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Note Making and Summarising Format, Example

note making summarising format

By: Ruchika Gupta

 

Note Making and Summarising | Class 11, 12 English Reading Section Topic

What is note making and summarising?

Note making and summarising is a crucial skill that helps us in academics. The function of notes is to filter the important information and help us retain it. It also makes it easier for us to refer to the important points in future. 

In CBSE, the note-making and summarising question consists of two parts. First, students are asked to prepare notes from the given passage which they are required to convert into a summary in the second part of the question.

Importance- Note making & summarising

  • It transforms the entire set of information into a manageable size.
  • It includes the key points which make it more readable.
  • It helps in better understanding of the concept.
  • It aids quick revision during exam time.

 

Related - Learn English Grammar


Marking scheme- Note making & summarising

As prescribed by the CBSE, the word limit for note-making and summarization for classes 11 and 12 should be 200-250 words.

The question is a total of 8 marks with the following bifurcation:

 

  1. Note Making

5 Marks

  • Title

1 Mark

  • Numbering and indenting

1 Mark

  • Key/ Glossary

1 Mark

  • Notes

2 Marks

  1. Summarizing (up to 50 words)

3 Marks

  • Content

2 Marks

  • Expression

1 Mark

TOTAL

8 Marks

 

Format- Note making & summarising

 

(Title)
Notes. Format example-


1.

1.1 (sub-points)
1.2
1.3

2.

2.1
2.2
2.3

3.

3.1
3.2

   3.2.1 (sub-sub points)
   3.2.2

4.

4.1      
4.2

 

Key to Abbreviations
1
2
3
4
5

 

Summary

Summary
(Heading)

--Body--

 

           

Points to remember- Note making & summarising

  • Select only the relevant data and include only the essential phrases from the passage.
  • Try to use a minimum amount of words. Complete sentences would not be accepted as notes. Thus, the usage of full sentences must be avoided.
  • Only really important examples need to be included.
  • Eliminate the use of auxiliary verbs, prepositions etc.
  • It is necessary to give a suitable title to notes and maintain proper indentation.
  • It is mandatory to make at least four headings and subheadings.
  • The summary should be brief and should be made using notes prepared. It is important that one keeps in mind the word limit of the summary and strictly adheres to the notes.
  • It is mandatory to include at least four abbreviations in your notes. Add a full stop after each abbreviation to make it clear for the reader. They should be common and easily identifiable. For example- “carbs.” for carbohydrates
  • It is necessary to prepare a key to abbreviations (minimum four) and enclose it within a box.
  • The presentation of this writing skill is of utmost importance.

Examples- Note making & summarising

 

Example 1: Read the passage given below:(Sample Question Paper CBSE, 2019-20)

BALANCING THE SCALES

Artificial intelligence (AI) is making a difference to how legal work is done, but it isn’t the threat it is made out to be. AI is making impressive progress and shaking up things all over the world today. The assumption that advancements in technology and artificial intelligence will render any profession defunct is just that, an assumption and a false one. The only purpose this assumption serves is creating mass panic and hostility towards embracing technology that is meant to make our lives easier.

Let us understand what this means explicitly for the legal world. The ambit of AI includes recognizing human speech and objects, making decisions based on data, and translating languages. Tasks that can be defined as ‘search-and-find’ type can be performed by AI.

Introducing AI to this profession will primarily be for the purpose of automating mundane, tedious tasks that require negligible human intelligence. The kind of artificial intelligence that is employed by industries in the current scene, when extended to the law will enable quicker services at a lower price. AI is meant to automate a number of tasks that take up precious working hours lawyers could be devoted to tasks that require discerning, empathy, and trust- qualities that cannot be replicated by even the most sophisticated form of AI. The legal profession is one of the oldest professions in the world. Thriving over 1000 years; trust, judgement, and diligence are the pillars of this profession. The most important pillar is the relationship of trust between a lawyer and clients, which can only be achieved through human connection and interaction.

While artificial intelligence can be useful in scanning and organizing documents pertaining to a case, it cannot perform higher-level tasks such as sharp decisionmaking, relationship-building with valuable clients and writing legal briefs, advising clients, and appearing in court. These are over and above the realm of computerization.

The smooth proceeding of a case is not possible without sound legal research. While presenting cases lawyers need to assimilate information in the form of legal research by referring to a number of relevant cases to find those that will favour their client’s motion. Lawyers are even required to thoroughly know the opposing stand and supporting legal arguments they can expect to prepare a watertight defence strategy. AI, software that operates on natural language enables electronic discovery of information relevant to a case, contract reviews, and automation generation of legal documents.

AI utilizes big-data analytics which enables visualization of case data. It also allows for creation of a map of the cases which were cited in previous cases and their resulting verdicts, as per the website Towards Data Science. The probability of a positive outcome of a case can be predicted by leveraging predictive analytics with machine learning. This is advantageous to firms as they can determine the return on investment in litigation and whether an agreement or arbitration should be considered.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary- minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 1:
Suggested Notes by CBSE
 Artificial Intelligence: Not a threat

1. Not a threat

   1.1 is of help
   1.2 makes life easier
   1.3 no profession defunct

2. AI.will help legal field

   2.1 recog.human speech and object
   2.2 making decisions based on data
   2.3 translates langs.
   2.4 do search and find tasks

3. AI. cannot perform high level tasks like

   3.1 writing legal briefs
   3.2 advising clients
   3.3 apprng in courts
   3.4 sharp decision making

4. Function of AI.


   4.1 collates data
   4.2 predicts probable outcomes
   4.3 tells return on invest.
   4.4 considering agreement or arbitration

Key to Abbreviations



Abbreviations

Words

AI

Artificial Intelligence

recog.

recognises

langs.

languages

apprng.

appearing

invt.

investment

 

Suggested Summary as per CBSE

 

Summary

 Artificial Intelligence: Not a threat

Artificial Intelligence is not a threat but makes life easier especially in the legal field. It cannot perform certain high-level tasks like writing legal briefs, advising clients, making sharp decisions and appearing in courts but it can collate data, aid research and decisions based on data. It can recognize human speech and translate languages. It can also predict probable outcomes, tell return on investment, consider agreement or arbitration and is thus advantageous to legal firms.

 

Example 2: Read the passage given below: (Sample Question Paper CBSE, 2017-18)

1. Colour Therapy is a complementary therapy for which there is evidence dating back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of Egypt, China and India. If we define it in simple terms, Colour is a light of varying wavelengths, thus each colour has its own particular wavelength and energy.

2. Colours contribute to energy. This energy may be motivational and encouraging. Each of the seven colours of the spectrum are associated with energy. The energy relating to each of the seven spectrum colours of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, resonates with the energy of each of the seven main chakras/energy centres of the body. Colour therapy can help to re-balance and/or stimulate these energies by applying the appropriate colour to the body.

3. Red relates to the base chakra, orange the sacral chakra, yellow the solar plexus chakra, green the heart chakra, blue the throat chakra, indigo the brow chakra (sometimes referred to as the third eye) and violet relates to the crown chakra.

4. Colour is absorbed by the eyes, skin, skull, our ‘magnetic energy field’ or aura and the energy of colour affects us on all levels, that is to say, physical, spiritual and emotional. Every cell in the body needs light energy - thus colour energy has widespread effects on the whole body. There are many different ways of giving colour, including; Solarised Water, Light boxes/lamps with colour filters, colour silks and hands on healing using colour.

5. Colour therapy can be shown to help on a physical level, which is perhaps easier to quantify, however there are deeper issues around the colours on the psychological and spiritual levels. Our wellbeing is not, of course, purely a physical issue. Fortunately, many more practitioners, both orthodox and complementary, are now treating patients in a holistic manner.

6. Colour Therapy is a totally holistic and non-invasive therapy and, really, colour should be a part of our everyday life, not just something we experience for an hour or two with a therapist. Colour is all around us everywhere. This wonderful planet does not contain all the beautiful colours of the rainbow for no reason. Nothing on this earth is here just by chance; everything in nature is here for a purpose. Colour is no exception. All we need to do is to heighten our awareness of the energy of colour, absorb it and see how it can transform our lives.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 2:
Suggested Notes as per CBSE
Colour Therapy

1. Age old therapy


   1.1 Found in
   1.1.1 Egypt
   1.1.2 China
   1.1.3 India


1.2 light of vryng wvlngth & energy


2. Colour relate to energy of chakras


   2.1 red –base
   2.2 orange – sacral
   2.3 yellow – solar plexus
   2.4 green – heart
   2.5 blue – throat
   2.6 indigo – brow
   2.7 violet – crown

3. Holistic benefits


   3.1 phy’l
   3.2 spirit’l
   3.3 emtn’l

Key to Abbreviations


Abbreviations

Words

vryng

varying

wvlngth

wavelength

&

and

phy’l

physical

spirit’l

spiritual

emtin’l

emotional

Summary
Colour Therapy

Colour therapy is an age-old therapy found in the cultures of Egypt, China and India. Each colour has light of varying wavelength and energy. Colours relate to the energy of chakras. Red is for base chakra, orange to sacral, yellow to solar plexus, green to heart, blue to throat, indigo to brow and violet to crown. Colour impacts us on all levels, including the physical, spiritual and emotional well being. Colour therapy has holistic benefits.

Example 3: . Read the passage and answer the questions given below: (Sample Question Paper CBSE, 2018-19)

1. There is a clear dichotomy between Jayashankar Prasad’s daily life and the one that found expression in his literature. In his literary formulations, Prasad advocated an escape- from personality ideals and categorically stated: “An artist‟s art, and not his person, is the touchstone to assess his work . . . it is only after losing his personality that he emerges in his art as an artist”.

2. In Prasad‟s works – his poems, short stories, novels, dramas etc. – what emerges is life as shaped in the writer’s inner self by his emotions, fancies, dreams, reveries . . . His writings are a record not of outer reality, but of the artist’s inner world. As such, of a proper appreciation and understanding of his works more emphasis needs to be placed on the working of his mind, than the events of his dayto-day life.

3. Prasad was born in a renowned family of Varanasi. His grand-father Shiv RatanSahu, a dealer in high quality perfumed tobacco (snuff). Besides being an astute businessman, he was endowed with a marked cultural taste. His home was the meeting place of the local poets, singers, artists, scholars and men of religion. Prasad‟s father Devi Prasad Sahu carried forward this high tradition of family. Prasad, therefore, had a chance to study the various phases of human nature in the light of the business traditions, artistic taste and religious background of his family.

4. When the business had somewhat recovered, Prasad planned the publication of a literary journal. Prasad started the “Indu”. The inaugural number appeared in July 1909. By this time Prasad’s notions of literature had crystallized into a credo. In the first issue of Indu, he proclaimed, “Literature has no fixed aim; it is not a slave to rules; it is a free and all-embracing genius, gives birth to genuine literature which is subservient to none. Whatever in the world is true and beautiful is its subject matter. By dealing with the True and Beautiful it establishes the one and affects the full flowering of the others. Its force can be measured by the degree of pleasure it gives to the reader‟s mind as also by the criticism which is free of all prejudice”. The words sound like the manifesto of romanticism in literature.

5. Even while recognizing the social relevance of literature, Prasad insisted, “The poet is a creator . . . he is not conditioned by his milieu; rather it is he who moulds it and gives it a new shape; he conjures up a new world of beauty where the reader for the time being, becomes oblivious of the outer world and passes his time in an eternal spring garden where golden lotuses blossom and the air is thick and pollen”. Thus, the chief aim of literature according to Prasad is to give joy to

the reader and to create a state of bliss in him. Later under the impact of Shiv Advaitism, this faith of Prasad got further strengthened.
(Extract from ‘Jayashankar Prasad- His mind and Art’ by Dr. Nagendra)

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 3: Suggested Notes as per CBSE
Jayashankar Prasad- His life


1. His exprsn. in lit.
  1.1 an escape
  1.2 lose your personality
  1.3 record of writer’s inner world
  1.4 more emphsz. on mind than body


2. Personal life
   2.1 renowned fam. of Varanasi
   2.2 home- meeting place of the local poets, singers
   2.3 grand-father- an astute businessman
   2.4 had a chance to study phases of human nature


3. Started the “Indu”
   3.1 in July 1909
   3.2 proclaimed


a) lit. has no fixed aim
b) is free and all embracing genius
c) gives birth to genuine lit.


4. Social relevance of lit.
   4.1 poet is a creator
   4.2 moulds it
   4.3 conjures up a new world of beauty
   4.4 becomes oblivious of the outer world


5. Chief aim of lit.
   5.1 give joy to the reader
   5.2 create a state of bliss

Key to Abbreviations


Abbreviations

Words

lit.

literature

emphsz.

emphasize

exprsn.

expression

fam.

family

Summary
Jayashankar Prasad- His life


Jayshankar Prasad found expression in literature and created an escape only after losing his personality. His writings are a record of the writer's inner world with more emphasis on mind than body. He was from a renowned family of Varanasi where home-meetings of poets and singers would take place. His grandfather was an astute businessman and therefore Prasad had a chance to study phases of human nature. In July 1909, he started ‘Indu’, in which he proclaimed that literature has no fixed aim, is free and all embracing genius and gives birth to genuine literature. He recognised the social relevance of literature as the poet is the creator who mould it, conjures up a new world and becomes oblivious to the outer world. The chief aim of literature is to give joy to the reader and create a state of bliss.

 

Example 4: Read the following passage: (Question Paper CBSE, 2020)

1. How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world; there are high quality programmes that help us understand many fields of study, science, medicine, the different arts and so on. Moreover, television benefits very old people, who can’t leave the house, as well as patients in hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily informal language practice. They can increase their vocabulary and practise listening.

2. On the other hand, there are several serious disadvantages of television. Of course, it provides us with a pleasant way to relax and spend our free time, but in some countries people watch television for an average of six hours or more a day. Many children stare at the TV screen for more hours a day than they spend on anything else, including studying and sleeping. It’s clear that TV has a powerful influence on their lives and that its influence is often negative.

3. Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of television viewing, a person’s brain ‘relaxes’ the same way that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television on the human brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration. Children who view a lot of television can often concentrate on a subject for only fifteen to twenty minutes. They can pay attention only for the amount of time between commercials.

4. Another disadvantage is that television often causes people to become dissatisfied with their own lives. Real life does not seem so exciting to these people. To many people, television becomes more real than reality and their own lives seem boring. Also many people get upset or depressed when they can’t solve problems in real life as quickly as television actors seem to.

5. Before a child is fourteen years old, he or she views eleven thousand murders on the TV. He or she begins to believe that there is nothing strange about fights, killings and other kinds of violence. Many studies show that people become more violent after viewing certain programmes. They may even do the things that they see in a violent show.

(a) One the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Supply a suitable title to it. (5)
(b) Make a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 4:
Suggested Notes as per CBSE

Advantages and Disadvantages of Watching Television


1. Benefits
  1.1 increases know.
   1.1.1 of outside world
   1.1.2 science
   1.1.3 medicine
   1.1.4 diff. Arts

  1.2 recreation for old ppl. & patients
  1.3 informal lang. practice
  1.4 increases vocab. & helps practise listening


2. Disadvantages
  2.1 ppl. watch for 6 hrs. or more
  2.2 students stare at screen for hrs.
  2.3 negative influence
  2.4 effect on human brain
   2.4.1 poor conc.


3. Impact
  3.1 feels life not very exciting
  3.2 TV more real, life seems boring
  3.3 depression when can’t solve problems


4. Violence shown on TV
  4.1 children become violent
  4.2 killings seem normal

Key to Abbreviations



Abbreviations

Words

ppl.

people

know.

knowledge

&

and

diff.

different

vocab.

vocabulary

lang.

language

hrs.

hours

conc.

concentration

TV

television

 

Summary
Advantages and Disadvantages of Watching Television

Watching television increases knowledge of the outside world, science, medicine and different arts. It helps old people and patients to recreate. It assists in informal language practice, improving vocabulary and practise listening. However, watching television for more than six hours and staring on screens has a negative influence on students. It affects the human brain and leads to poor concentration. Television makes life boring and nothing feels exciting. People can feel depressed when they are unable to solve problems as quickly as actors do. Television normalises violence which can make children violent. 

Example 5: Read the passage given below: (Question Paper, CBSE 2019)

1. Well-being is not just the absence of disease or illness. It is a complex combination of a person’s physical, mental, emotional and social health factors. Well-being is strongly linked to happiness and life satisfaction. In short, it could be described as how one feels about oneself and one’s life. Every aspect of one’s life influences the state of one’s well-being. Researchers investigating happiness have found the following factors which enhance a person’s well-being : network of close friends, enjoyable and fulfilling career, enough money, regular exercise, nutritious diet, sufficient sleep, fun hobbies and leisure pursuits, healthy self-esteem, optimistic outlook and so on.

2. The factors that influence one’s well-being are interrelated. For example, a job provides not just money but purpose, goals, friendships and a sense of belonging. Some factors also make up for the lack of others; for example, a good marriage can compensate for a lack of friendship, while religious beliefs may help a person to accept physical illness. Money is linked to well-being, because having enough money improves living conditions and increases social status. But various international studies have shown that it is the quality of our personal relationships, not the size of our bank balance, which has the greatest effect on our state of well-being. Believing that money is the key to happiness can also harm a person’s well-being.

3. Understanding the well-being of the population is very important. Measuring well-being, however, in a population is difficult because the interpretation of well-being is so subjective — how one feels about peoples’ lives largely depends on the way one sees it. Like the saying goes: ‘one person’s problem is another person’s challenge.’

4. Keeping track of a population’s well-being helps governments to decide on particular policies. It also acts as an indicator for various population trends. For example, knowing the average weekly income of a population helps to set the ‘poverty line’, which may then influence decisions on social welfare reforms. Well-being can be achieved through a variety of means. Some are as follows : developing and maintaining strong relationships with family and friends, making regular time available for social contact, trying to find work that is enjoyable and rewarding, rather than just working for the best pay, eating healthy, nutritious foods, doing regular physical activity, involving oneself in activities that interest the people, joining in local organisations or clubs that appeal, setting achievable goals and working towards them and trying to be optimistic and enjoying each day.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations (minimum four), wherever necessary. Use a format you consider suitable. Give it a suitable title also. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 5:
Suggested Notes by CBSE

Well Being


1. Definition of WB
  1.1 absence of disease & illness
  1.2 combination of physical, emotional & health factors
  1.3 strongly linked to happiness & satisfaction


2. factors which improve WB
  2.1 network of close friends
  2.2 enjoyable, fulfilling career
  2.3 enough money, good health
  2.4 religious beliefs


3. Imp. of understanding people’s WB
  3.1 helps govt. frame good policies
  3.2 helps determine poverty line
  3.3 helps take appropriate action


4. How best achieved
  4.1 having strong relationship with family & friends.
  4.2 enjoyable, rewarding work
  4.3 involvement in interesting activities
  4.4 nutritious food & good health

Key to Abbreviations

 


Abbreviations

Words

WB

Well being

Imp.

Importance

govt.

government

&

and

 

Summary
Well Being


Well- being not just refers to absence of disease and illness, rather it is a combination of physical, emotional and health factors. Well being is strongly linked to happiness and satisfaction. The factors that improve well being include a network of close friends, enjoyable and fulfilling career, money, good health and religious beliefs. It is important to understand people’s well being to frame government policies which would further help to determine the poverty line and take appropriate action. Well-being is best achieved by having strong relationships with family and friends, doing enjoyable and rewarding work, involvement in interesting activities and eating nutritious food for good health.

Example 6: Read the passage given below: (Question Paper CBSE, 2018)

Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene and nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.

The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission. However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and the dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant place, preferably out of sight.

The challenge of processing and treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal of the residuals in scientific landfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management than is expected from a health point of view.

One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into ‘‘waste for energy’’. If only we were to begin by not mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste (close to 60 percent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for composting and producing a gas called methane.

City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure (like cow-dung). It provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as a supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.

Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing, and the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous, use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticides. There is also evidence to suggest that horticulture crops grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.

City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free unlike farmyard manure which brings with it the seeds of undigested grasses and requires a substantial additional labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and our soils are short in this.

Farmers clearly recognize the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil, cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would be much more productive.

Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health!

The good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve a city’s problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. (3)

Solution 6:
Suggested Notes as per CBSE

Waste Management: Some Facts


1. Reasons for keeping cities clean
  1.1 to keep the residents healthy
  1.2 health depends on
   1.2.1 personal cleanliness
   1.2.2 cleanliness of city


2. Reasons for waste management
  2.1 being promoted through SBM
  2.2 to sensitize imp. of waste separation


3. Challenges of waste management
  3.1 has received less attn.
  3.2 no focus on WM for health
  3.3 biodegradable being mixed with solid waste


4. Benefits of organic manure
  4.1 supplement of chem. fertilisers.
  4.2 drought-proofing
  4.3 makes roots stronger


5. Benefits of city compost
  5.1 weed-free
  5.2 more productive fields
  5.3 chemical inputs avoided


6. Benefits of plastic roads
  6.1 withstand monsoon damage
  6.2 free lands from dumping waste

Key to Abbreviations

 


Abbreviations

Words

SBM

Swachh Bharat Mission

imp.

importance

attn.

attention

WM

waste management

chem.

chemicals

 

Summary
Waste Management: Some Facts


It is important to keep the cities clean to keep the residents healthy. Their health depends on personal cleanliness and the cleanliness of the city. It is crucial to sensitise the importance of waste separation. Waste management is promoted through Swachh Bharat Mission. Waste management is given less attention and biodegradable waste is mixed with solid waste. There is no focus on waste management for health. Organic manure acts as a supplement to chemical fertilisers, makes roots stronger and leads to drought-proofing. City compost is weed-free, avoids chemicals and leads to productive fields. Plastic rods are able to withstand monsoon and dumping is avoided.