NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

 

Nazism and The Rise of Hitler – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 3 Nazism and The Rise of Hitler Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 9 History important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (History) provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions 1 mark each)

 

Q1 At the conclusion of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles (1920), which was signed, was harsh and humiliating for Germany because

A Germany lost its overseas colonies, and 13 percent of its territories

B It lost 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania, was forced to pay compensation of 6 billion pounds

C The western powers demilitarised Germany and they occupied resource-rich Rhineland in the 1920s

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q2 What lasting effects did the First World War have on European politics and society?

A Soldiers were put above civilians, trench-life was glorified

B Politicians and publicists laid stress on men to be aggressive and masculine

C Aggressive war propaganda and national honour were given the most support and Conservative dictatorships were welcomed

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q3 What was the response of the Germans to the new Weimar Republic?

A They held the new Weimar Republic responsible for Germany’s defeat and the disgrace at Versailles

B The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation

C It became the target of attacks in the conservative national circles

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q4 Which of the following statements is false about soldiers in World War I? 

A The soldiers, in reality, led miserable lives in trenches, survived with feeding on the copras

B They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling and loss of comrades

C All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory

D Aggressive propaganda glorified war

 

Ans C All soldiers were ready to die for their country’s honour and personal glory

 

Q5 What was Hitler’s historic blunder and why?

A Attack on Soviet Union in 1941 was a historic blunder by Hitler

B He exposed his western front to British aerial bombing

C The Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat on Germany at Stalingrad

D All of the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q6 Why did Helmuth’s father kill himself in the spring of 1945? 

A He was depressed by Germany’s defeat in Second World War

B He feared that common people would mishandle him and his family

C He feared revenge by the Allied Powers

D He wanted to die because of the crimes he had committed during Nazi rule

 

Ans C He feared revenge by the Allied Powers

 

Q7 Which of the following was a special security and surveillance unit Hitler established?

A Regular police force in green uniform and stormtroopers

B Gestapo (secret state police), the 55 (the protection squads)

C Criminal police (SD), the security service

D Both B and C 

 

Ans D Both B and C 

 

Q8 Hitler’s world view, which was also the Nazi ideology, was _________.

A There was no equality between people, only a racial hierarchy

B The blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top and jews at the bottom. The coloured people were placed in between 

C Jews were the anti-race, the arch enemies of the Aryans

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q9 Which of the following organisations was established after World War II to try and prosecute Nazi war criminals?

A International Military Tribunal 

B British Military Tribunal

C Allied Military Tribunal

D Allied Judicial Court

 

Ans A International Military Tribunal 

 

Q10 Against which of these countries had Germany fought during World War I (1914-1918)?

A England

B France

C Russia 

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q11 Which of the following groups did Germany wage “genocidal war” against?

A Jews and political opponents

B Gypsies and Polish civilians

C Germans who were considered mentally and physically disabled

D All of the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q12 What outcome of the German Spartacus League rebellion in 1918–19 was the most significant?

A The Weimar Republic crushed the rebellion

B The Spartacists founded the Communist Party of Germany

C The Weimar government accepted the demands of the Spartacus League

D Both A and B

 

Ans D Both A and B

 

Q13 The National Assembly met at Weimer and decided to establish _________.

A a democratic constitution with a federal structure

B a communist form of government

C a powerful monarchy

D a military state

 

Ans A a democratic constitution with a federal structure

 

Q14 Who were called the ‘November criminals?

A The Opponents of Weimar Republic

B The Emperor who abdicated, and his men

C The supporters of Weimar Republic

D None of the above

 

Ans C The supporters of Weimar Republic

 

Q15 What was Dawes Plan?

A A plan which imposed more fine on Germany

B A plan which withdrew all punishment from Germany

C A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans

D None of the above

 

Ans C A plan which reworked the terms of reparation to ease financial burden on the Germans

 

Q16 War in 1917 led to the strengthening of Allies and the defeat of Germany because of the entry of ____________.

A China

B Japan

C the USA

D Spain

 

Ans C the USA

 

Q17 What was a characteristic of Hitler’s foreign policy?

A He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933

B He decided not to attack any country

C He thanked the Allied Powers for having put Germany on the right track

D All of the above

 

Ans A He pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933

 

Q18 Which of the following statements is true about the economic crisis in Germany in 1923? 

A The value of ‘Mark’ (German currency) collapsed

B Prices of goods soared high

C Weimer Republic brought economic prosperity

D Both A and B

 

Ans D Both A and B

 

Q19 When and among which countries was the Tripartite Pact signed?

A 1940, Germany, Italy and Japan

B 1939, Germany, Austria and USSR

C 1940, England, France and USA

D 1938, England, Germany and USSR

 

Ans A  1940, Germany, Italy and Japan

 

Q20 What made the Nazi regime infamous for being the most heinous criminal state? 

A Extra-constitutional powers were given to the newly organised forces like Gestapo, the SS and SD

B People could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers and sent to concentration camps

C No legal procedures were there for the arrested people

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q21 Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war?

A Hitler’s attack on Eastern Europe

B Hitler’s policy of genocide of the Jews

C Helplessness of England and France

D Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour

 

Ans D Japan’s attack on the US base at Pearl Harbour

 

Q22 Which incident led to the start of World War II? 

A German invasion of Switzerland

B German invasion of Poland 

C Russian invasion of Germany

D Japan’s sinking of ship at Pearl Harbour

 

Ans B German invasion of Poland 

 

Q23 According to the Nazis, which people were to be regarded as desirable?

A Pure and healthy Nordic Aryans

B German soldiers who helped in territorial expansion

C German police of different types

D All those who were willing to consider Hitler as God

 

Ans A Pure and healthy Nordic Aryans

 

Q24 What was the destination of all ‘undesirables’ of the German Empire called?

A Land of undesirables’

B Cursed land

C General government

D Land for the abnormals

 

Ans C General government

 

Q25 Which of these were the reasons of Nazi hatred of the Jews? 

A Jews had been stereotyped as killers of Christ

B They were ‘usurers’, i.e. moneylenders

C The Jews had always cheated the Nazis

D Both A and B

 

Ans D Both A and B

 

Q26 When did the Second World War come to an end?

A January 1944

B May 1945

C June 1946

D August 1947

 

Ans B May 1945

 

Q27 What did Nazi ideology entail for schoolchildren?

A He believed that education of children was not necessary

B A control should be kept over children both inside and outside school

C All children should be regarded as equal

D None of the above

 

Ans B A control should be kept over children both inside and outside school

 

Q28 The Nuremburg laws of citizenship of 1935 stated that: 

A Only persons of German or related blood would henceforth be German citizens

B Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden

C Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag

D All of the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q29 What was the process of Nazi schooling for ‘Good German children’?

A Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race

B School textbooks were rewritten

C Even the function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children

D All of the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q30 What views did Nazi Germany have on women?

A The fight for equality between men and women was wrong

B Girls had to maintain the purity of the race and teach their children Nazi values

C Their role was to be of mothers who had to be bearers of the Aryan culture and race

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q31 Which nation did Nazi Germany’s “concentration of Germans in one region” experiment initially attempt?

A Poland

B France

C Czechoslovakia

D England

 

Ans A Poland

 

Q32 Who wrote Mein Kampf?

A Herbert Spencer

B Charles Darwin

C Adolf Hitler

D Goebbels

 

Ans C Adolf Hitler

 

Q33 What was ‘jungvolk’ in Nazi Germany?

A Magazine

B Holocaust camp

C Youth organisation

D Schools

 

Ans C Youth organisation

 

Q34 Who among the following was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler?

A Goebbels

B Hindenburg

C Hjalmar Schacht

D Adam Smith

 

Ans C Hjalmar Schacht

 

Q35 In Germany students between 10-14 years of age had to join an organisation named:

A Jungvolk

B Hitler’s youth

C Volkswogan

D Young Nazi Party

 

Ans B Hitler’s youth

 

Q36 In context of Germany what was ‘Holocaust’? 

A Nazi propaganda

B Nazi Honour Crosses

C Nazi killing operations

D A Nazi School

 

Ans C Nazi killing operations

 

Q37 What did the term ‘Evacuation’ mean?

A Living in separately marked areas called ghettos

B Deporting people to gas chambers

C Arrested without any legal procedures

D Detained without due process of law

 

Ans B Deporting people to gas chambers

 

Q38 What was the name given to gas chambers by Nazis?

A Killing Machine

B Solution Areas

C Revolutionary Ground

D Disinfection Areas

 

Ans D Disinfection Areas

 

Q39 When did Germany withdraw herself from the League of Nations?

A 1930 

B 1931

C 1932

D 1933

 

Ans D 1933

 

Q40 Who among the following first proposed the “Survival of the Fittest” theory?

A Charles Darwin

B Herbert Spencer

C Adolf Hitler

D Isaac Newton

 

Ans B Herbert Spencer

 

Q41 The Great Depression was a period of

A Economic crisis

B Global crisis

C Political crisis

D Social crisis

 

Ans A Economic crisis

 

Q42 The Nazi party had become the largest party by:

A 1930 

B 1931

C 1932

D 1933

 

Ans C 1932

 

Q43 What section of the Weimar Constitution granted the President of Germany the authority to declare a state of emergency, suspend civil liberties, and rule by decree?

A 46

B 47

C 48

D None of these

 

Ans C 48

 

Q44 To justify Nazi ideas of race.

A Social Science was introduced

B Racial Science was introduced

C Biological Science was introduced

D Moral Science was introduced

 

Ans B Racial Science was introduced

 

Q45 In May 1945, Germany surrendered to: 

A Britain

B USA

C Italy

D Allies

 

Ans D Allies

 

1 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Who was Helmuth? 

 

Ans Helmuth, was an eleven-year-old German boy who overheard his parent’s discussion on whether the entire family should be killed or only his father should commit suicide. 

 

Q2 Who was Helmuth’s father? 

 

Ans Helmuth’s father was a Nazi and supporter of Adolf Hitler. 

 

Q3 ‘Nazism was a system.’ Explain. 

 

Ans Nazism did not consist of a few isolated acts. It was a structure of ideas about the world and politics. 

 

Q4 Who was Goebbels? How did Hitler and Goebbels meet their end? 

 

Ans Goebbels was the propaganda minister of Hitler. They, along with Goebbels’ family committed suicide collectively in Hitler’s Berlin bunker in April 1945. 

 

Q5 Why was the International Military Tribunal set up at Nuremberg, at the end of the war? 

 

Ans The International Military Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg by the Allies to prosecute Nazi war criminals for Crimes against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity.

 

Q6 Name the countries which formed the Axis Powers during the Second World War. 

 

Ans Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Axis Powers. 

 

Q7 Explain ‘genocidal war’. 

 

Ans Genocidal war means killing on a large scale, leading to elimination of a large section of people. 

 

Q8 How did Nazis kill the innocent people? 

 

Ans They devised an unprecedented means of killing people, i.e., by gassing them in numerous killing centres like Auschwitz 

 

Q9 What was the attitude of the Allied Powers at the Nuremberg Tribunal? 

 

Ans The Nuremberg Tribuanl sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many were imprisoned for life. The Allies had a lenient attitude towards Germany. The Allies did not want to be harsh on Germany, as they were after the First World War. 

 

Q10 Name the countries which formed the Allied powers. 

 

Ans At the beginning of the second world war, Allied powers were led by the U.K. and France. In 1941 they were joined by the USSR and the USA. 

 

Q11 What was the result of the First World War for Germany? 

 

Ans Germany and the central powers were defeated in November 1918. Germany had to sign the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. 

 

Q12 What events made an opportunity for parliamentary parties to recast German polity? 

 

Ans The defeat of imperial Germany and abdication of the emperor (Kaiser) led to recast German polity. 

 

Q13 What was the nature of the government formed in Germany at Weimar? 

 

Ans The government formed at Weimar was a democratic republic. 

 

Q14 How were the deputies elected under the Weimar constitution? 

 

Ans Deputies were elected to the German parliament or Reichstag on the basis of equal and universal votes cast by all adults including women. 

 

Q15 Why was the Weimar Republic not received well by its own people? 

 

Ans The Weimar Republic was not received well by its own people because of the terms it had to accept after Germany’s defeat at the end of the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. 

 

Q16 Name the peace treaty signed by Germany with the Allies at the end of the First World War.

 

Ans The Treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of the war. 

 

Q17 What was the War Guilt clause in the Treaty of Versailles? 

 

Ans The War Guilt clause, in the Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for the War and damages suffered by the Allied Powers. 

 

Q18 Who were mockingly called the ‘November criminals’? 

 

Ans Socialists, Catholics and Democrats were called the ‘November Criminals’. 

 

Q19 ‘The media glorified trench life’. What was the actual truth about trench life? 

 

Ans Although the media glorified trench life, the soldiers lived a miserable life, trapped with rats feeding on corpses. They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling. 

 

Q20 Who founded the Communist Party of Germany? 

 

Ans The Spartacists founded the Communist Party of Germany.

 

Q21 Mention the reason for economic crises in 1923. 

 

Ans Germany depended largely on loans for fighting in wars and for this they had to pay war reparations in gold. 

 

Q22 What steps were taken by the French when Germany refused to pay its gold reserves in 1923? 

 

Ans French occupied its leading industrial area, Ruhr, to claim their coal when Germany refused to pay its reparation payment in 1923. 

 

Q23 What do you mean by hyperinflation? 

 

Ans It is a situation when prices rise phenomenally high. For instance, Germans paid cartloads of currency notes to buy a loaf of bread. 

 

Q24 Why did the USA introduce the Dawes Plan? 

 

Ans Germany did not pay reparation payments to France, which occupied Ruhr. Germany resisted and printed paper currency. The value of the German mark gradually fell. The Americans intervened and introduced the Dawes Plan, which reworked the terms of reparation payment to ease the financial burden on Germany. 

 

Q25 What is Wall Street Exchange? 

 

Ans It is the name of the world’s biggest stock exchange. It is located in the USA. 

 

Q26 ‘Small businessmen, self-employed and retailers were filled with the fear of proletarianisation’. Explain ‘proletarianisation’. 

 

Ans It is a fear of being reduced to the ranks of the working class or being unemployed. 

 

Q27 What is proportional representation? 

 

Ans It is an electoral system in which each political group gains a number of seats in the legislature that is in proportion to the number of votes it wins. 

 

Q28 What was Article 48 in the Weimar constitution? 

 

Ans Article 48 in the Weimar constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree. 

 

Q29 Name the party renamed by Hitler. 

 

Ans In 1919, Hitler joined a small group called the German Workers’ Party. Subsequently, he took over the organisation and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. This party later came to be known as the Nazi Party. 

 

Q30 How did Nazism become a mass movement? 

 

Ans During the Great Depression, Nazism became a mass movement because Nazi propaganda gave hopes of a better future. By 1932 it became the largest party with 37 per cent votes. 

 

Q31 How did Hitler get the support of the Germans? 

 

Ans Hitler was a very good orator, who could draw the attention of the people and impress them with his words. He promised to build a strong nation and wipe out the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles. He promised employment. 

 

Q32 How was Hitler projected by the Nazi propaganda? 

 

Ans Hitler was projected as a messiah, a saviour, as someone who arrived to deliver people from their distress. 

 

Q33 When did President Hindenburg offer Chancellorship to Hitler? How did he use his powers? 

 

Ans On 30 January 1933, President Hindenburg offered the Chancellorship to Hitler. It was the highest office in the cabinet of ministers. Hitler took steps to dismantle the structures of democratic rule. 

 

Q34 What was the Fire Decree of 28 February 1933? 

 

Ans The Fire Decree of 28 February 1933 suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly for an indefinite period, which were guaranteed under the Weimar constitution. 

 

Q35 Who were the arch-enemies of Hitler and the Nazis? 

 

Ans The Communists were the arch-enemies of Hitler and the Nazi Party. 

 

Q36 What was the Enabling Act (3 March 1933)? 

 

Ans The Enabling Act, passed on 3 March 1933, established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to rule by decree and without the consent of the Parliament. 

 

Q37 What was ‘Gestapo’? 

 

Ans Gestapo was the secret state police. People could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers and then sent to concentration camps, deported at will or arrested without any legal procedures. 

 

Q38 Who was given the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler? What was his aim? 

 

Ans Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht, who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme. 

 

Q39 What was produced under the project of the state-funded work-creation programme? 

 

Ans This project produced the famous German superhighways and the people’s car, the Volkswagen. 

 

Q40 Name the country occupied by Germany under the slogan ‘One people, One Empire and One Leader’. 

 

Ans Under the above slogan Austria and Germany integrated in 1938 by Hilter.

 

Q41 Why did England provide unspoken support to Germany’s foreign policy? 

 

Ans England considered the Versailles verdict too harsh so it provided an unspoken support to the Germans. 

 

Q42 How did the Second World War start? 

 

Ans In September, Germany invaded Poland. This started the war with England and France. 

 

Q43 Why did Hitler conquer Eastern Europe? 

 

Ans Hitler conquered Eastern Europe because he wanted to ensure food supply and living space for Germans. 

 

Q44 Why was the attack on the Soviet Union a historic blunder? 

 

Ans The attack on Soviet Union in June 1941 was a historic blunder because it exposed German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies. 

 

Q45 Name the place where the Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing defeat on Germany. 

 

Ans The Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat on Germany at Stalingrad.

 

Q46 Why did US enter the Second World War? 

 

Ans Japan was expanding its power in the east and had captured French Indo-China and was planning attacks on US naval bases in the Pacific. When Japan attacked the US base at Pearl Harbor, the US entered the Second World War. 

 

Q47 How did the Second World War end? 

 

Ans The Second World War ended in May 1945 with Hitler’s defeat and dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan by USA. 

 

Q48 What was Hitler’s worldview? 

 

Ans Hitler’s worldview was synonymous with Nazi ideology According to this ideology, there was no equality between people but only a racial hierarchy. 

 

Q49 Name two thinkers who influenced the racial ideology of Hitler. 

 

Ans The two thinkers were Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. 

 

Q50 Explain ‘Lebensraum’. 

 

Ans ‘Lebensraum’ or living space. Hitler believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement.

 

Q51 How was Hitler’s ideology related to the geopolitical concept of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space? 

 

Ans Hitler believed that new territories would increase the area of the mother country. It would increase the material resources and power of the German nation. 

 

Q52 Mention the reason for Nazi hatred of Jews. 

 

Ans The Nazi hatred had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility. Jews had been stereotyped as killers of Christ and usurers. 

 

Q53 What was the General Government in Poland? 

 

Ans Nazis divided occupied Poland into two parts. Much of north-western Poland was annexed to Germany. The other part was called the General Government. All ‘undesirables’ were sent to this part where they were killed in gas chambers. Large number of Jews were killed. 

 

Q54 How were the Polish children treated by the Nazis? 

 

Ans Polish children who looked like Aryans were examined by race experts. If they passed the race test they were sent to German families, if not they were sent to the orphanages, where they died. 

 

Q55 What was the distinguishing mark which all Jews had to wear from September 1941? 

 

Ans From September 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David, on their breasts. It was also stamped on their passports, all legal documents and houses.

 

Q56 From September 1941 all Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David on their breast. Why? 

 

Ans Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David, so that they could be segregated from the German population. This mark was also stamped on their passports, legal documents and houses. 

 

Q57 What is a ghetto? 

 

Ans It was a part of the city, where the Jews lived eg. Lodz and Warsaw. It became a site of extreme misery and poverty. 

 

Q58 Name any two ghettos. 

 

Ans The two Ghettos are Lodz and Warsaw. 

 

Q59 Which sport, according to Hitler, made children iron-hearted, strong and masculine? 

 

Ans Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron-hearted, strong and masculine. 

 

Q60 What were the Honour crosses awarded to the mothers? 

 

Ans To encourage German women to produce more children, they were given Honour awards—a bronze cross was given for four children, a silver cross for six and gold for eight or more children.

 

Q61 What was mass killing? For whom were the words final solution used? 

 

Ans It was termed as special treatment. Final solution was used for the Jews. 

 

Q62 What were disinfection areas? 

 

Ans The gas chambers were called disinfection areas. They looked like bathrooms fitted with fake showerheads. 

 

Q63 What did the term evacuation mean? 

 

Ans It meant taking people to the gas chambers. 

 

Q64 What was Holocaust? 

 

Ans The Nazi killing operations were called Holocaust. 

 

Q65 Name the most infamous film about the Jews. 

 

Ans The most infamous film about the Jews was The Eternal Jew.

 

Assertion-reason based questions:

 

Q1 Assertion (A): Nazism became a mass movement only after the Great Depression. 

Reason (R): The Great Depression created heavy discontent among the people.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 

The onset of the Great Economic Depression of 1929 helped the Nazi party to mobilise popular support. After the deep crisis of the Great Depression, the party promised to improve the economic conditions of Germany. The people who were dissatisfied with the Weimar Republic then laid their faith in the promises made by the Nazi party.

 

Q2 Assertion (A): 17-18 million Jews were brutally murdered by the Nazis. 

Reason (R): The Nazis were led by Adolf Hitler who propagated anti-semitism and was on a mission of ‘ethnic cleansing’.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 

Hitler came to power with the ideology of anti-semitism. He had a pseudo-scientific view of constructing an ‘Aryan nation’. The Jews were the worst sufferers in Hitler’s regime. Hitler stereotyped them as the killers of Christ and usurers. They were pushed to live in marked areas called Ghettos. The Nazis dehumanised Jews by comparing them to vermins, parasites, pests, lice, and rats. The Nazis also propagated that the ethnic cleansing of Jews would liberate Germany. Hitler brutally committed mass killings through various techniques such as putting the Jews in gas chambers and disinfection areas.

 

Q3 Assertion (A): Nazi ideas were spread only through newspapers. 

Reason (R): The Nazis made equal efforts to appeal to all the different sections of the population.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans D. A is false but R is true.

 

Q4 Assertion (A): Hitler pulled out of League of Nations in 1943, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1944. 

Reason (R): Schacht had advised Hitler against investing hugely in rearmament as the state will run on deficit financing.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans D. A is false but R is true.

 

Q5 Assertion (A): The First World War a deep imprint on European society and polity. 

Reason (R): Soldiers were placed below the civilians.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false. 

 

Fill in the blanks in the following:

 

Q1 The Nazi killing operations were called _____________.

 

Ans Holocaust

 

Q2 The Second World War ended in ____________ with Hitler’s defeat and dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima in Japan by USA.

 

Ans May 1945

 

Q3 The ____________, passed on 3 March 1933, established dictatorship in Germany.

 

Ans Enabling Act

 

Q4 The attack on ____________ in June 1941 was a historic blunder because it exposed German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.

 

Ans Soviet Union

 

Q5 Hitler conquered Eastern Europe because he wanted to ensure food supply and living space for ___________.

 

Ans Germans

 

Q6 The _____________ of 28 February 1933 suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly for an indefinite period, which were guaranteed under the Weimar constitution.

 

Ans Fire Decree

 

Q7 The __________ were the arch-enemies of Hitler and the Nazi Party.

 

Ans Communists 

 

Q8 _______________ in the Weimar constitution gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree.

 

Ans Article 48

 

Q9 ________________ is the name of the world’s biggest stock exchange. It is located in the USA.

 

Ans Wall Street Exchange

 

Q10 Socialists, Catholics and Democrats were called the _______________.

 

Ans ‘November Criminals’

 

2 Mark Questions

 

Q1 State the verdict of the Nuremberg Tribunal. Why did the Allies avoid harsh punishment for Germany? 

 

Ans The Nuremberg Tribunal convicted Germany and dubbed its conduct during war as a crime against humanity. The allies avoided harsh punishment to Germany because of the following reasons: 

  1. They did not want to repeat the mistakes done after the First World War by being harsh to Germany that gave rise to the ideology of Nazism under Hitler. 
  2. They were conscious about another destructive war that could erase humanity.

 

Q2 ‘The Weimar constitution had some inherent defects.’ Explain. 

 

Ans The Weimar constitution had some inherent defects, which made the government weak and unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship. The defects were: 

  1. Proportional representation: It became impossible for any one political party to achieve a majority, leading to coalition government. 
  2. Article 48: It gave the President the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree. Within a short period Weimar Republic saw twenty different cabinets lasting 239 days on an average. People no longer had faith in the democratic parliamentary system.

Q3 Define genocidal war. Mention any two methods adopted for extermination of Jews. 

 

Ans 1. Genocidal war means killing on large scale leading to the destruction of large sections of people. The following two methods were adopted for the extermination of Jews:

  1. Passing them through gas chambers in various killing centres like Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sobibor. 
  2. They were kept in ghettos. Ghettos were sites of extreme poverty and misery. Jews had to surrender all their wealth before they entered the ghetto. Soon after, some were brimming with hunger, starvation and disease due to poor hygiene.

 

Q4 The Nazi regime used language and media with care, and often to great effect the terms they coined to describe their various activities are not only deceptive. They are chilling. Explain. 

 

Ans 1. Nazis never used the words ‘kill’ or ‘murder’ in their official communications. Special treatment meant mass killing, final solution for the Jews, euthanasia for the disabled. 

  1. Evacuation meant deporting people to gas chambers, gas chambers were called disinfection-areas. They looked like bathrooms with fake showerheads. 

 

Q5 Explain Annihilation.

 

Ans 1. Annihilation was the stage from 1941 onwards which states that Jews had no right to live. Jews from Jewish houses, concentration camps and ghettos from different parts of Europe were brought to death factories by goods trains. 

  1. The most notorious concentration camps in Poland and other places were Auschwitz, Belzek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno and Majdanek. They were charred in gas chambers.

 

3 Mark Questions

 

Q1 “The Treaty of Versailles was humiliating to the Germans.” Give three examples in support of your statement. 

 

Ans The Treaty of Versailles was humiliating on the Germans in the following ways:

  1. The War Guilt clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allied countries suffered. 
  2. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to £ 6 billion. 
  3. Germany lost her overseas possessions, 13 percent of her territories, 75 per cent of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania. 

 

Q2 State three ways in which Nazi state established total control over its people. 

 

Ans The Nazi state established total control over its people by the following ways:

  1. The Enabling Act 1933 established dictatorship in Germany. All trade unions and political parties were banned except for the Nazi Party. 
  2. The state established total control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
  3. Special surveillance and security forces were created to control society in the ways that Nazis Wanted. 

 

Q3 How did the Nazi state get the reputation as the most dreaded criminal state? 

 

Ans 1. Special surveillance and security forces were created to keep a close watch on the activities of the people and to control and order society in the ways that Nazi wanted. 

  1. Apart from regular police force and SA or the Storm Troopers, there was the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads), the criminal police and the Security Service (SD) the new organised forces enjoyed extra-constitutional powers. 
  2. These dreaded organisation and their workings gave the Nazi state the reputation of the most dreaded criminal state. People could be detained in torture chambers and sent to concentration camps or arrested and detained without any legal procedures. 

 

Q4 ‘By the end of 1940, Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power.’ Explain the statement with examples. 

 

Ans 1. In foreign policy, Hitler acquired quick successes. He left the League of Nations, reoccupied Rhineland, annexed Austria, took German-speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and finally the whole country. 

  1. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. It started the war with England and France. Puppet governments who supported Hitler were set up in many parts of Europe.
  2. In September 1940, Hitler signed a Tripartite pact with Italy and Japan to strengthen his claim to international power. 

 

Q5 What was Hitler’s aim in conquering Eastern Europe? What was its result? 

 

Ans 1. Hitler wanted to conquer Eastern Europe because he wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for the Germans. He attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941. 

  1. The Red Army inflicted a humiliating defeat on Germany. It was a historic blunder on the part of Germany. 
  2. Her western frontiers were exposed to British aerial bombing and eastern frontier to the soviet army. The soviet army established its control over the entire Eastern Europe. 

 

Q6 Mention the communities termed as ‘desirables’ and ‘undesirables’ by the Nazis. 

 

Ans 1. The ‘desirables’ included blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans. He wanted a society of pure and healthy Nordic Aryans. 

  1. The ‘undesirables’ included many gypsies, blacks, Jews remained the worst sufferers. Even those Germans who were seen as impure or abnormal had no right to live. 
  2. Under the Euthanasia Programme they were condemned to death. Even Germans who were mentally and physically unfit were put to death. 

 

Q7 Why did Helmuth’s father shoot himself? 

 

Ans 1. Helmuth’s father was a prominent physician and had been a Nazi and a supporter of Adolf Hitler. 

  1. Germans, who were seen as impure or abnormal, were ‘undesirables’ and had no right to exist under the Euthanasia Programme. 
  2. Helmuth’s father along with other physicians and officials had condemned to death many Germans who were considered as mentally and physically unfit. They knew that the Allies would take revenge. So he shot himself in his office. 

 

Q8 How was Nazi ideology taught to the youth in Germany? Explain.

 

Ans 1. Nazi ideology was taught to the youth in school. School textbooks were rewritten. These books justified Nazi ideas of racism. Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron-hearted, strong and masculine. 

  1. Youth organisations like Jangvolk, Hitler Youth, Youth league and Labour Services were made responsible for educating German youth in the spirit of National socialism or Nazism. 
  2. The German mothers had to teach Nazi values to their children. 

 

Q9 How did the common people react to Nazism? 

 

Ans Common People reacted to Nazism in different ways:

  1. One group of Germans were influence by Nazi thinking they felt hatred and anger when they saw someone who looked like a Jew. They marked the houses of the Jews and reported them to suspicious neighbours. 
  2. Many Germans organised active resistance against Nazism and faced death. 
  3. The third group of Germans were passive spectators, they were scared to act or protest. 

 

Q10 Who wrote the book ‘Third Reich of Dreams’? What did the author describe in the book? 

 

Ans 1. Charlotte Beradt secretly recorded people’s dreams in her diary and later published them in a book called the Third Reich of Dreams. 

  1. She wrote how Jews themselves began to believe in Nazi stereotypes about them. 
  2. They dreamt of hooked noses, black hair and eyes. These images troubled them in their dreams. Finally, they died in the gas chambers. 

 

Q11 Describe the events which happened in 1945 when Germany surrendered to Allies. 

 

Ans 1. In May 1945 Germany surrendered to the Allies. Hitler and his propaganda minister Goebbels and his family committed suicide in his Berlin bunker. 

  1. As the Allied armies overran the areas, occupied by Nazi Germany, they came across many concentration camps where people were on the last stage of their life. 
  2. When the war seemed lost, the Nazi leaders distributed petrol to their subordinates to destroy all evidences available in the offices.

 

 

4 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The war had a devastating impact on the entire continent both psychologically and financially. From a continent of creditors, Europe turned into one of debtors. Unfortunately, the infant Weimar Republic was being made to pay for the sins of the old empire. The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation and was financially crippled by being forced to pay compensation. Those who supported the Weimar Republic, mainly Socialists, Catholics and Democrats, became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles. They were mockingly called the ‘November criminals’.

 

  1. What were the effects of the First World War on Europe? (1)

 

Ans The war had a devastating effect on the entire continent. From the continent of Europe turned into one of debtors. 

 

  1. name the Treaty signed after World War 1st. (1)

 

Ans ‘Treaty of Versailles.’ 

 

  1. Who were called the ‘November Criminals’? (2)

 

Ans Supporters of the Weimar Republic, mainly socialist, catholics and Democrats were mockingly called the November criminals.

 

Q2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The First World War left a deep imprint on European society and polity. Soldiers came to be placed above civilians. Politicians and publicists laid great stress on the need for men to be aggressive, strong and masculine. The media glorified trench life. The truth, however, was that soldiers lived miserable lives in these trenches, trapped with rats feeding on corpses. They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling, and witnessed their ranks reduce rapidly. Aggressive war propaganda and national honour occupied centre stage in the public sphere, while popular support grew for conservative dictatorships that had recently come into being. Democracy was indeed a young and fragile idea, which could not survive the instabilities of interwar Europe. 

 

  1. Who came to be placed above civilians? (1)

 

Ans Soldiers came to be placed above civilians. 

 

  1. Explain the effects of the First World War on Europe? (2)

 

Ans 1. Soldiers came to be placed above civilians. 

  1. Great stress was laid on the need for men to be aggressive, strong and masculine. 

 

  1. Which type of life was glorified by the media? (1)

 

Ans The media glorified trench life.

 

Q3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The German economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis. By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40 per cent of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages. The number of unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million. On the streets of Germany you could see men with placards around their necks saying, “Willing to do any work’. Unemployed youths played cards or simply sat at street corners, or desperately queued up at the local employment exchange. As jobs disappeared, the youth took to criminal activities and total despair became commonplace.

 

  1. Which economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis? (1)

 

Ans The German economy was worst hit by the economic crisis.

 

  1. What was the impact of the economic crisis on German workers? (1)

 

Ans Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages. 

 

  1. Explain the impact of the economic crisis on German youth. (2)

 

Ans As job disappeared the youth took to criminal activities and total despair became commonplace.

 

Q4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

Hitler was a powerful speaker. His passion and his words moved people. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. He promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth. He promised to weed out all foreign influences and resist all foreign conspiracies’ against Germany. 

 

  1. Who was Hitler? (1)

 

Ans Hitler was founder of Nazi party and dictator of Germany. 

 

  1. What was the Versailles Treaty? (1)

 

Ans It was a Treaty which was signed after the First World War between Allies and Germany. 

 

  1. Why was Hitler accepted as a leader by the German people? Give two reasons. (2)

 

Ans 1. He promised to restore the dignity of the German people.

  1. He promised employment for those looking for work.

 

Q5 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

‘Nazi ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s worldview. According to this there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung. They came to be regarded as an anti-race, the arch-enemies of the Aryans. All other coloured people were placed in between depending upon their external features. Hitler’s racism was borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species survived on earth that could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions. We should bear in mind that Darwin never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural  process of  selection. 

 

  1. Hitler’s ideas on racialism were based on which thinkers? (1)

 

Ans Hitler’s racism was borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. 

 

  1. Who was considered ‘Undesirable‘ by Hitler? (1)

 

Ans The Jews were considered ‘undesirable ‘and were given the lowest rank.

 

  1. Who was Charles Darwin? (2)

 

Ans Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection.

 

5 Mark Questions

 

Q1 ‘The Nazis established a racial state, once they came to power.’ Explain. 

OR

How the Nazi established a racial state after coming into power? 

 

Ans 1. Once the Nazis came to power, they wanted to create an exclusive racial community of pure Germans and eliminating those who were seen as ‘undesirables’. 

  1. They wanted a society of pure and healthy Nordic Aryans. They were considered as ‘desirables’. It meant even those Germans, who were seen as impure or abnormal had no right, to exist. 
  2. Jews were not the only community who were classified as ‘undesirables’. 
  3. Many gypsies and blacks living in Nazi Germany were considered as racial inferiors and threatened the purity of the Aryan race. They were widely persecuted. 
  4. Even Russians and Poles were considered subhuman. Many of them died through hard work and starvation. 

 

Q2 What was the impact of the First World War on European and German society? 

 

Ans The First World War left a deep impact on European and German society and polity. 

  1. Financially, Europe which was a continent of creditors turned into one of debtors. 
  2. Soldiers were placed above civilians. Politicians and publicists wanted men to be aggressive, strong and masculine. Aggressive propaganda was carried out. 
  3. Democracy which was a new idea could not survive during interwar Europe. 
  4. The Weimar Republic, formed in Germany after the war, had to accept war guilt and national humiliation. It had to make reparation payments which made Germany financially crippled. 
  5. Media glorified trench life against the truth in which soldiers were leading a miserable life. 

 

Q3 What was the economic crisis of 1923? How did it affect Germany? 

 

Ans 1. Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to make reparation payments in gold. This depleted gold reserves and resources were scarce. 

  1. In 1923 Germany refused to pay, and the French retaliated by occupying the Ruhr, to claim their coal. 
  2. Germany protested and printed paper currency. 
  3. With too much money in circulation, the value of the German mark fell. In April, the US dollar was equal to 24000 marks, in July 353,000 marks, in August 4621,000 marks. 
  4. By December the figure had run into trillion. As the value of the mark declined the prices of goods started rising. This crisis came to be known as hyperinflation. 

 

Q4 Highlight the five events of 1933 that led to the destruction of democracy in Germany. 

OR

Explain any five features of political policy adopted by Hitler after coming to power in 1933. 

OR 

How was democracy destroyed in Germany? 

 

Ans The events of 1933 that led to the destruction of democracy in Germany are as follows. 

  1. On 30 January 1933 President Hindenburg gave the Chancellorship, the highest position in cabinet to Hitler. Hitler now tried to dismantle the structure of democratic rule.
  2. A mysterious fire broke out in the German Parliament which facilitated his move. 
  3. The Fire Decree of 27 February 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly that had been granted by the Weimar republic.
  4. Communists, who were the enemies of Hitler were sent to the concentration camps. 
  5. On 3 March, the Enabling Act was passed. It established a dictatorship in Germany. Hitler could rule without the consent of the parliament. All political parties and trade unions were banned except the Nazi Party. The state had full control over the media, army and judiciary. 

 

Q5 What was the foreign policy of Hitler? 

 

Ans As soon as Hitler came to power, he took the following action as part of his foreign policy.

  1. Germany left the League of Nations in 1933. 
  2. Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936. 
  3. He annexed Austria in 1938 under the slogan one people, one empire and one leader. 
  4. He annexed Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and then the whole country. 
  5. Hitler chose war as the way to solve the economic crisis. Territories had to be expanded for collection of resources. In September 1939, Poland was invaded and it started the Second World War. In 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy and Japan. Puppet governments, who supported Nazi Germany, were installed in large parts of Europe. 

 

Q6 How did the Nazis proceed to realise their murderous racial ideology by eliminating the ‘undesirables’? Explain. 

 

Ans The Nazis proceeded to realise their murderous racial ideology by eliminating the undesirables in the following manner:

  1. Jews remained the worst sufferers in Nazi Germany. From 1933-1938 Jewish business was boycotted, they were expelled from government services and their property was confiscated. From 1939-1945 the Jews were kept in ghettos, in extreme poverty and misery and eventually they were killed in gas chambers. 
  2. Germany occupied the north-western Poland. Poles were forced to leave their homes and property, to be occupied by ethnic Germans. Poles were then sent to the final destination of the ‘undesirables’. 
  3. Members of Polish intelligentsia were murdered in large number in order to keep the entire people intellectually servile. 
  4. Polish children who looked like Aryans were forcibly snatched and examined by race experts. If they passed the test, they were raised in German families and if not they were sent to orphanages, most of them died. 
  5. Poland had some of the largest ghettos and gas chambers where Jews were killed. 

 

Q7 What were the steps taken against the Jews between 1933-1939? 

 

Answer: The steps taken against the Jews between 1933-39 are as follows. The Nuremberg Laws of Citizenship of September 1935 was passed which had following clauses:

  1. Only people of Germans or related blood would be called Germans, enjoying the protection of the state. 
  2. Marriages between Jews and Germans were prohibited. 
  3. It was a crime to have extramarital relations between Jews and Germans. 
  4. Jews could not fly the national flag. 

Other legal measures included: 

  1. Boycott of Jewish business 
  2. Jews were expelled from government services. 
  3. Their property was forcibly confiscated. 

 

Q8 Why was Hitler interested in the youth of the country? 

 

Answer 1. Hitler was interested in the youth of the country. He believed a strong Nazi society could be established by teaching Nazi ideology. 

  1. All schools were cleansed and purified. It meant that all Jew teachers were considered as politically unreliable and were dismissed. German and Jew children could neither set together or play together. Finally the ‘undesirable children’, the Jews, the physically and mentally handicapped and Gypsies were expelled. Finally they were taken to the gas chambers.
  2. Good German children underwent a process of Nazi schooling. School textbooks were re-written and racial science was introduced. Children were taught to hate Jews and worship Hitler. Even sports developed a spirit of aggression and violence among children. Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron-hearted. 
  3. Youth organisation were made responsible for educating German youths. 

 

Q9 How were youth organisation made responsible for education German youth in the spirit of National socialism? 

 

Ans The youth organisations were made responsible for educating German youth in the following ways. 

  1. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk.
  2. At 14 all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation Hitler Youth. There they learnt to glorify war and aggression, and condemn the Jews, Gypsies, communists and all those who came under the undesirable category. 
  3. At the age of 18, they joined the Labour Service. They had to serve in the armed forces and join one of the Nazi organisation. 
  4. The Youth League was founded in 1922. It was renamed Hitler Youth. 
  5. All other youth organisations were dissolved. 

 

Q10 How was Nazi Germany’s Art of Propaganda responsible for establishing total control over its people? 

 

Ans Nazi Germany’s Art of Propaganda was responsible for establishing total control over its people in the following ways:

  1. Hitler was skillfully projected as a messiah, a savior and someone who could deliver Germans from their distress. 
  2. Language and media were used with great care to win support for the rule and popularise it worldview. Visual images, propaganda films, posters, catchy slogans, leaflets, etc. were used to spread Nazi ideas. 
  3. People’s minds were worked, their emotions were tapped and their hatred and anger was turned towards the so-called ‘undesirables’. 
  4. Equal efforts were made to appeal all sections of the population and win their support by suggesting that only Nazis could solve their problems and give a dignified place to live in. 
  5. The education curriculum was also crafted in a way that highlighted the supremacy of Nazi ideology. Stereotypes about the Jews were popularised through subjects like mathematics and children were taught to hate Jews. 

 

Q11 Describe the reaction of masses against Nazi barbarities. 

 

Ans The reaction of the masses against Nazi barbarities were: 

  1. Not every German was a Nazi. Many people resisted Nazism even facing police repressions and death.
  2. Many people were passive onlookers, they were too scared to act, to differ or protest so, they stayed away. 
  3. Ordinary Germans observed silence on the on-going process of brutality. 
  4. Some secretly recorded the horrors. 
  5. Many Jews began to believe in the stereotypes popularised about them. 

 

Q12 Mention five consequences of Nazism in Germany.

 

Ans The consequences of Nazism in Germany were: 

  1. Weimar Republic came to an end. Under Nazism, Germany became a dictatorial state, and democracy was destroyed. 
  2. Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht. He aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme. This project produced the famous German highways and people’s car Volkswagen. 
  3. In foreign policy, Germany left the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938. He then took Sudentenland, a part of Czechoslovakia and finally took the whole country. 
  4. Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways Nazi wanted. 
  5. He believed in the survival of the fittest and established an exclusive racial community of pure Aryans. 

 

Q13 Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans The defeat of Imperial Germany at the hands of the Allied powers in World War I led to the abdication of the emperor Wilhelm II. This gave an opportunity to parliamentary parties to recast the German polity. 

Thus, a National Assembly met at the town of Weimar to form a republic with a democratic constitution and a federal structure. But this newborn republic was not well received by its own people for the following reasons:

  1. The Allied imposed a harsh and humiliating treaty at Versailles, which squarely placed the blame of starting World War I on Germany’s soldiers. It was the Weimar Republic that signed the treaty much to the displeasure of the German populace.
  2. Germany lost all of its overseas colonies and a tenth of its population, along with 75% of its iron and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania. 
  3. The War Guilt Clause held Germany responsible for the war and the subsequent damage it caused in the Allied nations. They were forced to pay compensation of £6 billion in total. Due to the loss of most of its revenue-generating colonies, Germany was unable to repay the amount. 
  4. Due to the failure to pay compensation, the Allied Armies occupied the resource-rich Rhineland for a time. The Weimar Republic reacted to this by printing paper currency in large numbers to pay off the huge debt. This led to hyperinflation and the eventual collapse of the economy.
  5. Coupled with the humiliation of a foreign power occupying German territory and economic collapse, the German public held the new Weimar Republic responsible for the defeat in world war I and accepted the disgrace at Versailles. 

 

Q14 Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans The end of World War I had changed the political landscape of Germany. Right from the beginning, the infant Weimar Republic was beset by problems. 

  1. The harsh Versailles Treaty was a serious blow to the national prestige of the Germans and to the economy. 
  2. The economic situation was worsened by the Great Depression of 1929, which had severely affected the already fragile German economy. The inability of the Weimar Republic to remedy the situation only further inflamed public sentiments.
  3. The political scenario was not any better as the various political factions, such as the communists and socialists fought with each other that stalled any policy that would uplift the plight of the German people. 
  4. It was in this background that Hitler would organise the fledgling National Socialist German Worker’s party, otherwise known as the Nazi party into a mass movement. 
  5. By implementing Nazi ideals, Hitler promised to undo the injustice of the Versailles treaty and restore the dignity of the German people, promising economic security and to build a strong German nation free from all foreign influences and ‘conspiracies’.
  6. He found strong support among the German middle class, who were threatened with destitution due to economic collapse that had shut down banks, businesses and factories. 
  7. Nazi propaganda, along with Hitler’s powerful oratory skills, successfully portrayed Hitler as a saviour and Nazism as the means to deliver the German people from the distress of living in a time of acute economic and political crisis. 

 

Q15 What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans The Nazi thinking was synonymous with Hitler’s world view. The features of such thinking are as follows:

  1. There was no equality among the human race, only a racial hierarchy – with the blonde, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans being at the top and the Jews being placed at the bottom level. All the other coloured people were placed somewhere in between, depending on their external features. 
  2. The other aspect of Nazi ideology was the concept of Lebensraum or living space. It was believed that new territories had to be acquired at the expense of the local population in order to enhance material resources and the power of the German nation. 
  3. They believed in the survival of the fittest, which was a twisted version of Charles Darwin theory about natural selection. In their version, they believed that the strongest race would survive, while the weak would perish. 
  4. Nazi thinking put much emphasis on ‘racial purity’. This meant that anyone born with physical and mental disabilities was considered ‘undesirable’ and impure. Allowing their existence would only pollute the German race and hence they had no right to exist. Along with Jews, Gypsies, Slavic and blacks were all considered subhuman and executed in large numbers under the shadow of World War II. 
  5. Nazis believed in war and aggression. Any notion of peace or related ideologies were considered weak by their standards. They believed that world domination through war justified in proving the superiority of the German race. 

 

Q16 Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. The Nazis were quite effective in using propaganda to great effect. They made propaganda films to fan hatred for Jews with the most infamous being The Eternal Jew. Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked. 

2.They were shown with flowing beards, wearing kaftans and were referred to as rats and vermin who fed off good Germans.

  1. Jews were also blamed for Germany’s defeat in World War I, despite the fact that a large number of them served with distinction in the conflict. 
  2. The propaganda by the Nazis effectively worked on the minds of the people, making use of the centuries of anti-semitic feelings and tapping their emotions. 
  3. This turned their hatred and anger at those who were blamed for all of Germany’s past and present ills. And the Nazis would be the remedy for these ‘ills’ 

 

Q17 Explain the role of women in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Women in Nazi society were relegated to housewives who were charged with upholding the honour of the German race by limiting contacts with ‘undesirables’ and raising as many pure-blooded children as possible. 

  1. Those who conformed to this role were given favoured treatment in hospitals, concessions in shops, theatre tickets and railway fares. 
  2. Despite Hitler’s statement on ‘women being the most important citizen’, it did not apply to every woman. Especially those who deviated from Nazi ideology. Those that did, risked public humiliation, loss of civic honour, loss of family, jail sentence and even death. 
  3. This was in total contrast to the role of women in the French Revolution, Where women led movements and fought for the right to education and the right to equal wages as men. 
  4. They could not be forced to marry against their will. They could also train for jobs, become artists or run small businesses. Schooling was made compulsory for them, and they could even hold property. 

 

Q18 In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans President of the Weimar Republic Paul Von Hindenburg made Hitler the chancellor of Germany. Shortly after, a mysterious fire broke out in the Reichstag, the parliament building of Germany. Blaming the act of arson on communists and other enemies of the state, Hitler passed the First Fire decree in 1933 which suspended the civic rights like freedom of speech, press and freedom of assembly. Thus, Hitler effectively started controlling the German population. 

Other measures he undertook to systematically dismantle democracy in Germany were: 

  1. ‘The Enabling Act’ was passed, which gave all powers to Hitler to sideline the parliament and rule by decree. 
  2. All political parties, with the exception of the Nazi Party, were banned. The members of these banned parties were either imprisoned, exiled or assassinated. 
  3. The communists were eradicated, with the remaining members being sent to concentration camps. 
  4. Special security forces such as the SA, SS, SD and Gestapo were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted. These organisations were given extra-judicial powers. 
  5. In schools, children were taught to be loyal and submissive. They were also taught to hate Jews and worship Hitler. Thus, cultivating a personality cult in the process. 
  6. Nazi youth organizations, the like ‘Jungvolk’ and ‘Hitler Youth’ were created, where the youth were taught to hate democracy, communism, Jews and other ‘undesirables’.