NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution

 

Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 9 History important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (History) provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions 1 mark each)

 

Q1 The leader of the Bolshevik party was __________.

A Stalin 

B Lenin 

C Karl Marx

D Louis Blanc 

 

Ans B Lenin 

 

Q2 Tsarist power in Russia collapsed in the year _________.

A 1905 

B 1916 

C 1917 

D 1920 

 

Ans C 1917 

 

Q3 Tsarina Alexandra was of the _________.

A German origin 

B French origin 

C Russian origin 

D Dutch origin 

 

Answer A German origin 

 

Q4 Jadidists were ____________ within the Russian empire. 

A Muslim reformers 

B Muslim educationists 

C Parsi reformers 

D German refugees 

 

Answer A Muslim reformers 

 

Q5 The main occupation of the people of Russia in the beginning of the twentieth century was _______________.

A manufacturing 

B poultry farming 

C fishing 

D agriculture 

 

Ans D agriculture 

 

Q6 A Labour Party in Britain was formed by socialists and ____________.

A trade unionists 

B peasants 

C industrialists 

D young students 

 

Ans A trade unionists 

 

Q7 The Central powers during the First World War included countries like Germany, Turkey and _____________.

A France 

B Austria 

C Britain 

D Russia 

 

Ans B Austria 

 

Q8 The name associated with April Theses is ___________.

A Karl Marx 

B Robert Owen 

C Lenin 

D Stalin 

 

Ans C Lenin 

 

Q9 The successor of Lenin was ____________-

A Stalin 

B Kerenskii 

C Trotskii 

D Louis Blance 

 

Ans A Stalin 

 

Q10 Budeonovka was the name given to the Soviet _________

A boots 

B coat 

C scarf 

D hat 

 

Ans D hat 

 

Q11 Which of the following organisations was opposed to all political and social change?

A Nationalists 

B conservatives

C liberals 

D radicals 

 

Ans B conservatives

 

Q12 Which of these statements is/are correct about Europe after the French Revolution? 

A Suddenly it seemed possible to change the aristocratic society of the 18th century. 

B However not everyone wanted a complete transformation of society. 

C Some wanted gradual shift, while others wanted complete change of society. 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above 

 

Q13 Which of the following explains the unpopularity of autocracy in Russia?

A The German origin of the Tsarina Alexandra 

B Poor advisors like the Monk Rasputin 

C The huge cost of fighting in the World War I 

D Both A and B 

 

Ans D Both A and B

 

Q14 How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’? 

A They did not believe in universal adult franchise 

B They felt that only men of property should have a right to vote

C Women should not have right to vote 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above 

 

Q15 What types of changes resulted from new political movements in Europe?

A Industrial Revolution occurred 

B New cities came up 

C Railways expanded 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above 

 

Q16 Who conspired in Italy to bring about a revolution? 

A Bismarck 

B Karl Marx 

C Giuseppe Mazzini 

D None 

 

Ans C Giuseppe Mazzini 

 

Q17 What demands were put up by the St. Petersburg workers who went on strike?

A Reduction of working time to eight hours 

B Increase in wages 

C Improvement in working conditions 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above 

 

Q18 In the World War I, which started in 1914, Russia fought against ___________

A Britain and France 

B Germany and Austria 

C America 

D All the above 

 

Ans B Germany and Austria 

 

Q19 Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

A By 1916, railway lines in Russia began to break down 

B There were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down 

C Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q20 On 27th February 1917, soldiers and striking workers gathered to form a council called ___________.

A Soviet Council 

B Petrograd Soviet 

C Moscow Union 

D Russian Council 

 

Ans B Petrograd Soviet 

 

Q21 Which of these demands is/are referred to as Lenin’s ‘April Theses’? 

A World War I should be brought to an end 

B Land should be transferred to the peasants 

C Banks should be nationalised 

D All the above 

 

Ans D All the above

 

Q22 Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia during the Russian Revolution?

A Karl Marx 

B Friedrich Engels 

C Vladimir Lenin 

D Trotsky 

 

Ans C Vladimir Lenin

 

Q23 Socialists took over the government in Russia through the_________.

A October Revolution in 1917 

B November Revolution in 1918 

C December Revolution in 1919 

D February Revolution in 1920 

 

Ans A October Revolution in 1917  

 

Q24 At the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of Russian people worked in the: 

A Industrial sector 

B Agricultural sector 

C Mining sector 

D Transport sector 

 

Ans B Agricultural sector 

 

Q25 The commune of farmers was known as: 

A Tsar 

B Duma 

C Mir 

D Cossacks 

 

Ans C Mir 

 

1 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Who controlled economic and social powers before the 18th century in France? 

 

Ans  The aristocracy and the church controlled the economic and social powers in France before the 18th century. 

 

Q2 Name any two Indians who talked of the significance of the French Revolution. 

 

Ans  Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution. 

 

Q3 What were the varied responses in Europe about the transformation of society? 

 

Ans  There were some who accepted that some changes were necessary but wished to have a gradual shift while others wanted radical restructuring of the society. 

 

Q4 Mention the type of government favoured by the liberals. 

 

Ans They insisted on a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.

 

Q5 How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’? 

 

Ans The liberals were not democrats because they did not believe in universal adult franchise and felt that only men of property should have a right to vote. They were against voting rights to women. 

 

Q6 Mention one significant view of the radicals. 

 

Ans Radicals wanted a nation in which the government was based on the majority of a country’s population. 

 

Q7 When did the conservatives become receptive to the need for change? 

 

Ans  After the French Revolution, the conservatives became receptive to some kind of change. 

 

Q8 Which group of ideology was against any kind of political or social change earlier in the 18th century? 

 

Ans  The conservatives, in the early 18th century were against any kind of political and social change. 

 

Q9 What were the ideas of ‘conservatives’ regarding social change in the 19th century? 

 

Ans  The conservatives believed that some change was required in the society but the changes should be slow. 

 

Q10 What kind of developments took place as a result of new political trends in Europe? 

 

Ans As a result of new political trends in Europe, industrial revolution occurred, new cities came up and railways expanded. 

 

Q11 List the major change during industrialisation. 

 

Ans Men, women and children were brought to factories during industrialisation. 

 

Q12 What were the firm beliefs of the liberals? 

 

Ans The liberals firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. 

 

Q13 How would society develop according to the liberals? 

 

Ans Liberals believed that societies would develop if freedom of individuals was ensured, if poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint. 

 

Q14 Who were the people who wanted to put an immediate end to the existing governments in Europe in 1815? 

 

Ans Some nationalists, liberals and radicals who became revolutionaries wanted to put an immediate end to the existing governments in Europe in 1815. 

 

Q15 What were nationalists’ views about revolutions? 

 

Ans The nationalists viewed that revolutions would create nations where all citizens would enjoy equal rights. 

 

Q16 Who was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy? 

 

Ans An Italian nationalist, Giuseppe Mazzini, conspired with others to achieve equal rights to all citizens in Italy after 1815. 

 

Q17 Why were the socialists against private property? 

 

Ans The socialists were against private property because individuals who owned property were concerned only about their personal gains rather than social welfare. 

 

Q18 What were the two different visions of the socialists for the future? 

 

Ans Some socialists like Robert Owen believed in the idea of cooperatives and built cooperative communities called New Harmony in Indiana. Others like Louis Blanc felt that it could not be achieved through individual initiative. Governments should encourage cooperatives. 

 

Q19 What did Karl Marx want workers to overthrow? Why? 

 

Ans Karl Marx wanted the workers to overthrow capitalism and free themselves from capitalist exploitation. 

 

Q20 Which international body was formed in Europe in the 19th century to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe? 

 

Ans An international body was formed in Paris in 1889, to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe. It was called the Second International.

 

Q21 Name the socialist parties formed in Britain and France in 1905. 

 

Ans Labour Party was formed in Britain by socialists and trade unionists. A Socialist Party was also formed in France. 

 

Q22 Who was the ruler of Russia and its empire in 1914? 

 

Ans The ruler of Russia and its empire was Tsar Nicholas II. 

 

Q23 Mention the regions included in Russian empire. 

 

Ans The Russian empire included territory around Moscow and current-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It also comprised some of today’s Central Asian states. 

 

Q24 Name the religions practised in the Russian empire. 

 

Ans The religions in the Russian empire included Russian Orthodox Christianity’, Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists. 

 

Q25 Which was the major occupation of Russian people at the beginning of twentieth century? 

 

Ans Agriculture was the occupation of about 85 per cent of the Russians at this time. 

 

Q26 Name the prominent industrial areas in the Russian empire. 

 

Ans St Petersburg and Moscow were the prominent industrial areas. 

 

Q27 Name any two factors that led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century. 

 

Ans The expansion of Russian railway network and increase in foreign investment led to the setting up of industries in Russia by the end of the 19th century. 

 

Q28 What was the commune/mir? 

 

Ans The commune/mir was a cooperative community of people in Russia living together and sharing possessions and responsibilities. 

 

Q29 Mention the role of Socialist Revolutionary Party. 

 

Ans The Socialist Revolutionary Party struggled for peasants’ rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants. 

 

Q30 On what point did the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries differ with each other? 

 

Ans The socialists felt that peasants were not a united group. Some were poor while others were rich, some worked as labourers while others were capitalists.

 

Q31 How was the Socialist Revolutionary Party divided over the strategy of organisation? 

 

Ans One group under Lenin felt that the party should be disciplined and the number and quality of members should be maintained. Others wanted the party to be open to all. 

 

Q32 Which communities demanded a constitution during the 1905 Revolution? Who supported them? 

 

Ans Liberals, Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries with peasants and workers demanded a constitution. Nationalists and jadidists supported them. 

 

Q33 Who were jadidists? 

 

Ans The jadidists were the Muslim reformers within the Russian empire. They wanted modernised Islam to lead their societies. 

 

Q34 What was Bloody Sunday? 

 

Ans Bloody Sunday was an incident when a workers’ procession led by Father Gapon was attacked by the police and at Winter Palace Cossacks killed hundreds. 

 

Q35 What do you mean by Union of Unions? 

 

Ans During the 1905 revolution, lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle class workers established a union of unions and demanded a constituent assembly. 

 

Q36 Why did the Tsar dismiss the first Duma within 75 days of its election? 

 

Ans The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days of its election because the Tsar did not want any reduction in his power and anyone to question his authority. 

 

Q37 Between which two European alliances the First World War broke out? 

 

Ans The two European alliances were Germany, Austria and Turkey and France, Britain and Russia. 

 

Q38 Give one instance of high anti-German sentiment in Russia. 

 

Ans The renaming of St Petersburg, a German name, as Petrograd showed the high anti-German sentiments. 

 

Q39 What made autocracy unpopular in Russia? 

 

Ans The German origin of the Tsarina Alexandra and advisers like the monk Rasputin made the autocracy unpopular in Russia. 

 

Q40 What were the divisions in the layout of the Petrograd city? 

 

Ans Workers’ quarter and factories were located on the right bank of River Neva whereas on the left bank fashionable area, the Winter Palace and official building were located.

 

Q41 Which division faced food shortage in February 1917? 

 

Ans The workers’ quarter was affected deeply with the food shortage in February. 

 

Q42 To which the Tsar’s desire of Parliamentarians was opposed? Why? 

 

Ans Parliamentarians were opposed to the Tsar’s desire to dissolve the Duma to preserve the elected government. 

 

Q43 Why did a lockout take place at a factory on the right bank of the River Neva on 22 February, 1917? 

 

Ans A lockout took place at a factory on the right bank of the River Neva on 22nd February, 1917 in favour of the workers at the left bank of the river. They had a bad time due to severe winter and food shortages. 

 

Q44 Which events took place after the Tsar abdicated on 2nd March? 

 

Ans The events that took place after the abdication of Tsar on 2nd March 1917 were: 

(a) Forming of the Provisional Government. 

(b) Decision to set up a constituent assembly. 

 

Q45 Who formed the Provisional Government to run the country? 

 

Ans Soviet and the Duma leaders formed a Provincial Government to run the country. 

 

Q46 Who were influential in the Provisional Government? 

 

Ans Army officials, landowners and industrialists were influential in the Provisional Government. 

 

Q47 What were Lenin’s ‘April Theses’? 

 

Ans The three demands of Vladimir Lenin after his return to Russia in April 1917 were called Lenin’s April Theses’.

 

Q48 Why were most of the Bolshevik Party members initially surprised by ‘April Theses’? 

 

Ans Most of the Bolshevik Party members were surprised by the ‘April Theses’ because of the following reasons. (a) They wanted the continuation of World War I. (b) They thought that time was not ripe for a socialist revolution. (c) The Government needed to be supported at this time. 

 

Q49 What do you mean by nationalisation of banks and industries? 

 

Ans This meant that the ownership and management of banks and industries held by the government. 

 

Q50 Name the ship that protected the Winter Palace during the October Revolution in 1917 in Russia. 

 

Ans Aurora protected the Winter Palace during the October Revolution in 1917 in Russia. 

 

Q51 What was Budeonovka? 

 

Ans Budeonovka was the Soviet hat that was chosen to assert change in army uniform.

 

Q52 What was the Bolshevik Party renamed after the October Revolution? 

 

Ans Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party after the October Revolution. 

 

Q53 What was Cheka? 

 

Ans Cheka was the secret police set up by the Bolsheviks to clamp down on its critics. 

 

Q54 To whom did the ‘reds’, ‘greens’ and ‘whites’ refer to during the Civil War in Russia? 

 

Ans The ‘reds’ were the Bolsheviks The ‘greens’ were the Socialist Revolutionaries The ‘whites’ were the pro-Tsarists. 

 

Q55 Name the countries that supported the Socialist Revolutionaries and the pro-Tsarists in Russia. 

 

Ans France, America, Britain and Japan supported the Socialist Revolutionaries and pro-Tsarists in Russia. 

 

Q56 What were Stalin’s views about rich peasants and traders? 

 

Ans Stalin viewed that rich peasants and traders held stocks of foodgrains hoping for higher prices in future. 

 

Q57 Who were the ‘Kulaks’? 

 

Ans Kulakas were the rich peasants who held most of the land in Russia. 

 

Q58 What was the problem associated with small-sized farms in Russia? 

 

Ans Production in the small-sized farms declined as modern farming could not be used.

 

Assertion-reason based questions:

 

Q1 Assertion (A): Capitalists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time. 

Reason (R): Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the properties were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. 

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans D. A is false but R is true.

Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.

 

Q2 Assertion (A): Those who resisted Collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. 

Reason (R): Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators sympathetically.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans C. A is true but R is false. 

Those who resisted Collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. As they resisted Collectivisation, peasants argued that they were not rich and they were not against Socialism. They merely did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.

 

Q3 Assertion (A): Marx believed that to free themselves from Capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically Socialist society where all property was socially controlled. 

Reason (R): He was convinced that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists. A communist society was the natural society of the future.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 

 

Q4 Assertion (A): At the beginning of the twentieth century, the vast majority of Russia’s people were industrialists. 

Reason (R): Industry was found in pockets. Prominent industrial areas were St Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside craft workshops.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans D. A is false but R is true.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists. About 85 per cent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from agriculture.

 

Q5 Assertion (A): Liberals and Radicals themselves were often property owners and employers.

Reason (R): Opposed to the privileges the old Aristocracy had by birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Industrialization brought men, women, and children to factories. There were many issues like long working hours, unemployment, housing, and sanitation, etc. These problems were common since towns were growing rapidly. Liberals and Radicals searched for solutions to these issues. Almost all industries were the property of individuals. Liberals and Radicals themselves were often property owners and employers. Having made their wealth through trade or industrial ventures, they felt that such effort should be encouraged. Opposed to the privileges the old Aristocracy had by birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.

 

Q6 Assertion (A): 22 February came to be called the International Women’s Day. 

Reason (R): On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 

Q7 Assertion (A): Vladimir Lenin, the Russian revolutionary politician and the founder of Russian Communist Party said that imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism. 

Reason (R): The colonies not only served as the major source for raw materials but also became the market for finished goods.

Options: 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. A is false but R is true.

 

Ans B. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

Vladimir Lenin, the Russian revolutionary politician and the founder of the Russian Communist Party once said that imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism. The colonies not only served as the major source for raw materials but also became the market for finished goods. This resulted in fierce competition among the capitalist countries to control the source of raw materials and the markets for finished goods.

 

Fill in the blanks in the following:

 

Q1  ____________ was the Soviet hat that was chosen to assert change in army uniform.

 

Ans Budeonovka 

 

Q2 ___________ was the secret police set up by the Bolsheviks to clamp down on its critics.

 

Ans Cheka 

 

Q3 Soviet and the Duma leaders formed a ______________ to run the country.

 

Ans Provincial Government

 

Q4 Bloody Sunday was an incident when a workers’ procession led by ____________ was attacked by the police and at Winter Palace Cossacks killed hundreds. 

 

Ans Father Gapon

 

Q5 Liberals, Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries with peasants and workers demanded a ______________. 

 

Ans constitution

 

Q6 The Socialist Revolutionary Party struggled for ____________ rights.

 

Ans peasants’

 

Q7 The ruler of Russia and its empire was ____________ in 1914.

 

Ans Tsar Nicholas II

 

Q8 An international body was formed in Paris in 1889, to coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe. It was called the ______________.

 

Ans Second International

 

Q9 ________________ was responsible for achieving equal rights in Italy in 1815.

 

Ans Giuseppe Mazzini

 

Q10 The ______________ firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise.

 

Ans liberals 

 

2 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Write a short note on Kulaks. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Wealthy peasants who Stalin believed were hoarding the grains to gain more profit. When the towns faced acute shortage of grains, Kulaks were thought to be responsible for it. Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate them so that farms could be modernised. 

 

Q2 Write a short note on the Duma. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans In 1905, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative Parliament or Duma. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and re-elected the second Duma within three months. The Tsar did not want anyone to question his authority or undermine and reduce his powers. The Tsar changed the voting laws and packed the Third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were kept out. 

 

Q3 Write a short note on Women workers between 1900 and 1930. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Their wages were less than the wages of men. They formed 31% of the factory workforce. 

 

Q4 Write a short note on the Liberals. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans They considered all religions as equal. They believed only men who have property had the right to vote. They wanted an elected form of Parliamentary governance. 

 

Q5 Write a short note on Stalin’s collectivisation programme. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans He began this program in 1929. He believed this program would help in improving grain supplies. All peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms called ‘Kolkhoz’. On the contrary, this worsened the food supply situation.

 

Q6 Liberals were not Democrats. Explain.

OR 

Why do we say that liberals could not be called ‘democrats’? 

 

Ans 1. The liberals could not be called democrats because even though they argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials, they did not believe in universal adult franchise and also did not want the voting rights for women. They felt right to vote should only be given to the propertied men.

 

3 Mark Questions

 

Q1 In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. The vast majority of Russia’s population were agriculturists. 

  1. About 85 percent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from Agriculture. This proportion was higher than in most European countries. 
  2. In France and Germany, the proportion was between 40 per cent and 50 per cent. Cultivators produced for the market as well as for their own needs and Russia was a major exporter of grain.

 

Q2 Describe the views of radicals. 

 

Ans The following were the viewpoints of the radicals:

  1. Radicals wanted a nation in which the government was based on the majority of a country’s population. 
  2. Many supported women’s suffragette movements. 
  3. They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. Though they favoured private property, they disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few. 

 

Q3 What were the viewpoints of the conservatives? 

 

Ans The conservatives had the following viewpoints: 

  1. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, they were opposed to the idea of change. 
  2. Later in the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable. 
  3. At the same time they believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process. 

 

Q4 How should society, according to liberals and radicals, develop? 

 

Ans Liberals and radicals were often property owners and employers. They acquired wealth through industrial ventures and trade. They believed that society could develop in the following ways:

  1. They strongly believed that if the workforce is healthy and educated, more profits could be earned. 
  2. They firmly believed in valuing individual efforts, labour and enterprise. 
  3. They believed that the society would develop if the poor could work and freedom of all individuals is ensured. 
  4. For this, they wanted investment and trade to be carried out without restrictions. 

 

Q5 Why were socialists against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills?

OR

To what changes did the socialists campaign for? 

OR 

Explain the Socialist view on private property. 

Ans The socialists were against private property because of the following reasons: 

  1. They believed that private property was the root cause of all social evils. 
  2. Individuals who owned property, did provide employment but at the same they are much more concerned with personal gains. 
  3. They did not bother about the welfare of the people. 
  4. Socialists also felt that if society controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests and concentration of wealth in the hands of a few could be restricted.

 

Q6 What was the basic principle of the Marxist theory? 

 

Ans 1. Marx believed that the condition of workers could not improve as long as private capitalists had profit motive. 

  1. Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. 
  2. Workers must construct a radically socialist society where all property is socially controlled. This would be a communist society, the natural society of the future. 

 

Q7 Explain how workers were divided in social groups.

 

Ans The workers were divided in social groups in Russia in the following ways:

  1. Some workers were closely linked to their villages while others settled in the cities permanently.
  2. The division among the workers was on the basis of skills they possessed. Metalworkers were on the high level as their work required training. 
  3. Apart from males, women also formed a considerable working force in the factories though they were paid less than the males. 

 

Q8 Discuss the relationship between peasants and nobles in Russia during the early 19th century. 

 

Ans 1. Peasants cultivated most of the land that was owned by the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church. 

  1. Nobility had no respect except in a few cases. Peasants demanded the land of the nobles to be distributed to them. 
  2. Often they refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords. Such events were on rise all over Russia. 

 

Q9 How did Social Democrats disagree with Socialist Revolutionaries? 

 

Answer: Social Democrats disagreed with Socialist Revolutionaries in the following ways: 

  1. Social Democrats believed workers to be the mainforce of revolution whereas Socialist Revolutionaries argued that peasants would be the revolutionary class. 
  2. Social Democrats wanted benefits for the workers and control on the factors of production. Socialist Revolutionaries on the other hand demanded land from the peasants. 
  3. Social Democrats felt that peasants were not a united group as they were rich and poor and many owned large tracts of land. Socialist Revolutionaries favoured peasants as natural socialists. 

 

Q10 What was the difference between the Bolshevik and Menshevik groups? 

OR

Who were the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks? 

 

Ans 1. The Bolsheviks were the majority group led by Vladimir Lenin who thought that in a repressive society like Tsarist Russia, the party should be disciplined and control the number and quality of its members. 

  1. They were the group who conducted the Russian Revolution. 
  2. Mensheviks, on the other hand, were the minority group who thought that the party should be open to all. They did not believe in revolution but wanted to bring changes through democratic means. 

 

Q11 What made the Tsar the ‘autocrat of all the Russians’? Describe the steps he took just before the Russian Revolution. 

 

Ans 1. Russia followed autocracy. The Tsar was not subject to Parliament. This made the Tsar the autocrat of all Russia. 

  1. The liberals in Russia campaigned to end this state of affairs. 

The following steps were taken by the Tsar just before the Russian Revolution to ascertain his authority. (a) All political parties were declared illegal in Russia. (b) Every possible effort was taken to crush the rebellion and revolution against the Tsar. 

 

Q12 Why is Tsarist Russia termed as a repressive society? 

 

Ans Tsarist Russia is termed as a repressive society because of the following reasons: 

  1. Large tracts of land were owned by nobility, crown and the Orthodox Church. Nobles enjoyed privileges at the cost of the common people. 
  2. Political parties were illegal. No one could raise voice against the aristocratic class. 
  3. Tsar enjoyed unconditional power without being responsible to any one. 

 

Q13 Describe the incident known as ‘Bloody Sunday’. 

 

Ans The following events gave way to the incident known as Bloody Sunday:

  1. The dismissal of four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers called for an industrial action by the workers. 
  2. Over 110,000 workers in St Petersburg went on strike in 1905, demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions. 
  3. When this procession led by father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Hundreds of the workers were killed and many hundreds wounded. This incident came to be known as Bloody Sunday. It started a series of events that later resulted in the 1905 Revolution.

 

Q14 How did the destruction of Russian industries after the First World War become one of the causes of resentment of people? 

OR 

What effects did the First World War have on the industry of Russia? 

 

Ans 1. The First World War had a devastating impact on industries. Russia had few industries and on that supplies of industrial goods were cut off due to war. 

  1. Industrial equipment began to disintegrate rapidly, railway lines began to break down. All the able-bodied men were engaged in war which resulted in the shutdown of the small workshops. Grains were supplied to the army engaged in war. 
  2. This created food shortages. In cities, bread and flour became scarce. Riots at the bread shops became a common scene in Russia. 

 

Q15 Discuss Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.

OR

What were the demands referred to in Lenin’s ‘April Theses’? 

 

Ans The following were the demands referred to in Lenin’s April Theses’. 

  1. World War I should be brought to an end. 
  2. Land should be transferred to the peasants. 
  3. Banks should be nationalised. 

 

Q16 What were the effects of the February Revolution in Russia? 

 

A6ns The following were the effects of the February Revolution in Russia. 

  1. The Tsar abdicated and monarchy was brought down. 
  2. The Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country. 
  3. Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage. 

 

Q17 Why did the Kerenskii government become unpopular in Russia? 

 

Ans The Kerenskii government became unpopular in Russia because of the following reasons

  1. He tried to suppress the workers’ movement. Peasants in the countryside had started demanding redistribution of land.
  2. The Bolshevik demonstrators were suppressed. Many of them had to go into hiding.
  3. Kerenskii was suspected of setting up a dictatorship and Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. 
  4. Sensing the trouble to be caused by the revolutionaries he left the city to summon troops. 

 

Q18 Mention any two changes introduced by Stalin in the Russian economy. How did Stalin deal with the critics? 

 

Ans The following changes were introduced by Stalin. 

  1. Elimination of kulaks, the well-to-do farmers. The land from the kulaks was taken and state-controlled farms were established.
  2. Collectivisation of land i.e., Stalin’s collectivisation programme was followed. All peasants had to cultivate collective farms (Kolkohz) and the profit was shared by the peasants working on the land. 
  3. There were peasants’ resistances which Stalin dealt with severely. The critics were charged with conspiracy against socialism. Many were deported and exiled and forced into prisons or labour camps. Many were forced to make false statements under torture and were later executed. 

 

Q19 Why was the decision to collectivise farms taken? 

 

Ans 1. Russia was facing acute shortages of grain supplies. The price at which grains must be sold was fixed by the government. Still the peasants refused to sell their grains to the government. 

  1. Stalin thought that rich peasants and traders in the countryside were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. This created a shortage. Therefore, the decision to collectivise farms was taken. 
  2. It was felt that small size farms were not as productive as they could not be modernised which caused the shortage. Modern farming was the need of the hour. They wanted to run farms along industrial lines with machinery. 

 

Q20 “By the 1950s it was acknowledged within the country that the style of government in the USSR was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution.” Why was this said? 

 

Ans  By the 1950s the style of government in the USSR was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution. It was said because of the following reasons: 

  1. No doubt Russia, being a backward country, had become a great power with developments in industries and agriculture and feeding the poor. But at the same time its citizens were denied the essential freedoms. 
  2. Its developmental projects were carried through repressive policies. 

Workers faced hardships with poor working conditions. 

 

Q21 What were the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries? 

 

Ans The following were the main objectives of the Russian Revolutionaries. 

  1. Peace: The Russian revolutionaries wanted to maintain peace and order in the country. The people of Russia were against the war. Just after the fall of Tzar, Russia withdrew from the war.
  2. Land to the Tiller: The Russian revolutionaries were of the opinion that the agricultural land should be allotted to the cultivators as the peasants in Russia were leading a miserable life under the large landowners. 
  3. Control of industry by the workers: In Russia, the capitalists greatly exploited the workers. This made the condition of Russian workers deplorable. There was a great need to control the industry by workers themselves. 
  4. Equal status for the non-Russian nationalists: The Russian revolutionaries demanded equal status for the non-Russian nationalities. Just after the revolution, a declaration of the people was issued by the new government conferring them political autonomy. 

 

4 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property. Most industry and banks were nationalised in November 1917. This meant that the government took over ownership and management. Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility. In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements. They banned the use of the old titles  of aristocracy. To assert the change, new uniforms were designed for the army and officials, following a clothing competition organised in 1918 when the Soviet hat (budeonovka) was chosen. The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik). In November 1917, the Bolsheviks conducted the elections to the Constituent Assembly, but they failed to gain majority  support. 

 

  1. What was Bolshevik? (1) 

 

Ans It was a socialist party of Russia. 

 

  1. Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? (1) 

 

Ans Vladimir Lenin 

 

  1. What changes were brought by the Bolsheviks in Russia after they came to power? (2) 

 

Ans 1. Most industries and  banks were nationalised. 

  1. Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.

 

Q2 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution, the Russian army began to break up. Soldiers, mostly peasants, wished to go home for the redistribution and deserted. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising. Their leaders moved to south Russia and organised troops to fight the Bolsheviks (the ‘reds’). During 1918 and 1919, the ‘greens’ (Socialist Revolutionaries) and ‘whites’ (pro-Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire. They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops – all those forces who were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia. As these troops and the Bolsheviks fought a civil war, looting, banditry and famine became common. 

 

  1. Who condemned  the Bolshevik uprising? (1) 

 

Ans Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik  uprising. 

 

  1. Who were the ‘greens ‘and ‘whites‘? (1) 

 

Ans They were the group of people who were against the Bolshevik Revolution. 

 

  1. Why did France, America, Britain and Japan  help the ‘greens’ and ‘whites‘? (2) 

 

Ans Because all these countries were worried about the growth of socialism in Russia.

 

Q3 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

 

When the procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 1100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. The incident, known as Bloody Sunday, started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution. Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down when student bodies staged walkouts, complaining about the lack of civil liberties. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions and demanded a constituent assembly. 

 

  1. What was the prime reason for the procession of workers? (2) 

 

Ans 1. Demand for reduction in working  hours. 

  1. Increase in real wages. 

 

  1. Why were the  workers  moving  towards the Winter Palace? (1) 

 

Ans It was the residence of Tsar Nicholas ll. 

 

  1. What was the immediate outcome of the 1905 Revolution? (1) 

 

Ans Creation of Duma.

 

5 Mark Questions

 

Q1 What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Social Conditions: 

Workers were a divided group. Some had strong links with the villages; others had settled permanently in cities. Workers were divided based on their skills. The division among workers reflected in their dress and manners too. 

  1. Economic Conditions: 

Most industries were the private property of industrialists. Government supervised large factories. The industry was found in pockets. Many factories were set up in the 1890s when Russia’s railway network was extended, foreign investment in industry increased, coal production doubled, and iron and steel output quadrupled. Most industries were the private property of industrialists. 

  1. Political conditions: 

Russia was an autocracy. Unlike other European countries, The Tsar was not subject to a Parliament. Liberals in Russia campaigned to end this state of affairs. 

  1. Socialist Revolutionary Party struggled for Peasants rights 1905 was the year when the incident of ‘Bloody Sunday’ took place. 100 workers were killed, and about 300 were wounded. Bloody Sunday started a series of events that became known as the 1905 revolution.

 

Q2 Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. After 1905, most trade unions and factory committees were declared illegal. There were restrictions on political activity. 

  1. The Tsar dismissed the first 2 Dumas very quickly because he did not want his authority and powers to be questioned. 
  2. The third Duma was filled with Conservative politicians.
  3. During the 1st world war, the tsar started taking unilateral decisions without consulting the Duma. While Russian soldiers were retreating from the war, large swathes of agricultural lands were burnt and buildings destroyed by them on the orders of the Tsar. 
  4. Millions of soldiers have also died in the battle. The large majority of the population were peasants, and the land was under the control of a few private people. 

All these factors led to the rise of revolution and the collapse of Tsar autocracy.

 

Q3 Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Main events of February Revolution: 

  1. In February 1917, there was a shortage of food items in workers quarters. 
  2. On February 22, a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank. The workers in fifty factories called a strike and women played a very critical role in these strikes. This day went on to be named as International Women’s Day. 
  3. On February 25, the government suspended the Duma. 
  4. On February 27, Police headquarters were ransacked, people were demonstrating and raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. 
  5. Petrograd Soviet was formed. 
  6. Tsar abdicated on March 2, Monarchy was formed in Feb 1917. 
  7. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country. 

Effects of the February Revolution: 

  1. Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed. 
  2. ‘Soviets’ like the Petrograd Soviet, were set up everywhere, though no common system of election was followed. 
  3. The number of trade unions increased. 
  4. In Industrial areas, factory committees were formed to question the way industrialists ran their factories. 
  5. Soldiers committees were formed in the Army. 
  6. The Bolsheviks’ influence kept growing, and the provisional government saw its power reducing. 
  7. Land committees were formed to handle redistribution of land, which was a popular demand for peasants and their socialist revolutionary leaders in the countryside. 

Main events of the October Revolution: 

  1. As the conflict between the provisional government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorship. 
  2. Lenin began discussions for an uprising against the government. Bolshevik supporters in the Army, Soviets and factories were brought together. 
  3. On 16th October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. 
  4. A military revolutionary committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotsky to organize the seizure. 
  5. The uprising began on 24th October 1917. 
  6. Military men who were loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. 
  7. Pro-Government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace. 
  8. In retaliation, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. 
  9. A ship named Aurora bombed the Winter Palace, other ships sailed down the Neva and took over various military positions. 
  10. By the end of the month, the city was under the control of a committee and ministers had resigned. 
  11. By December, Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd area. 

Effects of the October Revolution: 

  1. Industries and banks were nationalised by November 1917; the Government took over ownership and management. 
  2. The land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility. 
  3. In the cities, The Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements. 
  4. Old titles of the aristocracy were banned. New uniforms were designed for the army and officials. 
  5. Bolshevik Party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) Bolsheviks conducted elections to the constituent assembly; however, they failed to attain the majority. 
  6. The assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures, and Lenin dismissed the assembly. 
  7. All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state. Trade unions were kept under party control. The Secret Police punished anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks. 
  8. Many young artists and writers continued to support the Party, as it stood for Socialism. Many experiments were done in Arts and Architecture. But many were unhappy because of the censorship.

 

Q4 What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Effects of the October Revolution: 

  1. Industries and banks were nationalised by November 1917; the Government took over ownership and management. 
  2. The land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility. 
  3. In the cities, The Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements. 
  4. Old titles of the aristocracy were banned. New uniforms were designed for the army and officials. 
  5. Bolshevik Party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) Bolsheviks conducted elections to the constituent assembly; however, they failed to attain the majority. 
  6. The assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures, and Lenin dismissed the assembly. 
  7. All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state. Trade unions were kept under party control. The Secret Police punished anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks.
  8. Many young artists and writers continued to support the Party, as it stood for Socialism. Many experiments were done in Arts and Architecture. But many were unhappy because of the censorship.

 

Q5 What changes did industrialisation bring to the then society in Russia? 

 

Ans The following changes were brought in Russian society with the advent of industrialisation.

  1. The society saw profound social and economic changes. 
  2. It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed and railways expanded.
  3. The Industrial Revolution brought men, women and children to factories. 
  4. Work hours were often long and wages were very low. 
  5. During the time of low demand, unemployment was common. 
  6. As the towns were growing rapidly, problems like housing and sanitation emerged. 

 

Q6 What solutions did radicals and liberals find to the problem of the industrial society? 

 

Ans The following solutions were found by the radicals and the liberals to the problems of Industrial society. 

  1. They felt that efforts should be made to make the workforce healthy and educated. 
  2. They were opposed to the privileges enjoyed by the old aristocracy. 
  3. They advocated the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. 
  4. They thought of freedom of individuals so that poor could labour and those with capital could operate freely. This would develop society. 
  5. It was also sought that the government should be removed through revolution.

 

Q7 Explain how a society, according to socialists, can operate without property. What would be the basis of socialist society? 

 

Ans 1. Socialists had different visions of the future. Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer, sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA). 

  1. Some other socialists felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide scale through individual initiative only. 
  2. The governments must encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprise. 
  3. The same view was propagated by Louis Blanc in France. It was said that cooperatives were to be associations of people who produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work done by members. 
  4. More ideas were added to this body of arguments by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist who owned resources and invested in the factories. 
  5. The profit was produced by the workers but they did not gain anything. Their condition could improve only if they were freed from the clutches of capitalist exploitation. Control of means and factors of production by the workers themselves can be the basis of such a socialist society. 
  6. For this, the workers needed to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society. 

 

Q8 What developments took place in Europe in support of socialism? 

 

AnsThe following developments took place in Europe in support of socialism. 

  1. An international body, called the Second International was formed by the socialists to coordinate the efforts of the workers. 
  2. Workers Associations were formed to fight for better living and working conditions. 
  3. Funds were set up to help members in times of distress. 
  4. Workers demanded a reduction in working hours and the right to vote. 
  5. In many places in Europe, these associations worked closely with the Social Democratic Party and helped it win parliamentary seats. 
  6. In 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France. 

 

Q9 What were the events preceding the 1905 Revolution in Russia? 

 

Ans The following events preceded the 1905 Revolution in Russia. 

  1. The year 1904 was a particularly bad one for Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose rapidly and the real wages declined. 
  2. The membership of workers’ associations rose dramatically. 
  3. There was a call for an industrial action when four of the workers at the Putilov Iron Works were dismissed. 
  4. There were mass strikes by the workers demanding reduction in the working hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
  5. When a procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the cossacks that killed hundreds of the workers. This incident is known as Bloody Sunday. 
  6. There were strikes all over the country and universities closed, student bodies staged walkouts, complaining lack of civil liberties. Various unions of doctors, engineers and other middle-class workers were established that demanded a constituent assembly.

 

Q10 Describe the steps taken by Tsar Nicholas II after the Revolution to maintain his authority. 

 

Ans The following steps were taken by Tsar Nicoholas II after the Russian Revolution to maintain his authority: 

  1. Under pressure, he allowed the creation of an elected consultative Parliament or Duma. 
  2. Most committees and unions were declared illegal. Severe restrictions were placed on political activity. 
  3. Later he dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and re-elected the second Duma within three months.
  4. The voting laws were changed. 
  5. The third Duma was packed with conservatives and tried to keep liberals and revolutionaries out of the Duma. 

 

Q11 What were the conditions in Russia during the First World War? 

 

Ans The following were the conditions in Russia during the First World War: 

  1. Russia became a part of the First World War in 1914. In the beginning, the war was popular. The Tsar refused to consult the main parties in the Duma. This weakened the support within Russia. Anti-German sentiments among the Russians were on an increase. St Petersburg, a German name, was renamed as Petrograd. 
  2. Russia’s armies suffered defeats in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. Casualties were very high. Soldiers did not wish to fight such a war. The retreating Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent them from being used by the enemies. This led to millions of refugees in Russia. 
  3. The Tsar and the government were further discredited for the situation.
  4. The war also had a severe impact on industry. Russia had few industries and that too were cut off from suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea. Industrial equipment began to disintegrate, railway lines began to break down.
  5. Able-bodied men were called up to the war that resulted in labour shortages and shut down of small workshops. 
  6. Grains were sent to feed the army which led to food shortage in cities. Riots at bread shops were common. 

 

Q12 Discuss the role and importance of Lenin in the history of the USSR. 

OR 

Examine the role of Lenin in the Russian Revolution. 

 

Answer: After returning from exile, Lenin felt that the time was right for the Soviets to take over the power in Russia. Following was the role played by Lenin in Russian Revolution 1917: 

  1. He led the Bolsheviks in the revolution. 
  2. He declared three points, to end war, transfer land to peasants and nationalisation of banks that came to be known as April Theses. 
  3. He introduced radical land reforms that led to turning Russia into a socialist society. 
  4. He was the driving force behind the October Revolution that eventually led to the formation of the Soviet Union.
  5. Lenin was instrumental in the victory of Bolsheviks in the civil war (1917-1922). 

 

Q13 Why did the Bolshevik Party accept the ‘April Theses’? Give any five reasons. 

 

Ans Bolshevik Party accepted the April Theses’ because of the following reasons: 

  1. The Provisional Government under Kerenskii failed to fulfil the aspirations of the people like land to the tiller, peace, control of industries by the workers, etc. Rather it became more unpopular. 
  2. The government was under the influence of landowners, army officials and industrialists that affected its decisions.
  3. Lenin felt that time had come to seize the power from the government. 
  4. People’s demands were included in the programme along with exit from the war and nationalisation of banks. 
  5. Lenin’s view was accepted when the Provisional Government began suppressing the Bolsheviks. 

 

Q14 Discuss the civil war that took place in Russia after the October Revolution and its consequences. 

 

Ans When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution the Russian army began to break up. They wished to return home to get land. Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising with the support of those who were apprehensive of the growth of socialism. There was mass looting, banditry and famine during the civil war. The pro-Tsarists who supported private property suppressed the peasants and took their land. This made non-Bolsheviks unpopular. Bolsheviks were supported by non-Russian nationalities and jadidists. Local nationalists were massacred by the Bolsheviks. 

Consequences: 

The following were the consequences of the civil war in Russia:

  1. The civil war created confusion about the Bolsheviks way of working. 
  2. It made the Bolsheviks quite unpopular. 
  3. Non-Russian nationalities were given political autonomy. 
  4. Nomadism was harshly discouraged. 
  5. The Bolsheviks failed to win over different nationalities. 

 

Q15 Mention the important steps taken by Lenin to improve the agriculture and economy of Russia. 

 

Ans The following steps were taken by Lenin to improve agriculture and the economy of Russia. 

  1. Most of the industries and banks were nationalised. 
  2. He ordered land redistribution and permitted peasants to cultivate the land. 
  3. Centralised planning was introduced. Five year plans were made. 
  4. The government fixed all prices during the first two year plans. 
  5. Communes were set up and income was divided according to the principles of cooperative commission. 

 

Q16 What steps were taken to improve the condition of factory workers and peasants in Russia after the civil war? 

 

Ans The following steps were taken to improve the conditions of the factory workers in Russia after the civil war:

  1. Various industries were set up like in Magnitogorsk city. 
  2. Extended schooling system developed so that factory workers could also access universities.
  3. Creches for children of women factory workers were established. 
  4. Cheap public healthcare was provided. Model living quarters were built up for workers. 
  5. Lenin ordered land redistribution and permitted peasants to cultivate the land.
  6. Communes were set up and income was divided according to the problems of cooperative commission. 

 

Q17 Critically examine Stalin’s collectivisation programme. 

 

Ans Stalin began a collectivisation programme to find a solution to the food shortage. But this proved to be disastrous in the subsequent years in the following ways: 

  1. The policy of eliminating kulaks and establishing state-owned farms was widely criticised.
  2. Peasants were compelled to work in the kolkhoz. 
  3. Peasants resisted the authorities and their livestock were destroyed. It resulted in the decline of cattle. 
  4. Policy of deportation and severe punishment was followed for all those who refused to do so. 
  5. There was no such increase in the production of food grains. Even his party members criticised Stalin the way the policy was followed. 

 

Q18 Explain the global influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR. 

OR

Explain the impact of the Russian Revolution on the world. 

 

Ans The following was the global influence of Russian Revolution and the USSR: 

  1. In many countries, communist parties were formed on the line of Russia. 
  2. It gave the world a new economic system known as socialism. 
  3. The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial peoples to follow their experiment. It inspired a number of freedom movements in other countries.
  4. Many non-Russians from outside the USSR participated in the Conference of the Peoples of the East and the Bolshevik-founded Comintern. Some even received education in the USSR’s Communist University of the Workers of the East.
  5. By the time the Second World War broke, socialism had acquired a global face. 
  6. Though by the end of the twentieth century, the image of the USSR as a socialist country declined, yet its socialist ideals were respected and rethought in many ways suiting individual interests.

 

Q19 What are the main objectives of Liberals in Russia? 

 

Ans The main objectives of Liberals are as follows: 

  1. They expected a nation which tolerated all the religions. 
  2. They opposed the uncontrolled powers of dynastic rules. 
  3. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against the government. 
  4. They did not believe in universal adult franchise as they were not democrats. 
  5. Liberals argued for a representative elected by the government. They were subjected to laws interrupted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. 
  6. In the parts of Europe, where independent nation states did not yet exist. For example, Germany, Italy, Poland-men and women combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. 
  7. They took advantage of the growing unrest and to push their demands for a creation of a constitution with freedom of press and freedom of association. 

 

Q20 Explain any five differences between the peasants of Russia and peasants of Europe. 

 

Ans 

Peasants of Europe Peasants of Russia
1. They formed unions and fought for better wages and good living conditions. 1. They had no proper unions and associations initially. It came up much later.
2. The workers were united in their demands for political rights and reduction in work hours. 2. The workers were not united. They were divided on the basis of occupation. 
3. The workers’ associations had close ties with the political parties and themselves formed political parties. For example, the labour Party in Britain. 3. The workers’ associations were considered as illegal and were suppressed. 
4. In France, during the French Revolution in Brittany peasants had the respect for nobles and fought for them. 4. But in Russia, the peasants had no regards for the nobility and often revolted against them.
5. The peasants in Europe had political rights and enjoyed them. 5. The peasants did not enjoy any political rights.

 

Q21 How far the economic and social conditions of Russia were responsible for the Russian Revolution? Explain by giving examples. 

OR

Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution. 

 

Ans 1. Agrarian Economy and Poor Condition of the Peasants: At the beginning of the 20th century, more than 85% of the Russian population earned their living from agriculture. Most of the land was owned by rich people. Most of the peasants worked from dawn to dusk with very low wages or pay. Most of the peasants were against the rich and the nobles.

  1. Poor Condition of Workers: Most of the industries were controlled by private individuals. In craft units, and small workshops, the working day was sometimes 15 hours. Most of the workers were working and living in poor conditions. Most of the workers were ill-paid.
  2. Unemployment: Unemployment rate was very high. The rich industrialists were exploiting the workers. 
  3. High Prices: Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20%. 
  4. Condition of Women: Most of the women were working in small factories. Women made up about 31% of the factory labour force. They were paid less wages, and were forced to work for long hours. When they launched an agitation, they were fired at by the police. 

 

Q22 Explain the views of the Socialists on private property with special emphasis on Karl Marx. 

 

Ans 1. Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist. Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers. 

  1. The conditions of workers could not improve as long as this profit was accumulated by private capitalists. 
  2. Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. 
  3. Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist control. This would be a communist society. 
  4. He was convinced that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists. A communist society was the natural society of the future. 

 

Q23 What social changes were seen in society after industrialisation? 

OR

How did industrialization change the lives of people in Europe? Explain. 

 

Ans 1. Working Class: Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories. Work hours were often long and wages were poor. 

  1. Problem of Unemployment and Poverty: Problem of unemployment and poverty was rare in the countryside but this became a common phenomenon with industrialisation. Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods. 
  2. Problem of Housing and Sanitation: Large-scale migration to cities lead to housing and sanitation problems. 
  3. Trade Unions: Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working hours and the right to vote. In Germany, these associations worked closely with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and helped it win parliamentary seats. By 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed a Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France. 
  4. Socialism: Trade unions and worker’s unions lead to the idea of socialism. The development of the idea of socialism changed the political scenario. These trade unions started demanding share in political power. 

 

Q24 Explain the collectivisation policy of Stalin. 

OR

What were the major changes Introduced in agriculture by Stalin? Explain. 

 

Ans 1. The collectivisation policy was introduced by Stalin who came to power after the death of Lenin. 

  1. The main reason was the shortage of grain supplies. 
  2. It was argued that grain shortage was partly due to the small size of the holding. 
  3. After 1917, the land had been given over to peasants. These small-sized peasant farms could not be modernised. To develop modern farms, and run them along industrial lines with machinery, it was necessary to eliminate ‘kulaks’, take away land from peasants, and establish state-controlled large farms. 
  4. From 1929, the government forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms (kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land, and the kolkhoz profit was shared. 
  5. Enraged peasants resisted the authorities, and destroyed their livestock. Between 1929 and 1931, the number of cattle fell by one-third. Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. 
  6. As they resisted collectivisation, peasants argued that they were not rich, and were not against socialism. They did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons. 
  7. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically. 
  8. In spite of collectivisation, production did not increase immediately. In fact, the bad harvest of 1930-1933 led to one of the most devastating famines in Soviet history when over 4 million died. 

 

Q25 Highlight any five changes brought by Lenin in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917. 

 

Ans Role of Lenin in post 1917 Russian Revolution: 

  1. A conflict between the provisional government and the Bolshevik grew in September, 1917. Lenin started planning an uprising against the government and began to organize his supporters from any secrets and factories. 
  2. A military revolutionary committee under Lenin Trotsky planned to seize power. 
  3. Uprising began on 4th October, 1917. The Prime Minister Karenski, with government troops, tried to subdue the Bolshevik but failed. 
  4. Under the guidance of Lenin, the military Revolutionary committee responded quickly and by nightfall the city was under the committee’s control. 
  5. At a meeting of the Russian Congress of the Soviet in Petrograd, the majority approved the Bolshevik action. The Russian Revolution brought Russia under communist control. 

 

Q26 Explain the Russian February Revolution 1917. 

OR

Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917. Explain. 

 

Ans 1. Grim Condition in the Petrograd: In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were grim. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters. The winter was very cold. There had been exceptional frost and heavy snow. 

  1. Women Lead the Strike: On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day. 
  2. Violent Incidents: In the next few days the workers tried to persue the government to fulfill their demand but the government called out the cavalry. The streets thronged with people raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. However, the cavalry refused to fire on- the demonstrators. An officer was shot at the barracks of a regiment and three other regiments mutinied, voting to join the striking workers. 
  3. Formation of Soviet: By that evening, soldiers and striking workers had gathered to form a soviet or council in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
  4. Formation of Provisional Government: The very next day, a delegation went to see the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He followed their advice and abdicated on 2 March. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country. Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage. 

 

Q27 Describe the importance of the Battle of Stalingard in the Second World War. 

 

Ans Importance of Battle of Stalingard in the Second World War: 

  1. The battle of Stalingard was fought between Russia and Germany on Russian territory. 
  2. This battle is considered important because it marked the defeat of Germany and Hitler along with Nazi party. 
  3. Hitler had signed a nonaggression treaty with Russia in August 1939 A.D. Since he did not have faith in Russia he considered Russia as a vital threat to Nazi Germany. 
  4. Hitler also had imperial designs on the fertile Ukraine Basin and its mines. 
  5. He also wanted to Europeanize the area of the Asian Steppe. 
  6. Due to the above mentioned reasons, Hitler violated the Pact of 1939 and attacked Russia from three sides. 
  7. This led to a battle in Stalingard near Moscow. 
  8. Germany failed to capture Stalingard due to lack of preparation of German soldiers against heavy rains and frosts in the month of October. 
  9. This led to the failure of Hitler’s campaign. In all, Hitler exposed the German. Western front to British aerial bonding. 
  10. Eastern front was exposed to the powerful Soviet Army. In this battle, Germany suffered a lot and Soviet hegemony was established over the entire Eastern Europe.