Class XI NCERT Snapshots Book Chapter Wise difficult word meanings 

Here, the difficult words and their meanings of all the Chapters of CBSE Class 11 English Snapshots Book have been compiled for the convenience of the students. This is an exhaustive list of the difficult words and meanings of all the Chapters from the Snapshots book for CBSE NCERT Class 11 English. The difficult words’ meanings have been explained in an easy language so that every student can understand easily.



Chapter 1 The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse

  1. Alfalfa – a flowering plant
  2. Armenian – official language of Armenia branch
  3. Capricious – inconsistent change of mood
  4. City Dweller – a person who lives in a city
  5. Comical – funny
  6. Consequently – as a result
  7. Dawned – appeared
  8. Daybreak – dawn
  9. Descendant – a system that develops from an earlier simple version
  10. Enormous – huge
  11. Fury – anger
  12. Garoghlanian – an Armenian tribe
  13. Irrigation ditches – manmade channel used to deliver water to homes, industries and other uses
  14. Leap out – jump out from a place
  15. Longings – an aching desire
  16. Magnificence – extremely beautiful
  17. Orchards – a piece of land of the plantation of fruits
  18. Parlour – a sitting space in a house
  19. Pious – religious
  20. Reared – raised
  21. San Joaquin Valley – one of the long interior valleys of California
  22. Snorted – breathed out
  23. Streak – race
  24. Surrey – a country in South-East England
  25. Trot – proceed with something
  26. Vagrant – a person without a settled home or work
  27. Vazire – a name
  28. Vineyard – plantation of grapevines used in winemaking



Chapter 2 The Address

  1. Acquaintance – stranger or social contact
  2. Beckoned – signaled
  3. Chink – narrow opening
  4. Crick – cramp or spasm in muscles
  5. Cumbersome – unmanageable
  6. Enamel – an opaque or semi-transparent substance that is a type of glass
  7. Endured – suffered
  8. Fleetingly – for a short time
  9. Hanukkah – The Feast of Lights, a Hebrew festival in December
  10. Jamb – side post of a window, fireplace or doorway
  11. Jingling – ringing
  12. Liberation – Liberty or Freeing
  13. Lugging – carry a heavy object with great effort
  14. Midst – middle
  15. Muggy – humid
  16. Musty – stale
  17. Pewter plate – plate made of a gray alloy of tin
  18. Pityingly – feeling sorrow
  19. Reprovingly – critically
  20. Vain – hopeless



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Chapter 3 Ranga’s Marriage

  1. Annayya- (in Kannada) a respectful term for an elder
  2. Bharatvarsha- India
  3. Brahmarandhra- (in Kannada) the soft part in a child’s head where skull bones join later. Here, used as an idiomatic expression to convey the extreme potency of sourness. In Sanskrit, “Brahmarandhra” means the hole of Brahman. It is the dwelling house of the human soul. Behold- see or observe (someone or something, especially of remarkable or impressive nature)
  4. Cartographer- a person who draws or produces maps
  5. Considerate- thoughtful, concerned
  6. Cowries- a marine mollusc which has a glossy, brightly patterned domed shell with a long, narrow opening
  7. Flea-pestered dog- A flea- pestered dog does not stick to one place but keeps roaming everywhere.Flea-pestered means being infested by fleas and ticks which can cause uncontrollable itching in animals
  8. Girija- female (here)
  9. Harikatha- Story of Lord 
  10. Janewara- (in Kannada) the sacred thread worn by Brahmins
  11. Kalyana- beautiful, lovely, auspicious in Sanskrit
  12. Karigadabu- a South Indian fried sweet filled with coconut and sugar
  13. Like a flock of sheep- a group of people behaving in the same way or following what others are doing
  14. Madhavacharya- an exponent of Vedantic philosophy from South India
  15. Marvellous- causing great wonder; extraordinary
  16. Palmyra- palm tree
  17. Paraphernalia- trappings associated with a particular institution or activity that are regarded as superfluous
  18. Rambling- (of writing or speech) lengthy and confused or inconsequential
  19. Rare breed- a person or thing with characteristics that are uncommon among their kind; a rarity
  20. Sahib- a polite title or form of address for a man
  21. Shrivelled- shrunken and wrinkled; especially as a result of loss of moisture
  22. Threshold- a strip of wood or stone forming the bottom of a doorway and crossed in entering a house or a room
  23. Troupe- a group of dancers, actors or other entertainers who tour to different venues
  24. Tutored- taught
  25. Vijaya- Victory
  26. Vivaha- Marriage



Chapter 4 Albert Einstein at School

  1. Biographer- a person who writes an account of someone else 
  2. Expelled- officially make someone leave a school or any other organisation
  3. Expulsion- the action of forcing someone to leave an organisation
  4. Howling- making a howling sound
  5. Lodgings- temporary accommodation or a room rented out to someone, usually in the same residence as the owner  
  6. Mincing words- to speak vaguely or indirectly
  7. Miserable- unhappy
  8. Rebellion- the action or process of resisting authority, control or convention
  9. Squalor- the state of being extremely dirty and unpleasant, especially as a result of poverty and neglect
  10. Stalked out- to leave (some place) in a haughty, stiff or threatening manner
  11. Wailing- crying with pain or anger



Chapter 5 Mother’s Day

  1. Aghast- filled with horror or shock
  2. Astounded- shock or greatly surprise
  3. At sixes and sevens- in a state of total confusion and disarray
  4. Barmy- mad; crazy
  5. Beckons- making a gesture with the hand, arm or head to encourage or instruct someone to approach or follow
  6. Bewildered- perplexed and confused; very puzzled
  7. Briskly- in an active, quick or energetic way
  8. Chuckling- laugh quietly or inwardly
  9. Clot- a foolish or clumsy person
  10. Complacently- showing smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one’s achievements
  11. Concussion- a violent shock as from a heavy blow
  12. Contempt- the feeling that a person or a thing is worthless or beneath consideration
  13. Cracking- fast 
  14. Dubiously- with hesitation or doubt
  15. Eating out of your hand- be submissive
  16. Far-fetched- unlikely and unconvincing; implausible
  17. Fathead- a stupid person
  18. Flustered- agitated or confused
  19. Fluttering- trembling
  20. Glowering- have an angry look on one’s face
  21. Glumly- moody or unsociable attitude
  22. Grimly- bitter, hard manner
  23. Guffaw- a loud and hearty laugh
  24. Hastily- with excessive speed or urgency; speedily 
  25. Incisive- intelligently analytical and clear thinking
  26. Indignantly- in a manner indicating anger or annoyance at something perceived as unfair 
  27. Laconic- using very few words
  28. Nasty- very bad or unpleasant
  29. Piecan- referring a foolish person
  30. Pompous- affectedly grand, solemn, or self-important
  31. Resent- feel bitterness or indignation at a circumstance, action or person
  32. Rummy- a card game
  33. Settee- long upholstered seat for more than one person, typically with a back and arms
  34. Sinister- giving the impression that something harmful or evil is happening or will happen
  35. Snooker- a game played with cues on a billiard table in which the players use a cue ball (white) to pocket the other balls (fifteen red and six coloured) in a set order
  36. Solemn- formal and dignified; characterized by deep sincerity
  37. Staggered- astonish or deeply shock
  38. Stout- a kind of strong, dark beer brewed with roasted malt or barley
  39. Sulkily- a disagreeable mood
  40. Thoughtless- (of a person or their behaviour) not showing consideration for the needs of other people
  41. Tiddly- slightly drunk
  42. Ushering- showing or guide someone somewhere



Chapter 6 The Ghat of the Only World

  1. Abiding- a memory lasting a long time; enduring 
  2. Accoutrements- other things that were needed for the activity
  3. Anguished- experiencing or expressing severe mental or physical pain or suffering
  4. Assiduous- taking great care that everything is done as well as it can be
  5. At odds- in conflict or at variance
  6. Brimming- be full of a particular quality, feeling, etc
  7. Buckled- bend and give way under pressure or strain
  8. Calcutta- Kolkata
  9. Cavernous- vast; huge; large; spacious
  10. Conceive- form a plan or idea in the mind
  11. Conviviality- the quality of being friendly and lively
  12. Dour- unfriendly
  13. Ecumenical- involving or uniting members of different religions 
  14. Envoy- a messenger or representative, especially one on a diplomatic mission
  15. Exactitude- the quality of being very accurate and careful
  16. Fanaticism- the quality of being fanatical; extremism
  17. Feigned – simulated or pretended; insincere
  18. Feudal system- Under this system, a peasant or worker received a piece of land in return for serving a lord or king
  19. Fixture- set firmly in place
  20. Foyer- an entrance hall or other open area in a building used by the public
  21. Frosty- freezing; very cold
  22. Gregariousness- fond of the company of others; sociable
  23. Groggier- dazed, weak or unsteady, especially from illness, intoxication, sleep or a blow
  24. Heeng- asafoetida; a staple ingredient used in Indian cooking 
  25. Impede- delay or prevent something by obstructing it; hinder
  26. Imperative- giving an authoritative command
  27. Inextricably- in a way that is impossible to separate 
  28. Innocuous- not harmful or offensive
  29. Jocularity- said or done as a joke
  30. Lorca- Garcia Lorca is Spain’s most deeply appreciated and highly revered poet and dramatist
  31. Lucid- understandable
  32. Malignant- uncontrollable; dangerousBereavement- loss; deprivation; grief; sorrow
  33. Metrical- relating to or composed in poetic metre
  34. Minaret- a slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer
  35. Mos-lem- Muslim
  36. Mundane- lacking interest or excitement; dull 
  37. Mundane- lacking interest or excitement; dull 
  38. Nationalist- a person who strongly identifies with their own nation and vigorously supports its interests, especially to the exclusion or detriment of the interests of other nations. 
  39. Poignance- the quality of evoking a keen sense of sadness
  40. Preambles- a preliminary or preparatory statement; an introduction
  41. Prefigured- be an early indication or version of (something)
  42. Prefigured- be an early indication or version of something
  43. Prowess- skill or expertise in a particular activity or field 
  44. Quizzical- indicating mild or amused puzzlement
  45. Rapture- a feeling of intense pleasure or joy; ecstasy; bliss
  46. Repartee- conversation or speech characterised by quick witty, comments or replies
  47. Sorcerer- a person who claims or is believed to have magical powers; wizard
  48. Subdued- quiet and rather reflective or depressed 
  49. Sutures- a stitch or row of stitches holding together the edges of a wound or surgical incision
  50. Swoon- be overcome with admiration, adoration or other strong emotion
  51. To speak in a bardic register- A poetic style
  52. Transmute- change in form, nature or substance 
  53. Transmute- change in form, nature or substance 
  54. Trivial- of little value or importance 
  55. Unmitigated- absolute; unqualified
  56. Voyage- a long journey involving travel by sea or in space
  57. Wildean- relating to or characteristic of Oscar Wilde or his works, especially in being witty and epigrammatic



Chapter 7 Birth

  1. Asphyxia- a condition arising when the body is deprived of oxygen, causing unconsciousness or death; suffocation
  2. Awful – very 
  3. Bach- used as a term of endearment, often after a personal name
  4. Blind- a screen for a window, especially one on a roller or made of slats
  5. Broodingly- preoccupied with depressing, morbid, or painful memories or thoughts
  6. Burly- (a person) large and strong; heavily built
  7. Cinder- a small piece of partly burnt coal or wood that has stopped giving off flames but still has combustible matter in it 
  8. Consternation- a feeling of anxiety or dismay, typically at something unexcited
  9. Convulsive- violent; uncontrollable
  10. Dismal- causing a mood of gloom or depression
  11. Draggled- dirty or wet, typically from being trailed through mud or water
  12. Driller- someone who works at the drilling controls on the rig floor
  13. Ebbing- (of an emotion or quality) gradually decrease
  14. Ether- used as an anaesthetic
  15. Ewer- a large jug with a wide mouth, formerly used for carrying water
  16. Faltered- lose strength or momentum
  17. Flaccid- lifeless
  18. Frantic- conducted in a hurried, excited, and disorganized way
  19. Fret- be constantly or visibly anxious; worry
  20. Giddy- weak
  21. Haggard- looking exhausted and unwell, especially from fatigue, worry, or suffering
  22. Haste- excessive speed or urgency of movement or action; hurry
  23. Hastily- with excessive speed or urgency; hurriedly
  24. Heave- produce a sigh
  25. Hypodermic- relating to the region immediately beneath the skin
  26. Idyllic- like an idyll; extremely happy, peaceful, or picturesque
  27. Iridescent- showing luminous colours that seem to change when seen from different angles
  28. Lethargy- lack of energy and enthusiasm
  29. Lolled- hang loosely
  30. Midwife- a person, typically a woman, who is trained to assist women in childbirth
  31. Morbidly- (with reference to a disturbing or unpleasant interest or activity) in an abnormal and unhealthy manner
  32. Muddled- not arranged in order; untidy
  33. Overwrought- in a state of anxiety; tired
  34. Pallid- (of a person’s face) pale, typically because of poor health
  35. Pallida – suffocation or unconscious condition caused by lack of oxygen and excess of carbon dioxide in the blood, accompanied by paleness of the skin, weak pulse, and loss of reflexes
  36. Pigmy- little (here)
  37. Plunging- falling steeply
  38. Probing- inquiring closely 
  39. Queer- strange; odd
  40. Resentful- feeling or expressing bitterness or indignation at having been treated unfairly
  41. Resuscitate- revive someone from the unconsciousness 
  42. Rustle- make a soft, muffled crackling sound 
  43. Scullery- a small kitchen or room at the back of a house used for washing dishes and other dirty household work
  44. Shrewish- (of a woman) bad-tempered or aggressively assertive
  45. Slashed- slit
  46. Smiled faintly- smiling with less energy or a smile that lacks spirit 
  47. Snatch- manage to take (here)
  48. Sodden- saturated with liquid, especially water; soaked through 
  49. Sopping- saturated with liquid; wet through
  50. Sordidly- meanly selfish, self-seeking
  51. Stark- complete
  52. Stout- (of a person) rather fat or heavy build
  53. Stumbling- tripping or losing balance while walking; moving with difficulty
  54. Surgery- a place where a doctor, dentist or other medical practitioner treats or advises patients
  55. Tallow- the hard fat of animals melted and used to make soap, candles etc.
  56. Unavailing- achieving little
  57. Unsparingly- generous
  58. Whimpered- say something in a low, feeble voice that expresses fear, pain, or unhappiness
  59. Wince- make a slight involuntary grimace or shrinking movement of the body out of pain or distress
  60. Ye- an old written form of the word ‘the’



Chapter 8 The Tale of Melon City

  1. Against the Crown- questioning the power, integrity and honesty of the state
  2. Amendments- a minor change or addition designed to improve something
  3. Arch- a curved symmetrical structure spanning an opening and typically supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, or wall above it.
  4. Architect- a person who designs buildings and in many cases also supervises their construction
  5. Counsel- advice, especially that given formally
  6. Customary- according to the customs or usual practices associated with a particular society, place, or set of circumstances
  7. Decree- an official order that has the force of law
  8. Edify- instruct or improve (someone) morally or intellectually
  9. Frown- a facial expression indicating disapproval, displeasure, or concentration, characterized by a furrowing of one’s brows.
  10. Gallows- a structure, typically of two uprights and a crosspiece, for the hanging of criminals
  11. Halt- bring or come to an abrupt stop
  12. Heralds- an official employed to oversee state ceremonial, precedence, and the use of armorial bearings, and (historically) to make proclamations, carry official messages, and oversee tournaments
  13. Just- based on or behaving according to what is morally right and fair
  14. Laissez faire- the policy of leaving things to take their own course, without interfering
  15. Masons- a person skilled in cutting, dressing, and laying stone in buildings
  16. Mused- say to oneself in a thoughtful manner
  17. Noose- a loop with a running knot, tightening as the rope or wire is pulled and used to trap animals or hang people 
  18. Ordain- order (something) officially
  19. Placid- calm
  20. Pondered- think about (something) carefully, especially before making a decision or reaching a conclusion 
  21. Proclaim- announce officially or publicly
  22. Proclaimed- announce officially or publicly. 
  23. Quavering- (of a person’s voice) shake or tremble in speaking, typically through nervousness or emotion
  24. Quivering- trembling or shaking with a slight rapid motion
  25. Rejoice- feel or show great joy or delight
  26. Reverently- with deep and solemn respect 
  27. Saw red- became angry
  28. Scaffold- a raised wooden platform used formerly for the public execution of criminals. 
  29. Span- Celebrating or commemorating a victory
  30. Spectators- onlookers
  31. Summon- order someone to be present
  32. Thoroughfare- a main road in a town
  33. Triumphally- Celebrating or commemorating a victory
  34. Unruly- disorderly and disruptive and not amenable to discipline or control



score full marks class 11

score full marks class 11