MA- Masters in arts
  36. Mantlepiece- a structure of wood, marble or stone above and around a fireplace
  37. Manuscript- paper or book not yet printed
  38. Meticulous- careful and exact
  39. Muttered- say something in a low or barely audible voice, especially in dissatisfaction or irritation
  40. Nebulous- hazy 
  41. Oblivious- forgetful
  42. Optics- Dibya’s eyes (glass) through which he detected the comet
  43. Optimistic- hopeful; expecting the best 
  44. Outskirts- the outer parts of a town or city
  45. Profound- very great or intense 
  46. Provost- the head of certain university colleges, especially at Oxford or Cambridge, and public schools
  47. Recedes- goes back; disappears
  48. Referee- a person appointed to examine and assess for publication a scientific or other academic work
  49. Repress- restrain or prevent (the expression or development of something)
  50. Smudges- spots/ marks
  51. Tete-a-tete- private meeting/ talk between two persons
  52. Typescript- typed copy of a text
  53. Utterly- absolutely; completely
  54. Wretched- used to express anger or annoyance

Chapter 10  The Comet – II

 

  1. Affinity- a natural liking for and understanding of someone or something
  2. Annihilation- total destruction 
  3. Averted- prevent or ward off (an undesirable occurrence)
  4. Bombarded- subject (someone) to a continuous flow of questions, criticisms, or information
  5. Condoned- accept (behaviour that is considered morally wrong or offensive)
  6. Correlations- connections 
  7. Correspondence- communication by exchanging letters
  8. Defensive measures- military action or resources protecting a country
  9. Deflected- cause (something) to change direction; turn aside from a straight course
  10. Deliberations- long and careful consideration or discussion
  11. Deputise- temporarily act or speak on behalf of someone else
  12. Descendant- a person that is descended from a particular ancestor
  13. Detonating- setting it off; making it explode
  14. Dispelled- make (a doubt, feeling, or belief) disappear
  15. Futile- useless; in vain
  16. Hangers-on-  people in a meeting etc. (usually uninvited) who try to appear very friendly with important people
  17. Inevitable- certain to happen; unavoidable
  18. Intercept- (here) stop or block
  19. Interjected- say (something) abruptly, especially as an aside or interruption.
  20. Isles- an island or peninsula, especially a small one
  21. Mammoth- huge
  22. Offensive action- The primary purpose of the offense is to defeat, destroy, or neutralize an enemy force which in this case, was Comet Dutta.
  23. Off-street- not on a public road
  24. Outwardly- on the surface; on or front he outside
  25. Pacify- quell the anger, agitation or excitement of
  26. Pandal- a marquee; a large tent used for social or commercial functions
  27. Payload- equipment
  28. Probed- seek to uncover information about someone or something
  29. Proposition- a suggested scheme or plan of action, especially in a business context
  30. Rendezvous- (pronounces rondivoo) meeting place
  31. Respite- a short period of rest or relief from something difficult or unpleasant
  32. Subtle- so delicate or precise as to be difficult to analyse or describe
  33. Taboo- something not permitted for religious, social/cultural reasons
  34. Triumph- a great victory or achievement
  35. Underground bunkers- A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are mostly underground, in contrast to blockhouses which are mostly above ground
  36. Virtues- behaviour showing high moral standards 
  37. Yajna- a ritual sacrifice with a specific objective

Chapter 11  Ancient Education System of India

 

  1. Arduous- difficult and tiring
  2. Aryabhatta- He was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. He presented a number of innovations in mathematics and astronomy in verse form, which were influential for many centuries.
  3. Autonomy- freedom to act on one’s will
  4. Brahmapuri- a type of cultural institution
  5. Charaka- one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda; The treatise that Charaka compiled is one of the foundational treatises of classical Indian medicine
  6. Chatuspadis- a learning home
  7. Conscientiously- in a thorough and responsible way
  8. Dharmasutras- (Dharma- right way of living or righteousness; sutra- sacred thread or code; Dharmastura- righteousness thread or righteousness code i.e., a guideline to live rightly in Hindu society) a book or scripture that forms the initial foundation of Hindu law, containing regulations regarding government, castes, relationships among people, economic actions, diets and religious affairs. There were many texts considered as dharmasutra, but only four survived into modern times. 
  9. Discourses- speak or write authoritatively about a topic 
  10. Gurukuls- (Guru- teacher; kula-home) a type of education system in ancient India with shiya (students) living near or with the Guru, in the same house  
  11. Heritage- something that is handed down from the past, as a tradition
  12. Holistic- characterized by the belief that the parts of something are intimately interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole
  13. Humility- the quality of having a modest or low view of one’s importance
  14. Imbibing- to take or receive into the mind, as knowledge, ideas  
  15. Indigenous- original or occurring naturally in a particular place; native 
  16. I-Qing- he was a Tang-era Chinese Buddhist monk famed as a traveller and translator. His account of his travels is an important source for the history of the medieval kingdoms
  17. Jain Basadis- a place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism
  18. Jataka tales- The Jatakas are an important part of Buddhist art and literature. They describe the previous existences or births of the Buddha (the Enlightened One) when he appeared as Bodhisattvas (beings who are yet to attain enlightenment or moksha), in both human and non-human forms.
  19. Katyayana- a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India 
  20. Land of wonder- an actual place or scene of great or strange beauty 
  21. Madrassas- Madrasa is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether for elementary instruction or higher learning
  22. Maktabas- library
  23. Mathas- a Sanskrit word that means “institute or college” and it also refers to a monastery in Hinduism
  24. Panini- Panini was an ancient Sanskrit philologist (the study of language in oral and written historical sources), grammarian and a revered scholar in Ancient India. He was considered as “the father of linguistics”.
  25. Patanjali- Patanjali was a sage (rishis; holy figure) in India thought to be the author of number of Sanskrit works
  26. Pathshalas- a village school offering a rudimentary education
  27. Pious- devoutly religious
  28. Pragmatic- dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations; practical
  29. Pre-colonial period-the period of time before colonization of a region or territory
  30. Rigveda- The Rigveda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is one of the four sacred canonical  texts of Hinduism known as Vedas. Rigvedic period – 1500BC-1000BC  
  31. Sacred- connected with God or a god or dedicated to a religious purpose and so deserving veneration 
  32. Sages- someone who has attained wisdom
  33. Salient- most noticeable or important
  34. Statecraft- the skillful management of state affairs; statesmanship or the skill of governing a country
  35. Summon- to officially arrange a meeting of people
  36. Sushruta- an ancient Indian physician described as the “father of surgery”
  37. Tenets- the main principles of a religion or philosophy
  38. Treatises- a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject
  39. University- Institution of higher education 
  40. Upanishads- each of a series of Hindu sacred treatises written in Sanskrit c. 800–200 BC, expounding the Vedas in predominantly mystical and monistic terms.
  41. Vedas- The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. There are four Vedas: the RIgveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda 
  42. Viharas- Buddhist monastery
  43. Xuan Zang- Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who traveled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty