NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 4 Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution

 

Forest Society and Colonialism– Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 9 History important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (History) provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions 1 mark each)

 

Q1 Java was a ___________ colony.

A French

B English

C Dutch

D None of these

 

Ans C Dutch

 

Q2 The Forest Act meant severe hardship for the villagers across the country, because: 

A Cutting wood, grazing cattle, collecting fruits, roots, hunting and fishing became illegal 

B People were forced to steal and if caught, they had to pay bribes to the forest guards 

C Women who collected firewood were harassed by guards

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q3 The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in :

A Dehradun

B Delhi

C Calcutta

D Kanpur

 

Ans A Dehradun

 

Q4 The river _________ flows through Bastar.

A Ganga

B Indus

C Indrawati

D None of these

 

Ans C Indrawati

 

Q5 How did American author Richard Harding defend the invasion of Central American country Honduras?

A The Central Americans were semi-barbarians, who failed to understand the value of their land 

B Uncultivated land had to be taken over by the colonisers and improved 

C Land could not be allowed to remain unimproved with its original owner

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q6 Sarnas are __________.

A Sacred groves

B Forests

C Grasslands 

D None of these

 

Ans A Sacred groves

 

Q7 Which of the following issues did the colonial authorities in Bastar leave its citizens to deal with?

A People of villages were displaced without any notice of compensation 

B Villagers suffered from increased rents, frequent demands for free labour and goods by colonial officials

C Terrible famines in 1899-1900, 1907 and 1908

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q8 Shifting cultivation was banned by the Government in India because:

A European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests 

B When a forest was burnt there was the danger of flames spreading and burning valuable timber 

C It also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q9 In 1600, what percentage of India’s landmass was under cultivation?

A One-sixth

B One-third

C Two-third 

D Half

 

Ans A One-sixth

 

Q10 What approach did the British take toward forests in India during the First and Second World Wars?

A The forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs 

B Cutting of trees was strictly prohibited for everyone, including the British

C More and more trees were planted to give employment to Indians

D None of the above

 

Ans A The forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs

 

Q11 About how much percentage of the world’s total forest area was cleared between 1700 and 1995?

A 9% 

B 9.3%

C 20.5% 

D 30%

 

Ans B 9.3%

 

Q12 Which of these crops was actively promoted by the British during the colonial era?

A Jute

B Sugar and wheat

C Cotton

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q13 What exactly was the Dutch “scorched earth” strategy in Java during the First and Second World Wars?

A Dutch weapons were destroyed on the land of Java

B The earth was exploited further to grow more trees 

C Huge piles of giant teak logs were burnt and saw mills destroyed

D None of the above 

 

Ans C Huge piles of giant teak logs were burnt and saw mills destroyed

 

Q14 How have some of the dense forests survived across India from Mizoram to Kerala?

A villagers have protected them in sacred groves

B Some villagers have been patrolling their own forests

C By strict patrolling of forest officers

D Both A and B

 

Ans D Both A and B

 

Q15 Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for which of these?

A Tea plantations

B Coffee plantations 

C Rubber plantations

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q16 Which of these trade laws imposed during the British Raj in India had a significant impact on pastoralist and nomadic communities? 

A Many communities became slave labours in tea and coffee plantations

B Some of them were called criminal tribes

C Grazing and hunting were restricted and many communities lost their livelihood 

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q17 Which of the following issues did the tribal populations of Assam, Jharkahand, Chhattisgarh, etc. experience? 

A Stopping of shifting cultivation’ had left them without a source of earning 

B In tea plantations their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad 

C They could not return easily to their home villages from where they had been recruited

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q18 The railway network expanded rapidly in India from the _________.

A 1820s

B 1830s

C 1850s

D 1860s

 

Ans D 1860s

 

Q19 The British thought that by exterminating savage animals, they could civilise India. What actions did they take to promote these killings?

A They gave rewards for killing tigers, wolves and other large animals 

B Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards and 200,000 wolves were killed during 1875-1925 alone

C Gradually the tiger came to be seen as a sporting trophy

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q20 Where is Bastar located?

A Southernmost part of Chhattisgarh

B In central Jharkhand region

C in Andhra Pradesh 

D None of the above

 

Ans A Southernmost part of Chhattisgarh

 

Q21 Why did the cultivated area in India rise between 1880 and 1920? 

A The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugarcane, wheat and cotton

B Forests were considered to be wilderness. They had to be cultivated to yield agricultural products and revenue

C The growing urban populations in Europe needed more crops and more raw materials for industry

D All the above

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q22 Who were the colonial powers in Indonesia?

A British

B Dutch

C French

D Portuguese 

 

Ans B Dutch

 

Q23 Who was Gunda Dhur?

A A rebel of Java

B First Inspector General

C A leader of Santhal rebellion

D A leader of Dhurwa tribe

 

Ans D A leader of Dhurwa tribe

 

Q24 The Kalangs resisted the Dutch in ___

A 1700

B 1750

C 1770

D 1800

 

Ans C 1770

 

Q25 Which Indonesian island is now well-known for producing rice?

A Java 

B Sumatra

C Borneo

D Kalimantan

 

Ans A Java 

 

Q26 What was the result of the rebellion by the Dhurwas? 

A The British sent troops to suppess the rebellion

B Work on reservation was temporarily suspended

C Area to be reserved was reduced to roughly half of that planned before 1910

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above 

 

Q27 Where did the Dutch start forest management in Indonesia?

A Java 

B Sumatra

C Bali

D None of the above

 

Ans A Java 

 

Q28 According to the forest laws enacted by the Dutch in Java,

A villagers’ access to forest was restricted

B wood could be cut only for specified purposes like making river boats 

C villagers were punished for grazing cattle or constructing houses

D all the above

 

Ans D all the above

 

Q29 Colonial rulers considered forests as unproductive because:

A the forests were not fit for habitation

B forest had wild grown trees only

C forest did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state

D forests were full of wild animals

 

Ans C forest did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state

 

Q30 What was the system of ‘blandongdiensten’? 

A A system of education

B Industrialisation

C First imposition of rent on land and then exemption

D None of the above

 

Ans C First imposition of rent on land and then exemption

 

Q31 Who wrote the book ‘The Forests of India’ in the year 1923?

A David Spurr

B E.P. Stebbing

C Verrier Elvin

D John Middleton

 

Ans B E.P. Stebbing

 

Q32 What was the first thing Surontiko Samin of the teak forest community of Randublatung questioned?

A The foreign policy of the Dutch 

B State ownership of the forest

C The export policy of the Dutch

D None of the above

 

Ans B State ownership of the forest

 

Q33 Which of the following was not a tribal community?

A Karacha

B Jhum

C Korava 

D Yerukula

 

Ans B Jhum

 

Q34 Which of the following is not associated with swidden agriculture?

A Karacha

B Jhum

C Bewar

D Penda 

 

Ans A Karacha

 

Q35 In South-East Asia shifting agriculture is known as: 

A Chitemene

B Tavy

C Lading

D Milpa

 

Ans C Lading

 

Q36 The system of scientific forestry stands for:

A system whereby the local farmers were allowed to cultivate temporarily within a plantation

B system of cutting old trees and plant new ones 

C division of forest into three categories

D disappearance of forests

 

Ans B system of cutting old trees and plant new ones

 

Q37 Which of the following terms is not associated with shifting agriculture in India?

A Penda 

B Bewar

C Khandad

D Lading 

 

Ans D Lading

 

Q38 In which year the Bastar rebellion took place?

A 1910 

B 1909

C 1911

D 1912

 

Ans A 1910

 

Q39 The Gond forest community belongs to which of the following?

A Chhattisgarh 

B Jharkhand

C Jammu and Kashmir

D Gujarat

 

Ans A Chhattisgarh

 

Q40 Wooden planks laid across railway tracks to hold these tracks in a position are called:

A Beams

B Sleepers

C Rail fasteners

D None of these

 

Ans B Sleepers

 

Q41 Colonial rulers considered forests as unproductive because:

A the forests were not fit for habitation 

B forest had wild grown trees only 

C forest did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state

D forests were full of wild animals

 

Ans C forest did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state

 

Q42 Which of the following is a community of skilled forest cutters?

A Maasais of Africa 

B Mundas of Chotanagpur

C Gonds of Orissa

D Kalangs of java 

 

Ans D Kalangs of Java

 

Q43 Why did the government decide to ban shifting cultivation?

A To grow trees for railway timber

B When a forest was burnt, there was the danger of destroying valuable timber

C Difficulties for the government to calculate taxes

D All the above reasons

 

Ans B When a forest was burnt, there was the danger of destroying valuable timber

 

Q44 Which of the following is a commercial crop?

A Rice

BWheat

C Cotton

D Corn

 

Ans C Cotton

 

Q45 Who among the following led the forest revolt in Bastar?

A Siddhu 

B Birsa Munda

C Kanu

D Gunda Dhur 

 

Ans  D Gunda Dhur

 

Q46 Which of the following was the most essential for the colonial trade and movement of goods?

A Roadways

B Railways

C Airways

D Riverways

 

Ans B Railways

 

Q47 Villagers wanted forests to satisfy their following needs:

A Fuel, fodder and shelter 

B Fuel, fodder and fruit

C Fuel, fodder and cultivation 

D Fuel, fodder and minerals

 

Ans B Fuel, fodder and fruit

 

Q48 Java is famous for ________

A Rice production

B Mining industries 

C Huge population 

D Flood and famines

 

Ans A Rice production

 

1 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Which new trade was created due to the introduction of new forest laws? 

 

Ans Collecting latex from wild rubber trees. 

 

Q2 Name the communities living in Bastar. 

 

Ans Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas. 

 

Q3 Who was Dietrich Brandis? 

 

Ans Dietrich Brandis was a German forest expert, whom the colonial government invited for advice and made him the first Inspector General of forests in India. 

 

Q4 The forest management in Java was under the ________. 

 

Ans Dutch 

 

Q5 After the Forest Act was enacted in 1865, it was amended ________. 

 

Ans twice 

 

Q6 Who were ‘Kalangs’ of Java? 

 

Ans Skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators

 

Q7 What are wooden planks lay across railway tracks to hold these tracks in a position called? 

 

Ans Sleepers 

 

Q8 Why did the government decide to ban shifting cultivation? 

 

Ans Because when a forest was burnt, there was the danger of destroying valuable timber.

 

Q9 Which type of trees were preferred by the forest department? 

 

Ans The trees those are suitable for building ships and railways. 

 

Q10 Indian Forest Service was set up in the year ________. 

 

Ans 1864 

 

Q11 In shifting cultivation, seeds are sown ________. 

 

Ans After cleaning and burning the forest land. 

 

Q12 Give any two local terms for swidden agriculture. 

 

Ans Dhya, Penda, Jhum, Kumri 

 

Q13 Villagers were punished for ________. 

 

Ans Grazing cattle in young stands and cutting wood without a permit or traveling on forest roads with horse carts or cattle. 

 

Q14  Which forest community is found in Central India? 

 

Ans Biogas

 

Q15 A British administrator killed 400 tigers. His name was ________. 

 

Ans George Yule. 

 

Q16 The tribes recruited to work on the tea plantation were ________. 

 

Ans Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand, and Gonds from Chhattisgarh. 

 

Q17 The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at ________. 

 

Ans Dehradun. 

 

Q18 Why are the precious Mahua trees? 

 

Ans Mahua trees are precious because they are an essential part of village livelihood. 

 

Q19 What were siadi creepers used for? 

 

Ans They were used to make ropes. 

 

Q20 Name the three categories of forests as mentioned in the Act of 1878. 

 

Ans Three categories were: Reserved, Protected and Village Forests.

 

Q21 Which species of trees were promoted for the building of ships or railways? 

 

Ans Teak and Sal species were promoted for the building of ships or railways. 

 

Q22 What was the effect of the Forest Act on the people living nearby? 

 

Ans People were forced to steal wood from the forests, and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them. 

 

Q23 What steps were taken under the new scheme of scientific forestry? 

 

Ans Natural forests which had different types of trees were cut down. In their place, one type of trees were planted. 

 

Q24 What was the main cause of worry for the people of Bastar? 

 

Ans People of Bastar were most worried because the colonial government proposed to reserve 2/3rd of the forests in 1905 and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce. 

 

Q25 What do you mean by the reserved forests? 

 

Ans The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were called ‘reserved forests’. Villagers could not take anything from these forests, even for their own use. For house building or fuel, they could take wood from protected or village forests.

 

Q26 Where and when was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up? 

 

Ans The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.

 

Assertion-reason based questions:

 

Q1 Assertion (A): After the Forest Act was enacted in 1865, it was amended twice, once in 1878 and then in 1927. 

Reason (R): The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 

Q2 Assertion (A): The Forest Act meant severe hardship for villagers across the country. 

Reason (R): After the Act, all their everyday practices – cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing – became legal.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false. 

 

Q3 Assertion (A): In shifting cultivation, the whole forest was cut and burnt in rotation. 

Reason (R): Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested by October-November.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans D. A is false but R is true.

 

Q4 Assertion (A): When a forest was burnt, there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber. 

Reason (R): Shifting cultivation also made it easier for the government to calculate taxes.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false.

 

Q5 Assertion (A): In India, hunting of tigers and other animals had been part of the culture of the court and nobility for centuries. 

Reason (R): But under colonial rule the scale of hunting decreased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false.

 

Q6 Assertion (A): The Forest Department made new laws and rules to protect the new forests it was planting. 

Reason (R): Through these rules, it tried to ensure that the old forests did not vanish completely but were cut more carefully.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 

Fill in the blanks in the following:

 

Q1 The ___________ were of the opinion that the forests were useless and more and more forests should be cleared so that cultivation could happen which would increase the income of the state.

 

Ans British 

 

Q2 As the British settled in India, the rate of cultivation increased ____________. 

 

Ans manifold

 

Q3 During the 17th and 18th century the population of __________ exploded.

 

Ans Europe 

 

Q4 British also wanted _________ to be the primary exporter of raw cotton so that English industries could have a steady supply of raw materials. 

 

Ans India 

 

Q5 _________ was used as fuel to power the steam engine in the trains. 

 

Ans Wood 

 

Q6 Wooden planks were used to keep the railway tracks in their place. These are called ______________.

 

Ans sleepers

 

Q7 The British government invited a German botanist ___________ to formulate a plan and a system that would help the British to continue exploiting the forest without the fear of the annihilation of the forests.

 

Ans Dietrich Brandis

 

Q8 Brandis became the ___________ of Forests.

 

Ans Inspector General

 

Q9 In _______ , the Forest law was passed. 

 

Ans 1865

 

Q10 According to the Forest Act, forests were divided into three categories – ____________________.

 

Ans reserved, protected, and village

 

Q11 Villagers were allowed to take materials from the _____________ forests only.

 

Ans protected and village

 

Q12 In Java, there was a community of skilled shifting cultivators who deftly cut forests. They were known as the ___________.

 

Ans Kalanga

 

2 Mark Questions

 

Q1 What is deforestation? Why is it considered harmful? 

 

Ans 1. The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation. Forests are cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, pastures and fuelwood. 

  1. Clearing forests is harmful as forests give us many things like paper, wood that makes our desks, tables, doors and windows, dyes that colour our clothes, spices in our food, gum, honey, coffee, tea and rubber. Forests are the home of animals and birds. They preserve our ecological diversity and life support systems. That is why deforestation is considered harmful.

 

Q2 Mention a few products that are got from forest. 

 

Ans Forests provide us with innumerable products. Forest trees provide wood or timber as it is called. We make furniture, like tables and chairs from wood. Wood is also used to make doors and windows. Paper is made from wood pulp. Forests are a store –house for many herbs which are used as medicine. We get gum and rubber from forest trees. Rubber is a very important industrial raw material. So it is our duty to protect forests.

 

Q3 What is Deforestation? 

 

Ans 1. The cutting down and clearing of the forests is referred to as deforestation. Deforestation is an age-old practice. It started many centuries ago.

  1. During the period of industrialization, forests were cleared for industries to flourish. Deforestation took place to expand cultivation. Deforestation brought a lot of ecological changes to our planet. During colonial rule it became more systematic and extensive. 

 

Q4 Mention a few commercial crops. Why are they called so? 

 

Ans Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton are called commercial crops. These crops are used in industries as raw material, so they are called commercial crops. Cotton is used in the manufacture of textiles. Sugar is used to make chocolates and various other confectionery products. Wheat, like sugar, is used in the confectionery industry, with biscuits and bread being the major product. 

 

Q5 Why did Britain turn to India for timber supply for its Royal Navy? 

 

Ans The disappearance of the oak forests in England, created problems in timber supply for the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy could not survive without a regular supply of timber. So, the British started their search in all the colonial countries for a regular supply of timber. Their search resulted in the cutting down of forests in India. Within a decade, a large amount of timber was exported from India.

 

3 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Why are forests affected by wars? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Forests are affected by wars as they are valuable strategic resources. Battlefield assets like towers, guard posts, army camps are made of wood as they can be easily maintained and can be easily pulled down should the need to shift these assets arise. 

  1. More so the scorched earth policy is enacted should it become apparent that forests will fall under enemy hands. This is done with regards to area and resource denial. 
  2. Such was the case with the Dutch when the Japanese invaded their colony in Indonesia during World War II. The Dutch burned huge acres of forests in order to prevent them from falling into Japanese hands. When they did, however, the Japanese set about recklessly exploiting the timber forests to fulfill their own war demands. This practice would severely impact the local ecology in a negative way for decades to come.

 

Q2 What are the new developments in forestry? 

 

Ans 1. Since the 1980s, governments across Asia and Africa have begun to see that scientific forestry and the policy of keeping forest communities away from forests has resulted in many conflicts.

  1. Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber has become a more important goal. In many cases, across India, from Mizoram to Kerala, dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in sacred groves known as sarnas, devarakudu, kan, rai, etc. 
  2. Some villages have been patrolling their own forests, with each household taking it in turns, instead of leaving it to the forest guards. Local forest communities and environmentalists today are thinking of different forms of forest management. 

 

Q3 What was the Blandongdiensten system? 

 

Ans 1. The Dutch wanted timber from Java for ship-building and railways. In 1882, 280,000 sleepers were exported from Java alone. 

  1. However, all this required labour to cut the trees, transport the logs and prepare the sleepers. 
  2. The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the blandongdiensten system. 

 

Q4 Give any three reasons why cultivation expanded rapidly in the colonial period. 

 

Ans Cultivation expanded rapidly in the colonial period because : 

  1. The British encouraged the cultivation of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. 
  2. They tried to increase the yield of agricultural products. 
  3. They tried to increase their revenue and enhance the income of the state. 

 

Q5 When was the Forest Act passed in India? Why did it cause hardship for the villages across the country? 

 

Ans 1. The Forest Act was enacted in 1865 and was amended twice in 1878 and 1927. It divided the forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were known as the reserved forests. 

  1. Villagers were not allowed to take anything from these forests, even for their own use. This caused great hardship for the villagers. 
  2. All their daily practices such as cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal. People were now forced to steal wood from the forests. If they were caught by the forest guards, they were punished. Women could not collect fuelwood from the forests, and forest guards and constables harassed them.

 

Q6 Why did the Dutch adopt the ‘scorched earth policy’ during the war? 

 

Ans 1. The Dutch adopted the ‘scorched earth policy’ during the war because : The First World War and Second World War had a major impact on forests. 

  1. In India, working plans were abandoned and trees were cut freely to meet British demand for war needs. 
  2. In Java, just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed the ‘scorched earth policy’ destroying saw mills, burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they could not fall into Japanese hands. 

 

Q7 What did Dietrich Brandis suggest for the improvement of forests in India? 

 

Ans 1. Dietrich Brandis suggested that: A proper system had to be followed. People had to be trained in the science of conservation. 

  1. Felling of trees and grazing land had to be protected. Rules about use of forests should be made. Anyone who broke rules needed to be punished. 
  2. Brandis set up in 1864 the Indian Forest Service. He also helped to formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865. 

 

Q8 Explain the term-scientific forestry. 

 

Ans 1. In scientific forestry, different types of natural forests were cut down. In their place one type of tree was planted in straight rows. This is called a plantation. 

  1. Forest officials surveyed the forests, estimated the area under different types of trees and made working plans for forest management. 
  2. They planned how much of the plantation area to be cut every year. The forest area was cut down then to be replanted. 

 

Q9 Discuss in brief the Saminist movement of Indonesia. 

 

Ans 1. Around 1890, Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village, a teak forest village, began questioning state ownership of the forest. He argued that the state had not created the wind, water, earth and wood, so it could not own it. 

  1. Soon a widespread movement developed. Amongst those who helped organise it was Samin’s sons-in-law. 
  2. By 1907, 3,000 families were following his ideas. Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour.

 

Q10 What were the different forest acts made by Britishers to control the forests? 

 

Ans The different forest Acts made by Britishers to control the forests were:

  1. In 1864 the Indian Forest Act Service was established. 
  2. In 1865, the Indian Forest Act was passed. 
  3. In 1878 and 1927 the India Forest Act was amended. 
  4. The Act 1878 made three categories of forest that are Reserved Forests, Protected Forest and Village Forest. 

 

Q11 How did the changes in forest management in the colonial period affect the life of plantation owners? 

 

Ans 1. The changes in forest management in the colonial period affect the life of plantation owners as: The colonial power introduced plantation agriculture in India. 

2.They flourished as large areas of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantation.

  1. It was done to meet the demand of Europe. These areas were given to European planters for plantation at cheap rates. 

 

Q12 What were the consequences of the forest laws which the Dutch enacted in Java ? 

 

Ans 1. In the 19th century, when it became important to central territory and not just people, the Dutch enacted forest law in Java. These laws restricted villagers’ access to forests. 

  1. After these acts were imposed, wood could only be cut for specified purposes such as making river boats or constructing houses and that too only from specific forests and under close supervision. 
  2. Those villagers who grazed cattle in young stands, transported wood without permit or travelled on forest lands with horse carts or cattle were punished.

 

Q13 What are ‘railway sleepers’? How many sleepers are required for 1 mile of railway track? 

 

Ans 1. Railway Sleepers are wooden planks laid across railway tracks; they hold the tracks in position. Between 1,760 and 2,000 sleepers are needed to lay 1 mile of railway track. 

  1. A single sleeper is approximately 10 feet by 10 inches by 5 inches that is 3.5 cubic feet. Wood for these sleepers came mainly from the Sind Forests. 
  2. As the railway was fast expanding, there was a need for more and more trees to be cut. In the Madras Presidency alone, 35,000 trees were cut annually for making sleepers.

 

Q14 Write a brief note about the geographical location of Bastar. 

 

Ans 1. Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh. 

  1. It is surrounded by Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra. The central part of Bastar is situated on a plateau. 
  2. Chhattisgarh plain and the Godavari Plains are to the north and south of the plateau, respectively. The river Indrawati passes through Bastar from east to west. 

 

Q15 What was Samin’s Challenge? 

 

Ans 1. Surontiko Samin belonged to the Randublatung village in Java. The Randublatung village was a teak forest village. Samin challenged the Dutch saying that the state had not created the wind, water, earth and wood, so it could not own it. 

  1. Samin’s Challenge developed into a widespread movement. Samin was supported by his family members. Soon 3000 families followed his ideology and protested against the forest laws of the Dutch, by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it. 
  2. Many other villagers refused to pay taxes or fines. Some of them even refused to work for the Dutch in cutting trees. 

 

Q16 What are the New Developments in Forestry? 

 

Ans 1. Environmentalists have realised the need for ecological balance . Conservation of forests is now seen as an important requirement than growing trees for timber. In order to conserve forests the people living near the forests have to be involved.

  1. In India dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in sacred groves known as sarnas, devarakudu, kan and rai. Villages patrol their own forests, with each household taking turns to do it. 
  2. They do not leave it to the forest guards. Local forest communities and environmentalists today are thinking of different forms of forest management and conservation.

 

4 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

Shifting cultivators: European colonists regarded shifting cultivation harmful to the existence of forests. Also, it stood in their way of commercial timber forestry. There was always the chance of fires spreading out of control and burning down all the precious timber. Thus, keeping these factors in mind, the colonial government banned shifting cultivation. 

Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities: Nomadic and pastoralist communities like the Korava, Karacha and Yerukula from the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods. They were designated as ‘criminal tribes’ by the British authorities and were forced to work in factories, mines and plantations under government supervision. 

Firms trading in timber/forest produces: The British gave European timber trading firms the sole right to trade in forest products in particular areas. Grazing and hunting by the local population were restricted by law. 

Plantation owners: Vast tracts of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations in order to fulfill the demand for these commodities in Europe. Plantation owners, who were overwhelmingly European, were given land at a cheap rate.They were enclosed and cleared of forests and plated with tea or coffee.

 

  1. Why did European colonists ban shifting cultivation? (2)

 

Ans Shifting cultivation stood in their way of commercial timber forestry. There was always the chance of fires spreading out of control and burning down all the precious timber. Thus, keeping these factors in mind, the colonial government banned shifting cultivation.

 

  1. Which firms were trading in timber/forest produce? (1)

 

Ans The British gave European timber trading firms the sole right to trade in forest products in particular areas. Grazing and hunting by the local population were restricted by law.

 

  1. Who were plantation owners? (1)

 

Ans Vast tracts of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations in order to fulfill the demand for these commodities in Europe. Plantation owners, who were overwhelmingly European, were given land at a cheap rate.

 

Q2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

In forest areas, people use forest products—roots, leaves, fruits and timbers—for many things. Fruits and roots are nutritious and good for health, especially during the monsoons before the harvest has come in. Herbs are used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas. A dried scooped-out gourd can be used as a portable water bottle. Almost everything is available in the forest-leaves can be stitched together to make disposable plates and cups, the siadi (Bauhinia vahlii) creeper can be used to make ropes, and the thorny bark of the semur (silk-cotton) tree is used to grate vegetables. Oil for cooking and lighting lamps can be taken by pressing the fruit of the mahua tree.

 

  1. What is the scientific name of siadi? (1)

 

Ans The scientific name of siadi is Bauhinia vahlii.

 

  1. From where can the oil for cooking and lighting lamps be taken? (1)

 

Ans Oil for cooking and lighting lamps can be taken by pressing the fruit of the mahua tree.

 

  1. Give two uses of forest products? (2) 

 

Ans a. Fruits and roots are nutritious and good for health, especially during the monsoons before the harvest has come in. 

  1. Herbs are used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas.

 

Q3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

Dietrich Brandis was a German National and an expert in forest development. The British invited him to India, to seek his advise and he was made the first Inspector General of Forests in India, as the indiscriminate felling of trees worried the British. Mr. Brandis thought that there should be some proper system to manage forests and the people have to be trained in scientific conservation. They restricted cutting of forest trees and grazing. Anybody who cut trees without permission was punished. Mr. Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864. He also formulated the Indian Forest Act in 1865. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. Mr. Brandis introduced the method of Scientific forestry. In this method, instead of different types of trees, only one type of tree is planted. Every year specific areas of the forest are cut and it is replanted. The trees are cut again after they grow. The amendment to the Indian Forests Act , implemented by Mr. Brandis was enforced in 1878. According to this amendment the forests were divided into three categories – reserved, protected and village forests. Villagers were not happy with the Forest act that promoted only particular species like teak and sal which were needed for hard wood, as they were tall and straight. Villagers who use forest products like roots, leaves and fruits wanted forests with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs like fuel, fodder and food.

 

  1. Who was Dietrich Brandis? (1)

 

Ans Dietrich Brandis was a German National and an expert in forest development. The British invited him to India, to seek his advise and he was made the first Inspector General of Forests in India.

 

  1. When did Mr. Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service? (1)

 

Ans Mr. Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864.

 

  1. What was Brandis’ method of Scientific forestry? (2) 

 

Ans In this method, instead of different types of trees, only one type of tree is planted. Every year specific areas of the forest are cut and it is replanted. The trees are cut again after they grow.

 

5 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people: (NCERT QUESTION)

  1. Shifting cultivators 
  2. Nomadic and pastoralist communities 
  3. Firms trading in timber/forest produce 
  4. Plantation owners 
  5. Kings/British officials engaged in shikar (hunting) 

 

Ans 1. Shifting cultivators: European colonists regarded shifting cultivation harmful to the existence of forests. Also, it stood in their way of commercial timber forestry. There was always the chance of fires spreading out of control and burning down all the precious timber. Thus, keeping these factors in mind, the colonial government banned shifting cultivation. Many of these cultivators lost their livelihood in the process and most were also displaced from their homes in the forest. 

  1. Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities: Nomadic and pastoralist communities like the Korava, Karacha and Yerukula from the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods. They were designated as ‘criminal tribes’ by the British authorities and were forced to work in factories, mines and plantations under government supervision. 
  2. Firms trading in timber/forest produces: The British gave European timber trading firms the sole right to trade in forest products in particular areas. Grazing and hunting by the local population were restricted by law. 
  3. Plantation owners: Vast tracts of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations in order to fulfill the demand for these commodities in Europe. Plantation owners, who were overwhelmingly European, were given land at a cheap rate. They were enclosed and cleared of forests and plated with tea or coffee. 
  4. Kings/ British officials engaged in hunting: The forest laws deprived forest dwellers their means of livelihood. Before the enactment of these laws, the forest dwellers practised hunting as a means to sustain themselves. After their enactment, they were forbidden from hunting. Hunting instead became a sport where kings and British officials equally hunted big game in huge numbers, bringing some of them to the very brink of extinction. 

 

Q2 What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and in Java? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Forest management of Bastar in India was under the control of the British, while in Java, it was under Dutch management 

  1. Just like the British, the Dutch required timber to make sleepers for railway tracks. 
  2. The British and Dutch colonial authorities enacted their own version of the forest laws that gave them total control over the forests and depriving the customary rights of the forest dwellers. 
  3. Both the Dutch and the British put a ban on shifting cultivation on the grounds that they were dangerous to the existence of forests 
  4. The villagers of Bastar were allowed to stay in the forests on the condition that they provide free labour to the forest department. 
  5. While in Java, the Dutch exempted those villages from paying taxes when they provided free labour to the forest department 

 

Q3 Between 1880 and 1920 forests cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline: (NCERT QUESTION)

  1. Railways 
  2. Shipbuilding 
  3. Agricultural expansion 
  4. Commercial farming 
  5. Tea/Coffee plantations 
  6. Adivasis and other peasants users 

 

Ans 1. Railways: Railways were an important asset that was essential in maintaining trade through the transport of goods and the domination of the colonies through the transport of troops. Wood was needed to lay the sleepers for railway tracks. The sleepers are what held the tracks from breaking apart. For one kilometre of railway track anywhere between 1760 and 2000 sleepers were required. Thus, vast tracts of forest were cut down to provide the materials for the railways. 

  1. Ship Building Before the coming of the industrial revolution, the ships of the early 19th century were made of wood. Britain maintained its colonial possessions through the Royal Navy with its huge number of naval fleets. But in order to maintain them vast tracts of oak forests in England were cut down. This caused a logistical problem for the Royal Navy as a regular supply of timber was required to build new ships and maintain the old ones. It was easily remedied by cutting down forests of its colonies. Huge acres of forests disappeared as a result with some areas seeing almost complete deforestation. 
  2. Agricultural Expansion As the population rose, so did the demand for food. Forestlands were cleared in order to make way for new agricultural tracts. The colonial authorities believed that they could produce more food if they cleared the forests. In addition, forests were considered unproductive, to begin with, so they had little qualms in cutting them down in huge numbers. Agricultural land rose by 6.7 million hectares between 1880 and 1920. It can be safely said that agricultural expansions contributed the most towards deforestation. 
  3. Commercial Farming of Trees: Forests are diverse not just in fauna, but also flora. So when they were cleared to make way for commercial farming, many species of trees were lost in the process as commercial farming only uses one specific type of trees in commercial farming, depending on the type of plantation. 
  4. Tea/Coffee Plantation In order to meet the growing demand for tea and coffee colonial authorities sold huge hectares of forest land to mostly European plantation firms. These firms then cut down the forests to make way for tea and coffee plantations. As a result, many acres of forest were lost. 
  5. Adivasis and Other Peasant Users: Adivasis and other peasant communities practiced shifting cultivation It involved cutting down parts of forest area and burning the tree roots. Seeds were then sown into the burnt patch and come the monsoon season they were harvested. When fertility declined in that particular area, the same practice was repeated in a different location. So along with losing some of the forest tracts, there were fewer chances of the trees growing back due to loss in soil fertility.

 

Q4 “The people of Bastar speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs” Discuss. 

 

Ans 1. The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they look after the earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.

  1. In addition to the Earth, they show respect to the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain. 
  2. Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary. 
  3. If people from a village want to take some wood from the forests of another village, they pay a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange. Some villages also protect the forests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes some grain to pay them. 
  4. Every year there is one big hunt where the headmen of villages in a pargana (cluster of villages) meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests. 

 

Q5 Who were the Kalangs ? Why did they attack the Dutch forts at Joana ? 

 

Ans 1. The Kalangs were a community of Java. 

  1. They were skilled forests cutters and shifting cultivators. They were so valuable that teak could not be harvested without them, nor could kings build their palaces. 
  2. When the Mataram Kingdom of Java split, the families of the Kalang community were divided equally between the two kingdoms. 
  3. When the Dutch colonised Java they forced the Kalangs to work under them. 

5.The Kalangs resisted by attacking the Dutch fort at Joana, but the uprising was supressed. 

 

Q6 Why did commercial forestry become important during British rule? 

 

Ans Commercial forestry became important during British rule because:

  1. By the early nineteenth century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy. 
  2. English ships could not be built without a regular supply of strong and durable timber; neither could imperial power be protected and maintained without ships. 
  3. For above both factors, before 1850, commercial forestry was considered important in India. By the 1820s, search parties were sent to explore the forest . resources of India. These parties gave a green signal for commercial forestry in India. Within a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and large quantities of timber were being exported from India. 
  4. The spread of railway from the 1850s created a new demand for wood. In India the colonial government felt that railways were essential for effective colonial internal administration, colonial trade and for the quick movement of imperial troops. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines, sleepers were also essential to hold the track together. 

 

Q7 How are forests useful for the villagers? 

 

Ans The forests useful for the villagers as: 

  1. In forest areas, people use forest products—roots, leaves, fruits and timbers—for many things. Fruits and roots are nutritious and good for health, especially during the monsoons before the harvest has come in. 
  2. Herbs are used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas. 
  3. A dried scooped-out gourd can be used as a portable water bottle. 
  4. Almost everything is available in the forest-leaves can be stitched together to make disposable plates and cups, the siadi (Bauhinia vahlii) creeper can be used to make ropes, and the thorny bark of the semur (silk-cotton) tree is used to grate vegetables. 
  5. Oil for cooking and lighting lamps can be taken by pressing the fruit of the mahua tree. 

 

Q8 Where is Bastar located? How did the people of Bastar react against the British forest policies? 

 

Ans 1. Bastar is situated in the southern part of Chhattisgarh and borders Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The river Indrawati flows from east to west across Bastar. The central part of Bastar is a plateau. To the north of this plateau is the Chhattisgarh plain and to its south is the Godavari plain. 

  1. The people of Bastar were very worried when the colonial government proposed to reserve two-thirds of the forest in 1905, and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce. 
  2. People began to gather and- discuss these issues in their village councils, in bazaars and at festivals or wherever the headmen and priests of several villages were assembled. 
  3. In 1910, mango boughs, a lump of earth, chillies and arrows, began circulating between villages. These were messages inviting villagers to rebel against the British. 
  4. Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses. Bazaars were looted, the houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt and robbed, and grain redistributed. 
  5. Most of those who were attacked were in some way associated with the colonial state and its oppressive laws. 

 

Q9 Mention the causes of deforestation in India under colonial rule. 

 

Ans During colonial rule deforestation was more systematic and extensive. In the colonial period, cultivation expanded rapidly for various reasons:

  1. The British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in the 19th century and forests were cleared to meet the foodgrains and raw materials needed for industrial growth in Europe where food grains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production. 
  2. The spread of railways from 1850 created a new demand. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines sleepers were necessary to hold the tracks together. From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. By 1890, about 25,500 km of track had been laid. 
  3. The government gave out contracts to individuals and the contractors began cutting the trees rapidly. Forests around the tracks disappeared. 
  4. Large areas of natural forests were cleared for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities.

 

Q10 Write a note on Dietrich Brandis. 

 

Ans 1. Dietrich Brandis was a German National and an expert in forest development. The British invited him to India , to seek his advise and he was made the first Inspector General of Forests in India, as the indiscriminate felling of trees worried the British. 

  1. Mr. Brandis thought that there should be some proper system to manage forests and the people have to be trained in scientific conservation. They restricted cutting of forest trees and grazing. Anybody who cut trees without permission was punished. 
  2. Mr. Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864. He also formulated the Indian Forest Act in 1865. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. Mr. Brandis introduced the method of Scientific forestry. In this method, instead of different types of trees, only one type of tree is planted. Every year specific areas of the forest are cut and it is replanted. The trees are cut again after they grow. 
  3. The amendment to the Indian Forests Act , implemented by Mr. Brandis was enforced in 1878. According to this amendment the forests were divided into three categories – reserved, protected and village forests. 
  4. Villagers were not happy with the Forest act that promoted only particular species like teak and sal which were needed for hard wood, as they were tall and straight. Villagers who use forest products like roots, leaves and fruits wanted forests with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs like fuel, fodder and food.

 

Q11 Give a brief account of the people of Bastar. 

 

Ans 1. The people of Bastar belonged to different communities such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas. Though they spoke different languages they shared common customs and beliefs. 

  1. The people of Bastar believed that the Earth was sacred and made offerings during agricultural festivals. In addition to the Earth, they respected the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain. 
  2. The boundaries of each village was well marked and the people looked after all the natural resources within that boundary.
  3. If people from one village wanted to take some wood from the forests of another village, they paid a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange. 
  4. Some villages protected their forests by engaging watchmen and each household had to contribute some grain to pay them. Every year a big meeting is organised, where the headmen of villages meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests.