NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science (Civics) Chapter 4 Working of Institutions

 

Working of Institutions – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (Civics) Chapter 4 Working of Institutions Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 9 Political Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Working of Institutions MCQs, Question Answers (Short and Long type Questions)

 

Chapter 4 Working of Institutions MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions 1 mark each)

 

  1. Which one is not among the three institutions that play a key role in major decisions?
  1. Election Commission 
  2. Legislature 
  3. Judiciary 
  4. Executive 

Answer – A. Election Commission 

  1. When was the order announcing 27 per cent reservation for SEBC issued?
  1. August 13, 1992
  2. August 13, 1990
  3. August 15, 1990
  4. August 15, 1992

Answer – B. August 13, 1990

 

  1. Who is the head of the state in India?
  1. The president 
  2. The Prime Minister 
  3. The Chief Justice 
  4. The voters 

Answer – A. The President 

 

  1. Who is the highest formal authority in the country?
  1. The President 
  2. The Prime Minister 
  3. The Chief Justice
  4. The voters

Answer – A. The President

 

  1. Prime Minister is the head of the ___________
  1. State 
  2. Legislature 
  3. Cabinet 
  4. Government 

Answer – D. Government 

 

  1. Who actually exercises all governmental powers?
  1. The President 
  2. The Prime Minister 
  3. The Chief Justice
  4. The voters

Answer – B. the Prime Minister 

 

  1. Who takes most of the decisions in the Cabinet meetings?
  1. The Home Minister
  2. The President 
  3. Nobody 
  4. The Prime Minister 

Answer – D. The Prime Minister 

 

  1. Parliament consists of:
  1. The two houses 
  2. The President 
  3. Lok Sabha only 
  4. Both A and B

Answer – D. Both A and B

 

  1. When was the Second Backward Classes Commission adopted?
  1. 1982
  2. 1992
  3. 1972
  4. 1979

Answer – D. 1979

 

  1.  B.P. Mandal headed the ___________ in 1979.
  1. The Election Commission 
  2. The Parliament 
  3. The Second Backward Classes Commission
  4. The minority rights commission

answer – C. The Second Backward Classes Commission

 

  1.  Which one of the following is popularly called the Mandal Commission?
  1. The Election Commission 
  2. The Parliament 
  3. The Second Backward Classes Commission
  4. The minority rights commission

Answer – C. The Second Backward Classes Commission

 

  1. The Second Backward Classes Commission gave its Report in- 
  1. 1990
  2. 1992
  3. 1980
  4. 1982

Answer – C. 1980

 

  1.  SEBC stands for:
  1. Socially and Economically Backward Classes
  2. Socially and Educationally Backward Classes
  3. Scientifically and Economically Backward Classes
  4. None of the above 

Answer – B. Socially and Educationally Backward Classes

 

  1.  Which party promised the implementation of the Mandal Commission report in 1989?
  1. Congress party 
  2. Bahujan Samaj Party 
  3. Janata Dal 
  4. Trinamool Congress

Answer – C. Janata Dal 

 

  1.  V. P. Singh became the Prime Minister after ____ elections.
  1. 1990
  2. 1980
  3. 1979
  4. 1989

Answer – D. 1989

 

  1. V. P. Singh belonged to:
  1. Congress party 
  2. Bahujan Samaj Party 
  3. Janata Dal 
  4. Trinamool Congress

Answer – C. Janata Dal 

 

  1. Job reservations are desirable because:
  1. They promote national unity
  2. They offer fair opportunity 
  3. They offer equal opportunity 
  4. They perpetuated caste feelings

Answer – B. They offer fair opportunity 

 

  1.  It is considered unfair to reserve job opportunities as-
  1. It denies equality of opportunity 
  2. It perpetuates caste feelings 
  3. It hampers national unity 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. When was the office memorandum excluding well-to-do persons among backward classes from reservations issued?
  1. 1990
  2. 1992
  3. 1993
  4. 1995

Answer – C. 1993

 

  1.  Which democratic institutions take all important policy decisions?
  1. The Prime Minister
  2. The Cabinet 
  3. The Supreme Court 
  4. Both A and B

Answer – D. Both A and B

 

  1. Which democratic institution is responsible for taking steps to implement the ministers’ decisions?
  1.  The Civil Servants
  2. The Prime Minister
  3. The Cabinet 
  4. The Supreme Court 

Answer – A. The Civil Servants 

 

  1. Choose the institution where disputes between citizens and the government are finally settled.
  1. The Police
  2. The Prime Minister
  3. The Cabinet 
  4. The Supreme Court 

Answer – D. The Supreme Court 

 

  1.  What lays down basic rules on the powers and functions of each institution?
  1. The Constitution
  2. The Prime Minister
  3. The Cabinet 
  4. The Supreme Court

Answer – A. The Constitution

 

  1. In India a national assembly of elected representatives is called-
  1. Lok Sabha 
  2. Rajya Sabha 
  3. Parliament
  4. Legislature

Answer – C. Parliament

 

  1. At state level, an assembly of elected representatives is called-
  1. Legislative Assembly 
  2. Parliament
  3. Legislature
  4. Both A and C 

Answer – D. Both A and C

 

  1.  Most large countries divide the role and powers of Parliament in – 
  1. Two parts 
  2. Three parts 
  3. No parts 
  4. None of the above

Answer- A. two parts 

 

  1.  The _______ house is elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people.
  1. Second 
  2. Upper 
  3. First 
  4. None of the above

Answer – C. First

 

  1.  Which house is usually elected indirectly?
  1. First
  2. Lower 
  3. Second 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – C. second

 

  1. What is the total number of members in the Lok Sabha?
  1. 543
  2. 552
  3. 245
  4. 500

Answer – B. 552

 

  1. What is the total number of members in Rajya Sabha?
  1. 252
  2. 250
  3. 248
  4. 300

Answer – B. 250

 

  1. What is the length of the term (in years) of Lok Sabha?
  1. 4
  2. 5
  3. 6
  4. 7

Answer – B. 5

 

  1. What is the length of the term (in years) of Rajya Sabha?
  1. 4
  2. 5
  3. 6
  4. 7

Answer – C. 6

 

  1.  Which house can be dissolved?
  1. Lok Sabha 
  2. Rajya Sabha 
  3. Both 
  4. None

Answer – A. Lok Sabha

 

  1. Which house is permanent?
  1. Lok Sabha 
  2. Rajya Sabha 
  3. Both 
  4. None

Answer – B. Rajya Sabha

 

  1.  Who are political executives? 

Ans. Those Government officials who participate in the determination and direction of government policy are called political executives.

  1. The President is the member of __________
  1. Lok Sabha 
  2. Rajya Sabha 
  3. Neither of the two 
  4. Both houses 

Answer – C. Neither of the two houses.

 

  1. The Rajya Sabha has exclusive authority over the______
  1. Nation
  2. Financial matters 
  3. Presidential powers 
  4. States 

Answer – D. states

 

  1.  Which one of the following is not a type of executive?
  1. Political 
  2. Premature 
  3. Permanent
  4. All of the above 

Answer – B. premature

 

  1.  When we talk about ‘the government’ we usually mean the-
  1. Legislature 
  2. The Prime Minister
  3. The Executive 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – C. The Executive.

 

  1.  Which one, among the following, is not a kind of minister?
  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State with independent charge
  3. Ministers of State
  4. Governors 

Answer – D. Governors

 

  1. What is the most powerful institution in India?
  1. The schools
  2. The Cabinet 
  3. The CJI
  4. The Police

Answer – B. The Cabinet

 

42.If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision, can you take on your own?

  1. Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
  2. Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in Lok Sabha.
  3. Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
  4. Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.

Answer – C. Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

 

43.Who among the following is a part of the political executive?

  1. District Collector
  2. Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
  3. Home Minister
  4. Director General of Police

Answer – C. Home Minister

 

44.Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false?

  1. Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court
  2. Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution
  3. Judiciary is independent of the Executive
  4. Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated

Answer – A. Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court.

 

45.Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country?

  1. The Supreme Court
  2. The President
  3. The Prime Minister
  4. The Parliament

Answer – D. The Parliament

 

46.Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer.

  1. In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.
  2. Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers even before the expiry of their term.
  3. Since the Prime Minister is appointed by the President there is no need for it.
  4. Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve a lot of expenditure on election.

Answer – A. In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.

 

Very Short Answer Type (1 mark each)

 

  1. Who is the highest official authority in state?

The President of India is the highest official authority in state.

 

  1. Who is the head of the government?

The Prime Minister is the head of the government.

 

  1. Which house of the Parliament has more influence over financial matters?

The Lok Sabha has more influence over financial matters.

 

  1. On 13th August 1990, 27% reservation was offered in which context?

In Government of India civil services positions, 27% seats were reserved for the SEBC.

 

  1. What is the place where disagreements between citizens and the Indian government are ultimately resolved?

The Supreme Court is the place where disagreements between citizens and the Indian government are ultimately resolved.

 

  1. What is Parliament?

A national assembly comprising elected members is known as a parliament in India.

 

  1. What is Legislative assembly?

A state-level assembly of elected officials is known as a Legislative Assembly or the Legislature.

 

  1. What is a government of coalition?

A government of coalition is created by an alliance between two or more political parties. This usually occurs when no one party has the backing of the majority of lawmakers in a legislature.

 

  1. Write the expanded form of SEBC.

Socially and Economically Backward Classes.

 

  1. What is the supreme law-making body in India?

The parliament is the supreme law-making body in India.

 

  1. Name the two houses of the parliament.

The two houses are Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

 

  1. Who is the Supreme Commander of India’s armed forces?

The President of India is the Supreme Commander of India’s armed forces.

 

  1. What does “Office Memorandum” mean?

A statement of the government’s policy or decision made in a message released by the competent authority.

 

  1. What is the President of India’s role?

The President is the country’s highest formal authority and serves as its executive head of state.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each)

 

  1. Mandal Commission: What was it? Why did it get the job? What were the Commission’s main recommendations?

Answer – 

The Second Backward Classes Commission had been established by the Indian government in 1979. B.R. Mandal served as its leader. Consequently, it became known as the Mandal Commission.

It was asked to establish the standards for identifying India’s socially and economically underprivileged sections and to suggest measures to be taken to advance them.

In its 1980 report, the group offered a number of recommendations. One of them required that 27% of government positions be held by members of the socially and economically disadvantaged classes.

 

  1. Why is the Indian President a fictitious executive?

Answer – 

The President is the head of the State; the Prime Minister is the head of government. In our political system, the head of State simply has symbolic authority. India’s president is merely a ceremonial head of state because

 

The President oversees the general operation of every political institution in the nation to ensure that they all work together to advance the goals of the state.

 

The President’s only responsibility is to accept and sign all key decisions made by the Council of Ministers, which is presided over by the Prime Minister.

 

  1. The Order was issued by the government on August 13, 1990. What Order was that?

Answer – 

  1. The Government of India issued an Order on August 13, 1990. This Order made a significant policy announcement. 
  2. It stated that 27% of open positions in the government of India’s civil services and departments are designated for members of the socially and educationally disadvantaged classes (SEBC). 
  3. All members of castes that the government considers to be backwards go by the acronym SEBC. Up until that point, only members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes could benefit from job reservations.

 

  1. How are the Indian President chosen?

Answer – 

The people do not directly elect the president. He or she is chosen by the elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs).

To win the election, a candidate running for president must receive the most votes. This makes it clear that the President speaks for the whole country.

The Prime Minister can always claim a direct mandate from the people, while the President can never make that claim. This guarantees that he or she will always be a fictitious executive.

 

  1. Why is a strong, independent judiciary vital for democracies?

Answer – 

We believe that strong and independent judiciaries are essential for 

democracies for the following reasons:

  1. For fair resolution of conflicts at the national level, the judiciary needs to be free of any kind of influence and have independent powers.
  2. The judiciary also evaluates governments policies and decisions and recommends possible improvements. Hence, it has to be impartial.
  3. Only a powerful and free judicial system can render impartial judgements that everybody respects. 

 

  1. What three types of ministers make up the Council of Ministers?

Answer – 

The group that consists of all Ministers is officially known as the Council of Ministers. It typically has between 60 and 80 Ministers of various grades.

 

  1. The top members of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the important ministries are typically known as cabinet ministers. In order to make decisions on behalf of the Council of Ministers, the Cabinet Ministers typically convene. There are roughly 20 Ministers in it.
  2. Typically, smaller Ministries are under the direction of Ministers of State with independent charge. Only when they are specially invited do they attend Cabinet sessions.
  3. Ministers of State work closely with and support Cabinet Ministers. Decisions are made in Cabinet meetings since it is not practicable for all Ministers to meet frequently and discuss everything. 

 

  1. How are the delays and difficulties that the institutions bring forth beneficial in a democracy?

Answer – 

Rules and regulations are a part of institutions. This may restrict the leaders’ options. Meetings, committees, and procedures are all part of institutions. This frequently causes delays and difficulties. As a result, engaging with institutions can be difficult. One would think that having one person make all the decisions, without any guidelines, processes, or meetings, is preferable. But that goes against the democratic spirit. Some of the delays and difficulties that institutions bring about are quite beneficial. They offer the chance for a larger group of individuals to be involved in the decision-making process. Institutions make it challenging to reach a wise judgement quickly, However, they also make it more difficult to make a poor choice quickly. Democratic governments insist on institutions because of this.

 

  1. Why do political executives possess greater authority than long-term CEOs?

Answer – 

  1. The people’s will be supreme in a democracy. Since the minister was chosen by the people, they have given him or her the authority to carry out their wishes.
  2. The ministers are answerable to people and hence must have the powers and authority.
  3. The minister determines the framework and goals that should guide policy decision-making. 
  4. The minister is not expected to be an authority on the topics that fall under the purview of his or her ministry. The minister makes the decision based on the overall goal

 

Source Based Questions (1 X 4 = 4 marks each)

 

Democratic Politics

Picture credits- 

NCERT textbook in political science for class 9, Democratic Politics.

  1. Who elects the president?

Answer – The elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) elect the president.

  1. Under whose name do all major appointments are made and all governmental activities take place?

Answer – The President.

  1. Who is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India?

Answer – The President 

  1. Who has to appoint the leader of the majority party or the coalition that enjoys majority support in the Lok Sabha?

Answer – The President of India.

 

Long Answer Type (5 marks each)

 

  1. Give examples of how Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.

Answer – 

  1. According to our constitution, the Rajya Sabha has certain unique authority over the states. But the Lok Sabha has the last say in the majority of cases.
  2. Every regular law must be approved by both Houses. However, if the two Houses disagree, the final decision is made in a joint session where members of both Houses sit together. The opinion of the Lok Sabha is likely to win out at such a conference due to the bigger number of participants.
  3. In terms of financial matters, the Lok Sabha has more authority.
  4. The Lok Sabha has significant influence over the Council of Ministers
  5. The Prime Minister and all other ministers must resign if the majority of Lok Sabha members vote “no confidence” in the Council of Ministers.

 

  1. How was the “Indira Sawhney and others Vs. Union of India lawsuit” resolved?

Answer – 

  1. Several people and organisations challenged the rule establishing the job reservations for underprivileged groups in court. They asked the courts to invalidate the order and halt its execution
  2. All of these cases were grouped together by the Indian Supreme Court. The “Indira Sawhney and others Vs. Union of India case” was the name of this legal proceeding.
  3. The Supreme Court judges ruled that this Government of India decision was lawful by a majority vote in 1992. 
  4. In parallel, the Supreme Court requested that the government change its initial directive. According to this, wealthy members of the lower classes should not be eligible for reservations.
  5. As a result, on September 8, 1993, the Department of Personnel and Training released a new office memo. Thus, the conflict was resolved, and this policy has been followed ever since.

 

  1. How is it possible to argue that the Mandal Commission became a significant problem in India in 1980?

Answer – 

In 1980, India’s most contentious national discussion centred on the Mandal Commission. Numerous viewpoints and thoughts on this topic were expressed in newspapers and periodicals. Numerous rallies and counterprotests followed, some of which turned violent. Due to the decision’s impact on thousands of job chances, people responded angrily. Some believed that job reservations were necessary since there were disparities between members of different castes in India. They believed that this would provide those communities who had not been fairly represented in government employment up until this point with a chance. Others said this was unjust since it would prevent those who did not come from underprivileged communities from having the same opportunities. Some believed that this would reinforce caste prejudice and undermine national unity.

 

  1. What are the Prime Minister’s duties and authority?

Answer – 

  1. The powers of the Prime Minister, Ministers, and their interactions with one another are not discussed in great detail in the Constitution. But the Prime Minister has extensive authority because he or she is the head of the government.
  2. He or she presides over Cabinet meetings. He or she oversees the operations of many Departments.
  3. In the event that there is a dispute between Departments, his or her decisions are final.
  4. He or she oversees various ministries in a broad capacity. Under their direction, all of the ministers are employed.
  5. The task is given and redistributed to the Ministers by the Prime Minister. Ministers may be fired by him or her as well. The entire ministry leaves when the prime minister does.
  6. Through the party, the prime minister has authority over the Cabinet and Parliament.

 

  1. What duties does the Supreme Court have?

Answer – 

  1. Any issue between country residents may be taken up by it.
  2. Any conflict between the people and the government can be taken up by it.
  3. Any conflict involving two or more state governments may be addressed.
  4. It can investigate any disagreement between the federal and state governments and decide whether any law or executive action in the nation is constitutional when it is challenged in front of them.
  5.  The judicial review is what is known as here. The country’s Constitution may be interpreted by the Supreme Court and the High Courts. 
  6. If they determine that a statute or executive action violates the Constitution, they may declare it invalid, regardless of whether it was passed at the federal or state level.

 

  1. What is the President of India’s duties and powers?

Answer – The following list includes the President of India’s duties and powers:

 

  1. The President’s name is used in all official proceedings. The government issues all laws and significant policy decisions in his or her name.
  2. The President’s name is used to make all significant appointments. These include the selection of the Chief Justice of India, judges for the state’s Supreme Court and High Courts, state governors, election commissioners, and ambassadors to other nations, among others.
  3. The President’s name appears on all foreign accords and treaties. India’s President serves as the country’s top military commander.
  4. Only after receiving the President’s assent does a bill approved by the Parliament become a law. The President has the option to postpone this for a while and send the law back to Parliament for revision. However, he or she must sign the bill if the Parliament approves it once more.

 

  1. What are the several ways that parliament has authority?

Answer – 

  1. The Parliament is the name of the national assembly of elected officials in India. In the interests of the populace, it exerts political authority.
  2. The final decision-making body for a nation is its parliament. Because passing laws is such an important responsibility, these gatherings are known as legislatures. Around the world, parliaments have the power to enact new laws, amend existing ones, or repeal older ones and replace them with new ones.
  3. Around the world, parliaments have some influence over those in power. This control is complete and direct in some nations, such as India. 
  4. Government decision-makers are only permitted to act as long as the Parliament supports them. All public funds are under the control of parliaments. In the majority of nations, spending of public funds is only permitted with the approval of the Parliament.
  5. In any nation, the parliament is the highest authority on public concerns and national policy. Every topic is subject to information requests from Parliament.