NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World

 

Pastoralists in The Modern World – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in The Modern World Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 9 History important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (History) provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions 1 mark each)

 

Q1 The pastoral groups’ existence was maintained by

A Correct judgement of how long the herds could stay in one area, know where to find water and pasture

B Correct calculation of timing, their movements and ensuring they could move through territories

C Setting up relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q2 The social changes in Maasai society are that ___________

A although it has been altered, the traditional age gap between elders and warriors has not vanished.

B a new distinction between the wealthy and the poor pastoralists has developed

C both A and B

D none of the above

 

Ans C both A and B

 

Q3 Why were some forests classified as “protected”?

A The traditional grazing rights of pastoralists were recognised in areas, but their freedom of movement was severely constrained.

B The colonial authorities thought that grazing killed the tree saplings and young shoots that sprang from the forest floor.

C Both A and B

D None of the above

 

Ans C Both A and B

 

Q4 What aspects of the lives of Gaddi shepherds in Himachal Pradesh and Gujjar Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir are similar?

A They both have a similar cycle of seasonal movement 

B They both spend their winters on low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their herds in dry scrub forests 

C In April, they begin their upward journey again for their summer grazing grounds

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q5 Pastoralists were found in the

A plateaus

B plains

C deserts

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q6 The title Maasai derives from and two special features of this tribe are

A The word Maa in ‘Maasai’ means ‘My People’ 

B They are nomadic and pastoral, and depend on milk and meat for subsistence 

C High temperature and low rainfall have made their land dry, dusty, and extremely hot with droughts being a common feature.

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q7 On the central plateau of Maharashtra, what crop were the Dhangars sowing?

A Bajra

B Jowar

C Rice

D Wheat 

 

Ans A Bajra

 

Q8 Which of these are alpine pastoral communities?

A Gujjars

B Gaddis

C Bhotiyas and Sherpas

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q9 Where were the Banjaras found?

A Uttar Pradesh

B Punjab, Rajasthan

C Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q10 The Dhangars began moving to the west in October after harvesting their bajra. Why did the Konkani farmers welcome them?

A They married off their children in each other’s communities 

B The Dhangars brought bajra for them

C Dhangar flocks manured their fields and fed on the stubble 

D None of the above

 

Ans C Dhangar flocks manured their fields and fed on the stubble 

 

Q11 Where were the Banjaras found?

A Uttar Pradesh

B Punjab, Rajasthan

C Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q12 Since when were the ‘Wasteland Rules’ implemented in different parts of the country?

A 17th century

B early 18th century

C mid-19th century

D late 19th century

 

Ans C mid-19th century

 

Q13 Where did the community of Raikas live?

A in the deserts of Rajasthan

B Along the western coastal areas

C In the Rann of Kachchh

D In Maharashtra

 

Ans A in the deserts of Rajasthan

 

Q14 Some woods that supplied timber, including deodar and sal, were designated “Reserved” by the Forest Acts. What did that mean?

A They were reserved for the pastoralists

B No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests

C Some particular pastoral communities only were allowed access to them 

D None of the above

 

Ans B No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests

 

Q15 Why did the colonial state strive to convert every area that was used for grazing into farmland?

A Land revenue was one of the main sources of its finance

B It could produce more jute, cotton, wheat and other agricultural produce that were required in England

C Both A and B

D None of the above

 

Ans Both A and B

 

Q16 Which region are the pastoralists known as Gujjar Bakarwals from?

A Himachal Pradesh

B Jammu and Kashmir

C Bihar

D Madhya Pradesh

 

Ans B Jammu and Kashmir

 

Q17 What aspects of the pastoralists’ lives did the Forest Acts alter? 

A In the areas of forests where the pastoralists were allowed, their movements were regulated

B They needed a permit for entry

C The timing of their entry and departure was specified

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q18 The pastoralists had to pay tax on

A every animal they grazed on the pastures 

B the houses they were living in

C number of animals they had

D none of the above

 

Ans B the houses they were living in

 

Q19 In which year could the Raikas no longer move into Sindh?

A After 1871 

B In the 1880s

C In 1928

D After 1947 

 

Ans D After 1947

 

Q20 When was the right to collect the tax auctioned out to contractors?

A In 1800

B Between the 1850s and 1880s

C In 1900

D In the 1920s

 

Ans B Between the 1850s and 1880s

 

Q21 Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

A Some rich pastoralists started buying land and settling down giving up their nomadic life

B Some became settled peasants cultivating land, others took to more extensive trading

C The poor pastoralists became labourers, working on fields or in small towns

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q22 What happened when pastures were overgrazed as a result of limits on pastoral movement?

A The quality of pastures declined

B This created deterioration of animal stock

C Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcity and famine

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q23 Which of these are the pastoral communities of Africa?

A Bedouins, Berbers

B Maasai, Somali

C Boran, Turkana

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q24 In 1885, Massailand was cut into half with an international boundary between

A Kenya and Tanganyika

B Kenya and Ethiopia

C Congo and Angola 

D Angola and Botswana

 

Ans A Kenya and Tanganyika

 

Q25 Where do the Maasai cattle-herders live?

A East-Africa

B Namibia 

C Zambia

D Libya

 

Ans A East-Africa

 

Q26 Which of these statements is true?

A Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves

B Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves

C Serengeti National Park was created over 14,760 km of Maasai grazing land

D All of the above 

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q27 When did a severe drought hit the Maasai Reserve, killing more than half the animals there?

A 1900

B 1933 and 1934 more

C 1945

D 1946 and 1947

 

Ans B 1933 and 1934 more

 

Q27 What percentage of Maasais’ land was lost as a result of Maasailand’s division?

A 10% 

B 25%

C 35%

D 60%

 

Ans D 60%

 

Q28 The nomadic cattle herders of Kaokoland belonged to

A Namibia

B Zambia

C Zimbabwe

D South Africa

 

Ans A Namibia

 

Q29 What had changed about the Maasai chiefs’ status over time? 

A They had regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land.

B in times of war and famine, they lost nearly everything

C They did not have resources to tide over bad times

D Some eked out a living as charcoal burners, others did odd jobs

 

Ans A They had regular income with which they could buv animals, goods and land.

 

Q30 In pre-colonial period, the African society was divided into 

A elders and warriors

B priests and warriors

C agriculturists and industrialists

D none of the above

 

Ans A elders and warriors

 

Q31 What are Bugyals? 

A They are wastelands

B Pastures in the mountain’s foot area

C Pastures above 12000 feet high mountains 

D They are deserts

 

Ans C Pastures above 12000 feet high mountains

 

Q32 How did the British attempts to run the Maasai’s affairs negatively impact the authority of both elders and warriors?

A The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai

B These chiefs were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe

C The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q33 Which seasonal movements affect the Dhangars of Maharashtra?

A Cold and snow

B Climatic disturbance

C Drought and flood

D Alternate monsoon and dry seasons

 

Ans D Alternate monsoon and dry seasons

 

Q34 Who are Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnaris?

A Pastoral community of Africa 

B Cattle herders of Rajasthan

C Shepherd community of Maharashtra

D Pastoral communities of the Himalayas

 

Ans D Pastoral communities of the Himalayas

 

Q35 Gaddi were an important pastoral community of:

A Gujarat

B Maharashtra

C Himachal Pradesh

D Chhattisgarh

 

Ans C Himachal Pradesh

 

Q36 Which state do Gujjar Bakarwals belong to: 

A Himachal Pradesh

B Jammu and Kashmir

C Maharashtra

D Gujarat

 

Ans B Jammu and Kashmir

 

Q37 What are Dhars?

A High meadows 

B Deep valleys

C Fertile plains

D Desert land

 

Ans B Deep valleys

 

Q38 Raika pastoral community belongs to:

A Himachal Pradesh

B Rajasthan

C Jammu and Kashmir

D Maharashtra 

 

Ans B Rajasthan

 

Q39 Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another because of:

A Seasonal changes

B In search of pastures

C To maintain ecological balance

D All of the above

 

Ans B in search of pastures

 

Q40 The word Maasai means:

A my people 

B pasture land

C shifting cultivation

D wasteland

 

Ans A my people

 

Q41 Which year did the Criminal Tribes Act get passed by the colonial government in India?

A 1861

B 1869

C 1871

D 1873

 

Ans C 1871

 

Q42 Which of the following statements best explains pastoralist nomads?

A The villagers who move from one place to another

B The people who do not have a permanent place to live in 

C The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd

D The people who visit many places for enjoyment 

 

Ans C The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd

 

Q43 Which of the following is true regarding the annual movement of Dhangars?

A They stay in the Central Plateau during the monsoons

B After the monsoons are over they move towards Konkan area

C With the onset of monsoon they leave Konkan.

D All of the above 

 

Ans B After the monsoons are over they move towards the Konkan area.

 

Q44 Which group of Raikas herded camels?

A Maru 

B Gola

C Kuruma

D Kuruba 

 

Ans A Maru

 

Q45 Which of the following descriptions of pastoralist nomads is most accurate?

A The villagers who move from one place to another 

B The people who do not have a permanent place to live in

C The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd 

D The people who visit many places for enjoyment

 

Ans C The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd

 

1 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Name the regions of the cyclic movement of Kurumas and Kurubas. 

 

Ans The Kurumas and Kurubas lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In the dry season they moved near the coast and left when the rains came. 

 

Q2 Which Pastoralist nomads live in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh? 

 

Ans The pastoralist nomads who lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were: 

  1. The Gollas
  2. Kurumas and Kurubas. 

 

Q3 How did the Gaddis earn their livelihood?

 

Ans They sold milk, ghee and other products. 

 

Q4 Who are Gujjar Bakarwals? 

 

Ans Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are herders of goat and sheep. 

 

Q5 What is Bhabhar? 

 

Ans It is a dry forested area in the foothills of Garwhal and Kumaun. 

 

Q6 Who were Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris? 

 

Ans They were the pastoral communities of the Himalayas. 

 

Q7 Name the most important pastoral community of Maharashtra. 

 

Ans Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. 

 

Q8 Why did the Dhangars leave the Konkan and coastal areas before the onset of monsoon? \

 

Ans The Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas before the onset of monsoon because the sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions. 

 

Q9 What are ‘Kharif’ and ‘rabi’ crops? 

 

Ans Kharif is the autumn crop, usually harvested between September and October. Rabi, the spring crop, usually harvested after March. 

 

Q10 What is a Gujjar Mandap? 

 

Ans A Gujjar Mandap is a place where the Gujjar cattle herders live. It is made of ringal and grass. A mandap was also a workplace, where the Gujjar made ghee for the purpose of sale. 

 

Q11 Name the cattle, goat and sheep herders found in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

 

Ans The Gollas herded cattle, the Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goat and sold woven blankets. 

 

Q12 What defined the seasonal rhythms of the movement of the pastoralists in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh? 

 

Ans It was the alternation of the monsoon and dry season which defined the seasonal rhythms of the movement of pastoralists in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In the dry season they moved to the coastal areas and left when the rains came. 

 

Q13 Who are the Banjaras? Where are they found? 

 

Ans Banjaras are a well known group of graziers. They are found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. 

 

Q14 How did the Banjaras earn their living? 

 

Ans By selling plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder. 

 

Q15 Where did the Raikas live? What is their occupation?

 

Ans Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan. Harvest fluctuates every year and no crop could be grown over large areas. So the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism. 

 

Q16 Who are Maru Raikas? What is their settlement called? 

 

Ans The camel herders in the Thar desert near Jaisalmer in Rajasthan are called Maru (desert) Raikas, and their settlement is called a Dhandi. 

 

Q17 Name two places in Rajasthan where camel fairs are held. 

 

Ans The camel fairs are held at Balotra and Pushkar. 

 

Q18 What kind of forests were declared as ‘Reserved’ Forests? 

 

Ans The forests that produced commercially valuable timber like sal and deodar were declared as Reserved Forests. 

 

Q19 Where do the Maasai cattle herders live? 

 

Ans The Massai cattle herders live primarily in East Africa. 

 

Q20 What was the extent of the area of Maasailand before colonial times? 

 

Ans Before the colonial period, Maasiland extended over a vast area from north Kenya to the steppes of north Tanzania. 

 

Q21 What does the title ‘Maasai’ mean? What did they depend on for subsistence? 

 

Ans The title ‘Maasai’ is derived from the word ‘maa’. Maa-sai means ‘My People’. Maasai are nomadic and pastoral people who depend on milk and meat for subsistence. 

 

Q22 According to environmentalists and economists why are nomadic pastoralists the important communities? 

 

Ans Nomadic pastoralists are important communities because they play a major role in the conservation of forests. People get useful products like milk, ghee, wool from herders.

 

Assertion-reason based questions:

 

Q1 Assertion (A): British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. 

Reason (R): They trusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages, and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season, moving in search of good pastures for their herds. 

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false.

 

Q2 Assertion (A): In 1871, the colonial government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act. 

Reason (R ): By this Act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 

Fill in the blanks in the following:

 

Q1 __________ sold milk, ghee and other products to earn their livelihood.

 

Ans Gaddis 

 

Q2 ___________ is a dry forested area in the foothills of Garwhal and Kumaun.

 

Ans Bhabhar 

 

Q3 Gujjar Bakarwals of _____________ are herders of goat and sheep.

 

Ans Jammu and Kashmir

 

Q4 Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris were the pastoral communities of the ____________.

 

Ans Himalayas

 

Q5 ___________ were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.

 

Ans Dhangars 

 

Q6 The camel herders in the Thar desert near Jaisalmer in Rajasthan are called ___________.

 

Ans Maru Raikas 

 

Q7 The Massai cattle herders live primarily in ___________.

 

Ans East Africa 

 

Q8 The ____________ were suspicious of the nomadic people because they distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages, and pastoralists who changed their places or residence every season.

 

Ans British officials

 

Q9 __________ are vast natural pastures on the high mountains, about 12,000 feet.

 

Ans Bugyals 

 

Q10 After _________, the camel and sheep herding Raikas could no longer move into Sindh and graze their animals on the banks of Indus.

 

Ans 1947

 

Q11 Some tracts of forests were declared ___________ which meant pastoralists were denied access to these forests.

 

Ans Reserved

 

Q12 The colonial government considered all ___________ as unproductive as it neither generated revenue or agricultural produce.

 

Ans uncultivated lands or wastelands

 

Q13 In order to bring nomadic and pastoralist people under their control, the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act in _________.

 

Ans 1871

 

Q14 Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they took to grazing in the pastures. The ___________ was introduced in India by the mid-nineteenth century.

 

Ans Grazing Tax

 

Q15 ___________ are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.

 

Ans Pastoral nomads

 

2 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Why were the British officials suspicious of the nomadic people? Give one reason. 

 

Ans The British officials were suspicious of the nomadic people because they distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages, and pastoralists who changed their places or residence every season. They were considered criminals.

 

Q2 What are bugyals? 

 

Ans Bugyals are vast natural pastures on the high mountains, about 12,000 feet. After April the entire mountainside is covered with a variety of grasses, roots and herbs. By monsoon these pastures are covered with thick vegetation and wild flowers.

 

Q3 Why were the Dhangars welcomed by the Konkani peasants? 

 

Ans After the kharif crops were harvested, the field had to be fertilised for the rabi crops. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. Dhangars were also given supplies of rice which they supplied to the plateau where grain was scarce.

 

Q4 Why were the Dhangars welcomed by the Konkani peasants? 

 

Ans After the kharif crops were harvested, the field had to be fertilised for the rabi crops. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. Dhangars were also given supplies of rice which they supplied to the plateau where grain was scarce.

 

Q5 What happened to Maasailand in 1885? 

 

Ans In 1885, the colonial powers scrambled for territorial possessions. Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. The Maasai lost 60 per cent of their pre-colonial land.

 

Q6 State the measures introduced by the British to administer the affairs of the Maasai. 

 

Ans 1. They appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe. 

  1. The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare.

 

Q7 What is meant by kafila? 

 

Ans In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, the pastoralists lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as a kafila.

 

Q8 Who were Dhangars? What were their occupations? Why were they continuously on the move? 

 

Ans The Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and others were buffalo herders. They were continuously on the move in search of pasture for their cattle.

 

3 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Nomadic tribes move from one location in order to maintain their sustenance and way of life. As they are involved in animal husbandry, the availability of water is paramount to their existence along with fresh pastures for their animals. When the pasture is depleted they move to the next area looking for new grazing grounds. 

The advantages of the environment are as follows: 

  1. The environment gets a chance to regrow and recover, thus maintaining the ecological balance of the area. 
  2. It prevents overgrazing as this will lead to depletion of future grazing grounds. 
  3. The manure of the animals helps in fertilising the soil, which will be instrumental in repeating the nomadic process of moving from one location to another.

 

Q2 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans India and East Africa were under occupation by European colonial powers. There were many similarities in which both the regions were exploited by these powers 

  1. Forest laws: Various forest laws were also responsible for changing the lives of pastoralists both in India and Africa. In India, the forest was classed as reserved and protected. No pastoralist was allowed access into the reserved forest. One of the problems the Maasai people have faced is the continuous loss of their grazing lands. The colonial government increased the local peasants to expand cultivation. 
  2. Closing of borders: In Africa, Maasailand was cut into half with the International boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. The best land was taken over by the White settlers, and the locals were pushed into a small area with restricted pastures. In India, the division of the country forced the Raikas to find out the new pastures in Haryana as due to political division they were no longer allowed to go to Sindh which became a province of Pakistan. The Sindh province has become a part of Pakistan, and the herders cannot go there.

 

Q3 Explain any three factors that the pastoral groups have to consider to sustain their life.

 

Ans The three factors which the pastoral groups have to consider to sustain their life are: 

  1.  They have to judge how long the herds could stay at one place and know where they could find water and pastures. 
  2. They had to calculate the timing of their movement and had to move through different territories.
  3. They had to set up relationships with the farmers, on the way, so that herds could graze in the harvested fields and manure the soil. They combined a number of activities like cultivation, herding, and trade to sustain themselves. 

 

Q4 Explain any three different livelihood practices adopted by the pastoralists in the 20th century, as they left their traditional occupations. 

 

Ans Three livelihood practices adopted by the pastoralists in the 20th century were as follows:

  1. Richer pastoralists started buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. 
  2. Some became settled peasants cultivating land. 
  3. Others took to trading. 

 

Q5 Give one example to explain why the pastoralists have been compelled to change their movement in modern times.

 

Ans 1. The pastoralists have been compelled to change their movement in modern times. After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas could no longer move into Sindh and graze their animals on the banks of Indus. 

  1. The new political boundaries between Indian & Pakistan stopped their movement.
  2. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep could graze on agricultural land, after harvests are cut. 

 

Q6 Who are Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir? Name their winter and summer grounds. Why did they go to these places? 

OR

Describe the lifestyle of the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir. 

 

Ans 1. Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are herders of goat and sheep. They move between their winter and summer grounds. In winters when the ground is covered with snow, they live with their herds in the Siwalik range. 

  1. The herds feed on the dry scrub forests, By April, they start moving to their summer grazing grounds. After crossing the Pir Panjal passes they reach the Kashmir valley. With the onset of summer, the snow has melted, and the valley is covered with a variety of flowers and grasses. 
  2. They provide nutritious forage for the animals. By the end of September they come back to their winter homes in the Siwalik. 

 

Q7 Write about the lifestyle of the Gujjars of Kangra. 

 

Ans 1. The Gujjar cattle herders live in Garhwal and Kumaon. In the winter, they come to the dry forest of the Bhabar and go up to the high meadows-the bugyals-in summer. Gujjars are exclusively a pastoralist tribe in the hills, where they do not cultivate anything. 

  1. Buffaloes are the main wealth of the Gujjars. They live near the boundary of the forests and the mainstay of their existence is the sale of milk, ghee and other products. The men graze the cattle. 
  2. The women go to the markets every morning, with little earthen pots filled with milk, butter milk and ghee. During the hot weather they move their herds to the upper ranges where the buffaloes enjoy the weather. 

 

Q8 Discuss the various restrictions imposed on pastoral groups in Africa. 

OR 

What restrictions were imposed by the colonial government on the African pastoralists? 

 

Ans 1. The various pastoral groups were forced to live in special reserves. They were not allowed to move their stock without special permits which were not easy to get. Those who defied the rules were severely punished. 

  1. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the market area of the whites.
  2. In many regions, they were prohibited from participating in any trading activity. Thus, the restrictions imposed on the pastoralists adversely affected their pastoral and trading activities. 

 

Q9 What are some of the problems that pastoralists face in the modern world? How have these groups adapted to the new times? 

 

Ans Some of the problems that pastoralists face in the modern world are as follows:

  1. New laws and new borders have affected the patterns of the pastoralists movement. 
  2. Now, they find it difficult to move in search of pastures. As pasture lands have shrunk, grazing has become a problem. 
  3. Remaining pastures deteriorate due to continuous over grazing. 
  4. Cattle die in large numbers during drought. This became the time of crises. 

They have adapted to new times by changing the paths of their annual movement and reducing their cattle numbers. They have also demanded rights in management of forests and water resources. Some became settled peasants cultivating land, some took to trading, while others became labourers. 

 

Q10 What are the similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa? 

 

Ans 1. In both countries Pastoralists reduced the number of cattle in their herds since there were not enough pasture fields to feed large numbers. 

  1. New pastures were found when movement to old grazing grounds became difficult. 
  2. Many combined pastoral activity with other forms of income and thus adapted to changes in the modern world. 

 

Q11 Why were the chiefs appointed by the British not affected by war or drought in Maasai land? 

 

Ans 1. The chiefs appointed by the colonial government often accumulated wealth over time. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. 

  1. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. Many of them began living in towns, and became involved in trade. Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals. 
  2. These chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. They had both pastoral and non-pastoral income, and could buy animals when their stock was depleted.

 

Q12 Which parts of the African continent are inhabited by pastoralists? What are the different types of activities they are involved in? 

 

Ans 1. Most of the pastoralists in Africa lived in semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rain-fed agriculture is difficult. 

  1. The pastoralists are involved in different types of activities like they reared cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys; and sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. 
  2. Some also earn through trade and transport, others combine pastoral activity with agriculture, still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism. 

 

4 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The colonial government considered all uncultivated lands or wastelands as unproductive as it neither generated revenue or agricultural produce. In order to bring these ‘wasteland’ under cultivation, the Waste Land Rules were enacted throughout India from the mid-nineteenth century. These lands were given to select individuals with various concessions and encouraged to settle them. Most of these lands were earlier used by pastoralists for grazing. So the expansion of cultivation meant that there was a decline in the number of pastures and a problem for pastoralists. Various forest acts were enacted in order to produce commercially viable timber like deodar or sal. Some tracts of forests were declared ‘Reserved’ which meant pastoralists were denied access to these forests. Those that were classified as ‘Protected’, pastoralists had some customary grazing rights but their movements were restricted severely. These laws were enacted as the colonial authorities believed that grazing destroyed roots and depleted the fertility of the forests. It affected the pastoralists in the sense that their movements were restricted with specific timings to control how much time they spent in the forests. One can safely say their lives were ruled by the permits of the forest departments. The British authorities regarded nomadic people with suspicion and contempt. Nomadic tribes were moved from one place to another in search of grazing grounds. This made it difficult for them to control and identify such people. While on the other hand, they saw the settled people as peaceful and law-abiding. Thus in order to bring nomadic and pastoralist people under their control, the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871. Through this act, communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminals by birth and nature. They were forced to settle in one location and could not move without a permit. The village police kept a close watch on them as a result.

 

  1. Write a short note on wasteland rules. (2)

 

Ans The colonial government considered all uncultivated lands or wastelands as unproductive as it neither generated revenue or agricultural produce. In order to bring these ‘wasteland’ under cultivation, the Waste Land Rules were enacted throughout India from the mid-nineteenth century. These lands were given to select individuals with various concessions and encouraged to settle them. Most of these lands were earlier used by pastoralists for grazing. So the expansion of cultivation meant that there was a decline in the number of pastures and a problem for pastoralists.

 

  1. Write a short note on forest acts. (1)

 

Ans Various forest acts were enacted in order to produce commercially viable timber like deodar or sal. Some tracts of forests were declared ‘Reserved’ which meant pastoralists were denied access to these forests. Those that were classified as ‘Protected’, pastoralists had some customary grazing rights but their movements were restricted severely.

 

  1. When did the British pass the Criminal Tribes Act? (1)

 

Ans The British passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871.

 

Q2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as a kafila. With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountainsides were lush green. The variety of grasses that sprouted provided rich nutritious forage for the animal herds. By the end of September the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey back to their winter base. The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had a similar cycle of seasonal movement. By April they moved north and spent the summer in Lahaul and Spiti. By September they began their return movement. On the way they stopped once again in the villages of Lahaul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crop. Then they descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground on the Siwalik hills. Next April, once again, they began their march with their goats and sheep, to the summer meadows. In Garhwal and Kumaon, the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabar in the winter, and went up to the high meadows – the bugyals – in summer. This pattern of cyclical movement is common to Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris.

 

  1. __________ are vast natural pastures on the high mountains, about 12,000 feet. (1)

 

Ans Bugyals 

 

  1. Gujjar Bakarwals of _____________ are herders of goat and sheep. (1)

 

Ans Jammu and Kashmir

 

  1. Write a short note on Gujjar Bakarwals. (2)

 

Ans The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range.

 

Q3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: 

 

Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers, and still others were buffalo herders. The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here. In the monsoon this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. By October they moved to Konkan. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here the shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants. After the kharif harvest was cut at this time, the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for the rabi harvest. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce. With the onset of the monsoon the Dhangars left the Konkan and.the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau. The sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions. In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh the Gollas herded cattle. The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Unlike the mountain pastoralists, it was not the cold and the snow that defined the seasonal rhythms of their movement: rather it was the alternation of the monsoon and dry season that determined their movement. In the dry season they moved to the coastal tracts, and left when the rains came. Only buffaloes liked the swampy, wet conditions of the coastal areas during the monsoon months. Other herds had to be shifted to the dry plateau at this time.

 

  1. Write a short note on Dhangars.

 

Ans Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers, and still others were buffalo herders.

 

  1. Where did the Dhangar shepherds stay during the monsoon?

 

Ans The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon.

 

  1. The ____________ reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets.

 

Ans Kurumas and Kurubas

 

  1. The __________ also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce.

 

Ans Konkani peasants

 

5 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists. (NCERT QUESTION)

  1. Wasteland rules 
  2. Forest Acts 
  3. Criminal Tribes Act 
  4. Grazing Tax 

 

Ans 1. Wasteland rules: The colonial government considered all uncultivated lands or wastelands as unproductive as it neither generated revenue or agricultural produce. In order to bring these ‘wasteland’ under cultivation, the Waste Land Rules were enacted throughout India from the mid-nineteenth century. These lands were given to select individuals with various concessions and encouraged to settle them. Most of these lands were earlier used by pastoralists for grazing. So the expansion of cultivation meant that there was a decline in the number of pastures and a problem for pastoralists. 

  1. Forest Acts: Various forest acts were enacted in order to produce commercially viable timber like deodar or sal. Some tracts of forests were declared ‘Reserved’ which meant pastoralists were denied access to these forests. Those that were classified as ‘Protected’, pastoralists had some customary grazing rights but their movements were restricted severely. These laws were enacted as the colonial authorities believed that grazing destroyed roots and depleted the fertility of the forests. It affected the pastoralists in the sense that their movements were restricted with specific timings to control how much time they spent in the forests. One can safely say their lives were ruled by the permits of the forest departments. 
  2. Criminal Tribes Act: The British authorities regarded nomadic people with suspicion and contempt. Nomadic tribes were moved from one place to another in search of grazing grounds. This made it difficult for them to control and identify such people. While on the other hand, they saw the settled people as peaceful and law-abiding. Thus in order to bring nomadic and pastoralist people under their control, the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871. Through this act, communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminals by birth and nature. They were forced to settle in one location and could not move without a permit. The village police kept a close watch on them as a result. 
  3. Grazing Tax: In order to increase its revenue, the colonial government imposed a tax on land, salt, canal water, and also animals. Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they took to grazing in the pastures. The Grazing Tax was introduced in India by the mid-nineteenth century. In the 1850s, the right to collect these taxes were auctioned off to contractors. The contractors on their part tried to extract as much tax as possible in order to recover the money they paid to the government. In order to pay less, the pastoralists had to decrease the number of animals they took for grazing.

 

Q2 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. In the late nineteenth century, in what would be known as the ‘scramble for Africa’, European imperial powers sliced up the region into different colonies with little to no regard for the local sentiments. 

  1. In 1885, the land of the Maasai, Maasailand, was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanzania. 
  2. As a result, the best grazing lands were reserved for white settlers with Maasai being pushed into a small area in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. 
  3. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. 
  4. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas. 

 

Q3 Who are pastoral nomads? Describe any four features of them? 

 

Ans Pastoral nomads are people who do not live at one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. They depend on livestock rearing, they move with their cattle and other animals. The four features of pastoral nomads are as follows:

  1. Pastoral nomads had to adjust to seasonal changes and make best use of available pastures in different places. When the pastureland was exhausted they moved to a different place where pastures are available. 
  2. Cold and snow are not the only factors which define their seasonal movement. In the dry season they moved to coastal areas and left when the rain came.
  3. They set up a relationship with farmers, so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil. 
  4. They combine a range of different occupations – cultivation, trade and herding to earn their living. For example, the Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas herded cattle, cultivated small patches of land and also engaged in a variety of petty trades.

 

Q4 In which two social categories was the Maasai society divided in pre-colonial times? In what way did their roles change because of the colonial policies? 

OR

Describe the social organisations of the Massai’s in the pre-colonial times. What changes occured in Maasai’s society during the colonial rule? 

 

Ans 1. The Massai society was divided into two social groups in pre-colonial times – elders and warriors. The elders were the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. 

  1. The warriors consisted of young people, responsible for the protection of the tribe. They defended the community and organised cattle raids. Raiding was an important activity in a society where cattle was wealth. 
  2. It was the way through which different pastoral groups asserted their superiority. The British introduced a number of measures which changed the lives of the Maasai. 
  3. The chiefs of different sub-groups were appointed to look after the affairs of the tribe. Restrictions were imposed on raiding and warfare. So, the traditional authority of both the elders and warriors changed dramatically.
  4. The difference based on age, between elders and warriors broke down, and a new distinction was developed between the rich and poor pastoralists. The chiefs appointed by the colonial government became rich overtime. They had regular income with which they purchased land, goods, animals and also get involved in trade. But the poor pastoralists worked as charcoal, burners or work in road or building construction or did odd jobs. 

 

Q5 How did the pastoralists cope with the changes in new times? 

 

Ans Pastoralists managed to cope with the changes in many ways:

  1. Some pastoralists reduced the number of cattle because there were not enough pastures to feed large numbers. When pastureland in one place was closed to them, they changed the direction of their movement and combined pastoral activity with other forms of trade. 
  2. Some pastoralists found new pastures. 
  3. They exert political pressure on the government for relief, subsidy and other forms of support and demand a right in the management of forests and water resources.
  4. Some rich pastoralists gave up their nomadic habits, purchased land and started leading a settled life. 
  5. Some became settled peasants cultivating land. Some borrowed money from the moneylenders to survive. 

 

Q6 Why were wasteland rules enacted in various parts of the country? 

 

Ans 1. The colonial government wanted to convert all grazing land into cultivated land. Land revenue was one of the main sources of its finance. 

  1. By cultivation, it could yield more revenue and at the same time produce more cotton, jute, wheat and other agricultural products that were required in England. 
  2. To colonial officials all uncultivated land was unproductive. It was seen as wasteland and had to be brought under cultivation. 
  3. According to them, forest which is used for grazing cannot be used for any other purpose and is unable to yield timber and fuel, which are the main legitimate forest produce. 
  4. In the 19th century wasteland rules were enacted in many parts of the country. 

 

Q7 Trace the movements of pastoralists of India in the mountains. 

 

Ans 1. The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. 

  1. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as a kafila. With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountainsides were lush green. The variety of grasses that sprouted provided rich nutritious forage for the animal herds. 
  2. By the end of September the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey back to their winter base. The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had a similar cycle of seasonal movement. By April they moved north and spent the summer in Lahaul and Spiti. 
  3. By September they began their return movement. On the way they stopped once again in the villages of Lahaul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crop. Then they descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground on the Siwalik hills. 
  4. Next April, once again, they began their march with their goats and sheep, to the summer meadows. In Garhwal and Kumaon, the Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabar in the winter, and went up to the high meadows – the bugyals – in summer. This pattern of cyclical movement is common to Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris. 

 

Q8 Trace the movement of pastoral nomads of India on the plateaus. 

 

Ans 1. Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers, and still others were buffalo herders. The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. 

  1. Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here. In the monsoon this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. By October they moved to Konkan. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here the shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants.
  2. After the kharif harvest was cut at this time, the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for the rabi harvest. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce. With the onset of the monsoon the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau. The sheep could not tolerate the wet monsoon conditions. 
  3. In Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh the Gollas herded cattle. The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets.
  4. Unlike the mountain pastoralists, it was not the cold and the snow that defined the seasonal rhythms of their movement: rather it was the alternation of the monsoon and dry season that determined their movement.
  5. In the dry season they moved to the coastal tracts, and left when the rains came. Only buffaloes liked the swampy, wet conditions of the coastal areas during the monsoon months. Other herds had to be shifted to the dry plateau at this time.