BSEB Class 12 English Poem 9 Snake Summary, Explanation, and Question Answers from Rainbow Book 

 

Snake Class 12  – BSEB Class 12 English Poem 9 Snake Summary and detailed explanation of the poem along with meanings of difficult words from Rainbow Book. Also, the explanation is followed by the literary devices used in the Poem. All the exercises and Snake Question Answers given at the back of the lesson have also been solved.

 

BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book Poem 9 – Snake

By D. H. Lawrence

Snake Introduction

In the present poem ‘Snake’, Lawrence describes how a harmless snake visits the water body to quench its thirst but he hits the snake due to the inner conscious which is marred by the teachings that a golden snake is venomous and should be killed.. 

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Snake Summary

In the poem ‘Snake’, the poet ‘D. H. Lawrence’ described the conflict in his mind after he saw a snake in his water-trough. The poet was describing the simple event of his day, he was going out to his “water-trough” and he wanted to fetch water for himself and he found a snake. It was a typical summer day and how he had been wearing pajamas in order to cool himself. The fact that he was wearing pyjamas explained that he was unprepared to meet the snake. Plus, it was probably early in the morning that this encounter occurred. The poet came down and reached with his pitcher, he had to stand and wait for the snake to finish drinking because the snake reached the water-trough before the poet. The snake came out of a long deep crack or a gap in the wall of his house. It was like the snake was coming from the earth itself. The snake moved smoothly over the edge of the water-trough and finally came to rest with its throat on the bottom of the stone trough. The snake drank silently with his straight mouth and straight gums and the poet could imagine the water traveling silently through its long flexible body. The water trough was present in the deep and scented shade of the carob tree. For a moment, the poet got scared but he was also very glad to have a guest. So, he patiently waited for his turn at the water trough. The poet further described how the snake stopped drinking at one point and looked at him vaguely, in the same way that cattle drinking in ponds sometimes pause between sips. The poet admired the beauty of the snake, which appeared to be harmless. He realized that the snake had just come to drink water and quench its thirst. It would return to its home peacefully. The poet had many conflicting thoughts in his mind. He said that his education in his childhood taught him that golden brown coloured snakes are poisonous and dangerous. His inner voice was asking him to kill the snake but at the same time, he was in full admiration of the creation of God. The snake was unaware of the presence of the poet. It drank water to its satisfaction and raised its head dreamily. It flickered its forked tongue and also licked its lips. The snake looked like a God. Slowly it turned and moved away from the trough and probably it was on its way back to his hole. When the poet saw the snake moving away, he was terror struck. To prove himself that he was not a coward, he picked up a log of wood and threw it at the snake. The poet missed the target but the snake sensed danger and disappeared hastily inside the hole. However, the poet looked with fascination at the snake but at the same time, a feeling of guilt for treating his guest in a dishonorable way gripped him. He regretted his act of trying to hit the snake. In the beginning, he felt honored that it had come to his trough to drink water but later his fear forced him to kill it. He found his feelings of regret quite similar to the feelings of an ancient mariner who had killed the Albatross bird. He considered his action of hitting his ‘guest’ to be a sin. He started hating himself and his human education. The poet hoped and wished for the snake to come out of his hole so that he could apologize and make amends for his mistake. The poet thought that the snake was actually the uncrowned king. So it hid in the interior of the Earth in exile. He felt that he missed a chance to crown and honour the king. The poet ardently wished to crown the snake. 

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Video Explanation of Snake

 

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Snake Poem Explanation

Poem : A snake came to my water-trough:
On a hot, hot day, and I in Pyjamas for the heat,
To drink there. 

Word Meaning : Water-trough- a container for animals to eat and drink from

Explanation of the Poem: In the first stanza of the poem ‘Snake’, the poet ‘D. H. Lawrence was describing  the simple event of his day, he was going out to his “water-trough” which was a container for animals to eat and drink and he wanted to fetch water for himself and he found a snake there. It was a typical summer day and how he had been wearing pajamas in order to cool himself. The fact that he was wearing pyjamas explained that he was unprepared to meet the snake. Plus, it was probably early in the morning that this encounter occurred. 

Poem : In the deep, strange scented shade of the great dark carob tree|
I came down the steps with my pitcher
And must wait, must stand and wait, for there he was at the trough before me. 

Word Meaning : Carob tree- a southern European tree with dark brown fruit

Explanation of the Poem: In the second stanza of the poem, the poet explained how the water-trough was kept in the shade of a large carob tree (southern European tree with dark brown fruit) and how that entire place had a strong strange smell. The poet came down and reached with his pitcher, he had to stand and wait for the snake to finish drinking because the snake reached the water-trough before the poet.

Poem : He reached down from a fissure in the earth-wall in the gloom
And trailed his yellow brown slackness soft-bellied down, over the
edge of the stone trough
And rested his throat upon the stone bottom, 

Word Meaning :
Fissure- a long deep crack, gap
Gloom- feeling of being sad and without hope
Trailed- pulled behind

Explanation of the Poem: In the third stanza, the poet described how the snake came out of a long deep crack or a gap in the wall of his house. It was like the snake was coming from the earth itself. The poet further explained how the snake moved smoothly over the edge of the water-trough and finally came to rest with its throat on the bottom of the stone trough. 

Poem : And where the water had dripped from the tap, in a small clearness,
He sipped with his straight mouth,
Softly drank though his straight gums, into his slack long body,
Silently. 

Explanation of the Poem: In the fourth stanza, the poet continued explaining the event, how the water had fallen in drops from the tap, forming a small and transparent pool, from which the snake drank silently with his straight mouth and straight gums and the poet could imagine the water traveling silently through its long flexible body.

Poem : Someone was before me at my water-trough,
And I, like a second comer, waiting. 

He lifted his head from his drinking, as cattle do,
And looked at me vaguely, as drinking cattle do,
And flickered his two-forked tongue from his lips, and mused a moment,
And stooped and drank a little more,
Being earth-brown, earth-golden from the burning bowels of the earth
On the day of Sicilian July with Etna smoking. 

Word Meaning :
Vaguely- not clearly
Flickered- kept going on and off as it shone
Mused- thought
Sicilian July with Etna smoking- extreme heat like the one caused when Etna erupted

Explanation of the Poem: In the fifth stanza of the poem, the poet said that generally he was the only one to drink out of his water trough, but that particular day, he himself was second to reach the water trough and he had to wait for the snake to finish first. The poet further described how the snake stopped drinking at one point and looked at him vaguely, in the same way that cattle drinking in ponds sometimes pause between sips. The snake acknowledged the poet with a flick of its tongue and then drank a little more. The snake moved its forked tongue quickly from side to side, thought for a bit and continued to drink again. The snake took advantage of his early arrival to the water trough and the poet as the second-comer had to wait. The poet described  the snake as earth-brown and earth-golden by which he meant the brownish and goldenish colour of the snake using the earth as a shade card, with the word ‘earth’ because the snake emerged from the earth. The poet referred to the day of Sicilian July with Etna smoking, Mount Etna was one of the world’s most active volcanoes, he explained about the temperature of the place using the Etna word. It was probably the heat that drove the snake to the water trough.

Poem : The voice of my education said to me
He must be killed,
For in Sicily the black, black snakes are innocent, the gold are venomous

Word Meaning : Venomous- poisonous, full of venom

Explanation of the Poem: In the sixth stanza, the poet talked about his education that while he was in Sicily, he had learnt that black snakes would not harm you, but that golden ones were poisonous. So his education told him to kill the golden snake that had come to his water trough.

Poem : And voices in me said, If you were a man
You would take a stick and break him now, and finish him off. 

Explanation of the Poem: In the seventh stanza, the poet heard voices in his head guiding him to kill the snake with a stick and he would not be a man unless he killed the snake and it would prove his masculinity.

Poem : But must I confess how I liked him,
How glad I was he had come like a guest in quiet, to drink at my water-trough
And depart peaceful, pacified, and thankless,
Into the burning bowels of this earth? 

Word Meaning : Bowels- the tube in the stomach along which the food passes

Explanation of the Poem: In the eighth stanza, the poet confessed that he quite liked the snake and was happy that it had come to drink at his water trough like a guest. The poet expected the snake to leave as peacefully as he had come to go back into the burning bowels and in the depths of the earth from which he imagined it had risen.

Poem : Was it cowardice, that I dared not kill him?
Was it perversity, that I longed to talk to him?
Was it humility, to feel so honoured?
I felt so honoured. 

Word Meaning :
Cowardice- lack of courage
Perversity- wrong or immoral thinking
Longed- wanted eagerly
Humility- the quality of being humble

Explanation of the Poem: In the ninth stanza, the poet questioned himself what it was that had stopped him from killing the snake, whether it was due to the lack of courage, or because his desire to talk to the snake was wrong or immoral thinking or because of his quality of being humble. The poet felt honoured that the snake chose to come to him, to trust him and his water.

Poem : And yet those voices:
If you were not afraid, you would kill him! 

Explanation of the Poem: In the tenth stanza of the poem, the poet again heard the voices which were telling him not to hold back but to conquer his fear and kill the snake.

Poem : And truly I was afraid, I was most afraid,
But even so, honoured still more
That he should seek my hospitality
From out the dark door of the secret earth.

Word Meaning : Hospitality- receiving with warmth

Explanation of the Poem: In the eleventh stanza of the poem, the poet confessed that he was very scared of the snake, but more than that, he was honoured that the snake had chosen to come only to his water trough while making its journey out of the earth’s crust. The fear was worthless to him than the honor of the moment. The poet wanted to present a hospitable water-trough for the snake, one that pleased him as he came out from the dark door of earth. 

Poem : He drank enough
And lifted his head, dreamily, as one who has drunken,
And flickered his tongue like a forked night on the air, so black,
Seeming to lick his lips,
And looked around like a god, unseeing, into the air,
And slowly turned his head,
And slowly, very slowly, as if thrice adream,
Proceeded to draw his slow length curving round
And climb again the broken bank of my wall-face. 

Explanation of the Poem: In the twelfth stanza of the poem, the poet explained how once the snake had finished drinking water, it lifted its head slowly, flicked its tongue and made quick movements of its tongue as if it were licking its lips in satisfaction that its thirst had been quenched. With a series of elegant and god-like movements, the snake then turned around slowly and headed back into the broken bank of the wall. Its body began to rise over the crack in the wall from which it had come.

Poem : And as he put his head into that dreadful hole,
And as he slowly drew up, snake-easing his shoulders, and entered farther,
A sort of horror, a sort of protest against his withdrawing into that horrid black hole.
Deliberately going into the blackness, and slowly drawing himself after.
Overcame me now his back was turned. 

Word Meaning :
Horrid- horrible
Deliberately- intentionally

Explanation of the Poem: In the thirteenth stanza of the poem, the poet described what he did when he saw the snake putting its head into the dreadful crack hole of the wall and slowly slithered his shoulders and then the rest of its body in after that. It was sort of a horror going back into the horrible black hole intentionally. The poet protested against its leaving and going back into the blackness of the hole. 

Poem : I looked round, I put down my pitcher,
I picked up a clumsy log
And threw it at the water trough with a clatter. 

Word Meaning :
clumsy Iog- awkward/ not proper piece of wood
Clatter- a loud noise

Explanation of the Poem: In the fourteenth stanza of the poem, the poet looked around and put down his pitcher, he picked up some wood and threw it at the water trough with a loud noise in a desperate attempt to stop the snake from leaving.

Poem : I think it did not hit him,
But suddenly that part of him that was left behind
convulsed in undignified haste.
Writhed like lightening, and was gone
Into the black hole, the earth lipped fissure in the wall front,
At which, in the intense still noon, I stared with fascination. 

Word Meaning :
Convulsed- caused a sudden shaking movement
Undignified- appearing foolish and unseemly
Haste- excessive speed or urgency of movement or action
Writhed- twisted or moved body out of pain
Fascination- strong attraction

Explanation of the Poem: In the fifteenth stanza of the poem, the poet said that he thought the wooden log had not hit the snake, but he was wrong. As a result, the snake suddenly in the shaking movement speeded up its motion and disappeared into the black hole in the wall in a flash like lightning. The poet kept looking at the crack in the wall in strong attraction in the intense noon.

Poem : And immediately I regretted it.
I thought how paltry, how vulgar, what a mean act!
I despised myself and the voices of my accursed human education. 

Word Meaning :
Paltry- meagre, two small
Vulgar- not decent
Despised- hated strongly
Accursed- having a curse, a bad magic spell

Explanation of the Poem: In the sixteenth stanza of the poem, the poet immediately started to feel regret that he had acted in such a cruel, indecent and petty way with the snake. He hated himself and the voices of human education that had urged him to act in such a manner.

Poem : And I thought of the albatross,
And I wished he would come back, my snake.

Word Meaning :
Albatross- a large white sea-bird, it is sportingly killed in Coleridge’s the Ancient Mariner resulting in psychological and spiritual crisis

Explanation of the Poem: In the seventh stanza of the poem, the poet thought of the albatross which was a large white sea-bird, who was sportingly killed in Coleridge’s the Ancient Mariner resulting in psychological and spiritual crisis, he felt like he killed the albatross for no reason and he wished that the snake would come back to the water trough once again.

Poem : For he seemed to me again like a king,
Like a king in exile, uncrowned in the underworld,
Now due to be crowned again. 

Word Meaning : Exile- the state of being barred from one’s native country

Explanation of the Poem: In the eighteenth stanza of the poem, the poet explained how he thought that the snake should have been the king, a king who had been barred and not crowned in his place which was beneath the surface of the earth. However, the poet felt that the snake would be crowned soon in the future.

Poem : And so, I missed my chance with one of the lords
Of life.
And I have something to expiate:
A pettiness.

Word Meaning :
Expiate- to accept punishment for sin
Pettiness- small and unimportant

Explanation of the Poem: In the nineteenth and the last stanza of the poem, the poet said that he missed his chance to welcome a lord of life into his home and he must apologize and accept his punishment for the sin for his petty behaviour in the matter.

 

Literary Devices

Following poetic/literary devices have been used in the poem ‘Snake’ :

 

1. Simile- The subject of the poem is described by comparing it to another object or subject, using ‘as’ or ‘like’. Examples are- 

  1. “He lifted his head from his drinking, as cattle do, 
  2. And looked at me vaguely, as drinking cattle do 
  3. And lifted his head, dreamily, as one who has drunken, 
  4. For he seemed to me again like a king,

 

2. Metaphor- Metaphor is a poetic device where an object in, or the subject of, a poem is described as being the same as another otherwise unrelated object. Examples are-

  1. “From out the dark door of the secret earth.”  Dark door refers to the hole. 
  2. “The voice of my education said to me He must be killed”, “The voice of my education” refers to the poet’s previous lessons concerning the snake. 

 

 3. Alliteration- Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound at the start of a series of words in succession whose purpose is to provide an audible pulse that gives a piece of writing a lulling, lyrical, and/or emotive effect. Examples are- 

  1. And depart peaceful, pacified, and thankless, 
  2. Being earth-brown, earth-golden from the burning bowels of the earth

 

4. Personification- Personification is a poetic device where animals, plants or even           inanimate objects, are given human qualities – resulting in a poem full of imagery and description. Example – “Sipped with his straight mouth”. The snake is not a man that can sip drinks.

 

5. Allusion- Allusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. Examples are- 

  1. And I thought of the albatross, ​​”Albatross” in the poem refers or alludes to the killing of a bird by a sailor in Coleridge’s epic poem titled “Ancient Mariner”.
  2. Again, “Sicilian July” and “Etna smoking” are equal events in history.

 

6. Repetition- Repetition is a literary device that involves using the same word or phrase over and over again in a piece of writing or speech. For example- On a hot, hot day, and I in Pyjamas for the heat,

7. Anaphora – when consecutive lines start with the same word / words. For example – 

I thought how paltry, how vulgar, what a mean act!

I despised myself and the voices of my accursed human education. 

And I thought of the albatross,

And I wished he would come back, my snake. 

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Snake Question  Answers

Exercises

 

B.1. 1. Read the following sentences and write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements:

a) It was a hot day when the thirsty snake came to drink water.

b) The speaker was in a haste to drink water.

c) The colour of the snake was yellow-black.

d) The speaker considered himself a second comer to the trough.

Answer-

a) It was a hot day when the thirsty snake came to drink water. True

b) The speaker was in a haste to drink water. True

c) The colour of the snake was yellow-black. False

d) The speaker considered himself a second comer to the trough. True

 

B.1. 2. Answer the following questions, briefly:

1) Where did the speaker meet the snake?

Answer-

The speaker met the snake near the water trough of his house. The snake had come to the water trough to drink water. The speaker had also gone to the water trough to drink water.

 

2) Why had it come out of its hole near the trough?

Answer-

It had come out of its hole near the trough to drink water because it was a hot day and the snake was thirsty.

 

3) Why did the speaker decide to wait?

Answer-

The speaker decided to wait because the snake had come first near the water trough and the poet as the second-comer decided to wait.

 

B.2. 1. Read the following sentences and write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements:

a) The snake looked at the speaker vaguely.

b) The day mentioned in the poem is that of June.

c) There was a superstitious belief in Sicily to kill black snake.

d) The speaker was glad playing host to a snake.

e) The snake departed in an obliged way.

f) The speaker had a desire to talk to the snake.

Answer-

a) The snake looked at the speaker vaguely. True

b) The day mentioned in the poem is that of June. False

c) There was a superstitious belief in Sicily to kill black snake. False

d) The speaker was glad playing host to a snake. True

e) The snake departed in an obliged way. False

f) The speaker had a desire to talk to the snake. True

 

B.2. 2. Answer the following questions briefly:

1) How did the snake drink water?

Answer-

The snake rested his throat upon the stone bottom and sipped the water very silently with his straight mouth, softly drank through his straight gums, into his slack long body. After drinking water, he raised his head just like cattle do and flashed his forked tongue, thought for a moment and then bent down to drink some more water.

 

2) What is the meaning of ‘Sicilian July, with Etna smoking’?

Answer-

The poet referred to the day of Sicilian July with Etna smoking, Mount Etna was one of the world’s most active volcanoes, he explained about the temperature of the place using the Etna word. Etna smoking means extreme heat like the one caused when Etna erupted. It was probably the heat that drove the snake to the water trough. 

 

3) What is the belief prevailing in Sicily about a snake?

Answer-

The poet talked about his education that while he was in Sicily, he had learnt that black snakes would not harm you, but that golden ones were poisonous. So his education told him to kill the golden snake that had come to his water trough. 

 

4) Why did the speaker like the snake?

Answer-

The speaker liked the snake because it looked very innocent. It drank the water peacefully for which it came out of its secret hole in the earth and did not misuse its power. 

 

5) Do you think he had a conflict in mind? 

Answer-

Yes, I think that he had a conflict in mind because at first he was afraid of the snake and later he thought that it was a guest who came to drink water at his house. The poet regretted after hitting the snake. He thought that he had done something uncivilized and he might have committed a sin so he wanted to apologize. 

 

B.2. 1. Read the following sentences and write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements:

a) The speaker found the slow movement of the snake quite impressive.

b) The speaker did not like the snake going back to the dark hole.

c) He threw the pitcher at the snake.

d) He later regretted for having hit it.

e) He compares it to a sea-bird, albatross.

f) The snake appeared like king in exile.

Answer-

a) The speaker found the slow movement of the snake quite impressive. True

b) The speaker did not like the snake going back to the dark hole. True

c) He threw the pitcher at the snake. False

d) He later regretted for having hit it. True

e) He compares it to a sea-bird, albatross. True

f) The snake appeared like king in exile. True

 

B.2. 2. Answer the following questions briefly:

1) What thing about the snake did appeal him most?

Answer-

The thing about the snake that appealed to the poet most was that the snake calmly came to the poet’s house  for the purpose of drinking water as a guest and departed peacefully after being satisfied. The snake behaved so gently and decently. 

 

2) Why did he not like it going back to the dark hole?

Answer-

The poet did not like it going back to the dark hole because he wanted it to stay. He thought that the snake had come like a guest or God and he wanted to talk to it. Moving back to the dark hole seemed horrifying to him.

 

3) What was his reaction after hitting the snake?

Answer-

The poet regretted after hitting the snake. He was tense at his act of hitting  and he felt that he had done wrong so he wanted the snake to come back and accept his apology. He thought that he had done something uncivilized and he might have committed a sin by his reaction.

 

4) Why did the speaker consider it ‘a king in exile’?

Answer-

The speaker considered it a king in exile because it was a peaceful black cobra who had done nothing wrong with him. It was uncrowned in the world because the snake’s behavior was royal, majestic, relaxed, and impressive like that of a king. It came out of its secret hole in the earth and did not misuse its power. 

 

C. 1. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS

  1. The speaker was fascinated by the snake. Do you think the time mentioned and the place it belonged to has anything to do with this fascination?

Answer-

It was a typical summer day when the poet felt thirsty, came down and reached his water pitcher. He saw a snake near the water trough so he had to stand and wait for the snake to finish drinking because the snake reached the water-trough before the poet. The speaker was fascinated by how the snake stopped drinking at one point and looked at him vaguely, in the same way that cattle drinking in ponds sometimes pause between sips. The snake acknowledged the poet with a flick of its tongue and then drank a little more. The snake moved its forked tongue quickly from side to side, thought for a bit and continued to drink again. Iit was a yellow-brown fierceful cobra with its eyes shining but it’s manners were decent. The poet expected the snake to leave as peacefully as he had come to go back into the burning bowels and in the depths of the earth from which he imagined it had risen. He quite liked the snake and was happy that it had come to drink at his water trough like a guest. He was so fascinated that it looked like a god to him. As such the time and the place of its arrival on the scene bears no importance, but it’s gentle and sober look and behaviour impressed the speaker.

 

  1. What does he mean by ‘the voice of my education’?

Answer-

The voice of education means to the poet that the snake was dangerous and poisonous. It must then be destroyed. The word ‘education’ here refers to the intellectual voice of the poet. It was human education and his knowledge while he was in Sicily, he had learnt that black snakes would not harm you, but that golden ones were poisonous. People become frightened if a snake appears before them. As such they kill the snake. So his education told him to kill the golden snake that had come to his water trough. It is prevalent that snakes become poisonous. If most of them who are poisonous bite a human being, he will not survive and is bound to die. 

 

  1. There was a conflict in the mind of the poet. How did he analyse this conflict?

Answer-

Yes, There was a conflict in the mind of the poet when he met with the snake at his water trough. The poet was in a state of confusion and several ideas and feelings engulfed his mind. He was afraid of it and also thought that it was a guest who came to drink water at his house.  The poet questioned himself what it was that had stopped him from killing the snake, whether it was due to the lack of courage, or because his desire to talk to the snake was wrong or immoral thinking or because of his quality of being humble. The poet felt honoured that the snake chose to come to him, to trust him and his water. The poet confessed that he was very scared of the snake, but more than that, he was honoured that the snake had chosen to come only to his water trough while making its journey out of the earth’s crust. The fear was worthless to him than the honor of the moment. The poet wanted to present a hospitable water-trough for the snake, one that pleased him as he came out from the dark door of earth. These were the issues of conflict in the mind of the poet.

 

  1. In what roles did he find the snake and himself? Describe.

Answer-

Generally the poet was the only one to drink out of his water trough, but that particular day, he himself was second to reach the water trough and he had to wait for the snake to finish first. The snake took advantage of his early arrival to the water trough and the poet as the second-comer had to wait. He considered the snake as his guest, who had come there to drink water. The snake was humble and gentle in its behaviour and it left the place peacefully after getting satisfied and did not cause any harm to him. So, both of them-the poet and the snake very well performed their roles.

 

  1. The snake seemed like ‘a king in exile’. What are the qualities that make the snake so majestic?

Answer-

The poet seems to be full of admiration and respect for the snake. The poet was so impressed with its decent and gentle behavior that he almost regarded him as a king in exile and a majestic God. The snake was humble and peaceful that it caused no damage to the speaker nor it attacked him. Most cordially with a series of elegant and god-like movements, the snake then turned around slowly and headed back into the broken bank of the wall through which it had come from. The poet thought that the snake should have been the king, a king who had been barred and not crowned in his place which was beneath the surface of the earth. However, the poet felt that the snake would be crowned soon in the future.

 

  1. What makes you think that hitting the snake was quite against the sensibility of the speaker?

Answer-

The poet picked the wooden log and hit the snake. As a result, the snake suddenly in the shaking movement speeded up its motion and disappeared into the black hole in the wall in a flash like lightning. The poet kept looking at the crack in the wall in strong attraction in the intense noon. The poet immediately started to feel regret that he had acted in such a cruel, indecent and petty way with the snake. He hated himself and the voices of human education that had urged him to act in such a manner. The poet felt like he missed his chance to welcome a lord of life into his home and he must apologize and accept his punishment for the sin for his petty behaviour in the matter. This shows that hitting the snake was quite against his sensibility.

 

  1. What is the ‘sin’ committed by the speaker that he wanted to ‘expiate’?

Answer-

The poet felt that he missed his chance to welcome a lord of life into his home and he must apologize and accept his punishment for the sin for his petty behaviour in the matter where he picked the wooden log and hit the snake. As a result, the snake suddenly in the shaking movement speeded up its motion and disappeared into the black hole in the wall in a flash like lightning. The poet immediately started to feel regret that he had acted in such a cruel, indecent and petty way with the snake. He hated himself and the voices of human education that had urged him to act in such a manner. He thought that he had done a vulgar, shameful, and mean act and he wanted to ‘expiate’.

 

C.3. COMPOSITION

Write a short essay in about 150 words on the following:

a. Human greed and environmental degradation

Answer-

Human greed is damaging and degrading the lands of the Earth in an unsustainable fashion. Ironically, we humans are the main offenders and the same species that depend the most on it, is behind the destruction. The human population has grown rapidly, yet the landmass available to us remains the same. The growing number of humans has led to a growing demand for resources, which has led to overexploitation of the earth’s natural resources. Numerous forests have been levelled to accommodate our species’ growing population, disrupting ecosystems, and causing tremendous loss to biodiversity. One of the primary demands, food, is behind the largest negative impact. To meet the growing demands, agricultural expansion happened, terrestrial land use was changed. Forests are also cleared up for mining, as most of the precious resources like Oil, gold, diamond, copper etc are found in and around forests. It is important to remember that biodiversity is an important part of this planet, without which there is no future for humanity. We should remember that “The world has enough for everyone’s needs, but not enough for everyone’s greed.”

 

b. Religion teaches tolerance and humility

Answer-

Religion is a very emotional topic. It can often be difficult for individuals to put their personal biases aside and consider ideas or situations objectively. Religious Tolerance refers to the ability to appreciate spiritual values, beliefs and practices which are different from your own. This goal is a complex one due the great diversity of religions and spiritual beliefs existing in the world today. One who is truly a religious person always respects not only his own religion but also other religions. This forms the basis of social development and prosperity. It improves fraternity and strengthens national unity. We should also learn to forget and forgive some lapses and shortcomings of others in the spirit of friendliness or brotherhood, or else we cannot have goodwill, cooperation and peace. Lastly, it has been found that the role of education, media and religion becomes very important in propagating tolerance in society. 

 

D. WORD STUDY

D.1. Dictionary Use

Ex. 1. Correct the spelling of the following words:

 

  

fishure streight flikered muzed parvarsity
delibarately convalsed wreethed fassination uncrouned

Answer-

 

Fishure

Fissure 

Streight

Streight

Flikered

Flickered 

Muzed

Muzzed 

Parvarsity– 

Perversity 

Delibarately– Deliberately  Convalsed

Convulsed 

Wreethed

Writhed 

Fassination

Fascination 

Uncrouned– Uncrowned 

 

D.2. Word-formation

Read the following lines from the poem carefully:

But suddenly that part of him that was left behind convulsed in undignified haste

Like a king in exile, uncrowned in the underworld,

In the above lines ‘undignified’ and ‘uncrowned’ have prefix ‘un—’ which make them ‘negative’ in meaning.

Add prefixes ‘un-‘, ‘in-‘, ‘im-‘, ‘il’, ‘ir-‘, ‘dis-‘ to the following words and fill in the blanks to complete the sentences given below: 

 

 

logical responsible respect
mortal  known ability

 

i. Pragya could not get good marks in ‘writing test’ because of her ________ to write fast.

ii. Man becomes _______ because of his action.

iii. His ______ behaviour is not liked by us.

iv. You cannot win the case by your __________ arguments. 

v. There are still many ________  planets and stars in the universe.

vi. His blunt refusal to come was a sign of __________.

 

Answer-

 

Logical- 

Illogical 

Responsible-

Irresponsible

Respect-

Disrespect 

Mortal-

Immortal

Known-

Unknown 

Ability-

Inability 

 

i. Pragya could not get good marks in ‘writing test’ because of her inability to write fast.

ii. Man becomes immortal because of his action.

iii. His irresponsible behaviour is not liked by us.

iv. You cannot win the case by your illogical arguments. 

v. There are still many unknown planets and stars in the universe.

vi. His blunt refusal to come was a sign of disrespect.

 

D.3. Word-meaning

Ex 1. Read the poem carefully to find out where the following phrases have been used.

 

Looked at looked around drew up
put down left behind thought of 

 

Fill in the blanks with appropriate phrases listed above:

i. Varsha _________ her papers on the table and went out.

ii. We could not _________ a better plan.

iii. He ran slowly and soon was __________ all other runners. 

iv. We ________ the paintings in admiration.

v. The acrobat _________ himself before jumping over the rope.

vi. The thirsty man _________ in search of water. 

Answer-

i. Varsha put down her papers on the table and went out.

ii. We could not thought of a better plan.

iii. He ran slowly and soon was left behind all other runners. 

iv. We looked at the paintings in admiration.

v. The acrobat drew up himself before jumping over the rope.

vi. The thirsty man looked around in search of water. 

 

E. GRAMMAR

Ex. 1. Go through the poem carefully and underline the lines where the following words/ nouns have been used:

 

slackness clearness cowardice perversity
hospitality blackness pettiness humility

 

Change the above words into adjectives and use them in the following sentences:

i. Mr John has very ……….. ideas on the success of democracy in India.

ii. ……..  men die several times.

iii. Films should not glorify ………  sex- behaviours.

iv. The sky suddenly turned   ……… .

v. He often perturbs his parents with ……….  demands. 

vi. Though he occupies a high post, he is quite   …………

vii. His …………  approach aggravated the problem. 

viii. Mrs Juber was quite ………..  with her guests.

 

Answer-

 

Slackness-

Slack

Clearness-

Clear

Cowardice-

Coward

Perversity-

Pervasive 

Hospitality-

Hospitable 

Blackness-

Black 

Pettiness-

Petty

Humility- 

Humble

 

i. Mr John has very clear ideas on the success of democracy in India.

ii. Coward men die several times.

iii. Films should not glorify slack  sex- behaviours.

iv. The sky suddenly turned black .

v. He often perturbs his parents with petty demands. 

vi. Though he occupies a high post, he is quite humble

vii. His pervasive  approach aggravated the problem. 

viii. Mrs Juber was quite hospitable  with her guests.

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