BSEB Class 12 English Chapter 10 India Through a Traveller’s Eyes Summary, Explanation, and Question Answers from Rainbow Book 

 

India Through a Traveller’s Eyes – India Through a Traveller’s Eyes BSEB Class 12 English Rainbow Book Chapter 10 India Through a Traveller’s EyesSummary and detailed explanation of the story along with meanings of difficult words. Also, the summary is followed by an explanation of the lesson. All the exercises and Question Answers given at the back of the lesson have also been solved.

 

BSEB Class 12 Rainbow book Chapter 10 – India Through a Traveller’s Eyes

By Pearl S. Buck

 

 
 

India Through a Traveller’s Eyes Introduction

 

The present piece ‘India Through a Traveller’s Eyes’ is an extract from My Several Worlds, which is a personal record of her life. It shows her love for the poorest people living in Indian villages. 

 
 

India Through a Traveller’s Eyes Summary

 

In this chapter the author (Pearl S. Buck) talked about the country India. She had never seen the entire country on her own but India had always been part of the background of her life.She had heard a lot of stories about the country India from her Indian family doctor and his wife. She also learnt alot about Indian religion and about Buddhism through her father about the life history of Lord Buddha.The word colour reminded the author about different shades that Indians have just like there are different people of colour  in America as well.The author had a young friend who married a Kashmiri man. He had a fair skin colour which was like a lovely cream and had dark hair and green eyes just like the standard Greek people.

 Indian priests are known for their good memory, drama and strong beliefs and finding dramatic lives. India has a very penetrated human life. India managed to seek independence , and had various individuals who talked about freedom in a few short years. These individuals influence the entire world by making good use of the English language . They talk about their knowledge of the west and speak English in an extremely fine way, both men and women on both sides of the globe. At that time Jawaharlal Nehru with a host of men were learning to govern Indian. Also the first woman to be the President of the General Assembly of the United Nations was also a Women from India. Even the man in charge of the prisoner exchange in Korea was an Indian General, who won trust from all.

 

The author went to India not only to see the magnificence or great beauty of the country.She met the young intellectuals in the little rooms in the city and met the peasants in the villages. She wanted to hear about their freedom plans. Young intellectuals believed that there would be another World War which was unavoidable.

India decided if the Second World War happens, India would fight or rise in opposition immediately against England. India would fight until they get freedom from England. They decided they would not let England force themselves like it happened in the First World War. But Indians did not calculate or assume what could happen in the Second World War. In the Second World War there was extreme cruelty of Nazism. When India became aware of this situation they had to choose between an imaginary line and English men, India chose English men even after being aware of many injustices they were choosing between extreme cruelty or brutality and civilization. Finally India got the freedom inspite of English men and others who were fighting with India for slavery did not have complete understanding of Asia to know what wisdom was.

 It was Mahatma Gandhi who realised that in order to win this fight it was very important that peasants and intellectuals should come together for their country. Mahatma Gandhi had a really strong hold on both the groups which were peasants and intellectuals. So Mahatma Gandhi achieved his end without even a War. Author referred to all Americans that they don’t fully understand the great lesson that India taught them about how freedom can be achieved. India taught a lesson that there can be a great victory in the War of Independence without shedding blood which shrinks in size and concept. India taught everyone in the world a lesson of humanity.

 

The author thought she had seen enough poverty in China but she was wrong. When she came to India she saw the actual meaning of Poverty . She realised that Chinese peasants were rich in comparison to Indian peasants. She could only compare the life of Indian villagers with the Russian peasants that she had seen years before. Looking at Indian children with thin, big bellies and huge sad dark eyes, the author’s heart got torn down. She wondered if the Englishmen could look at them and not accuse themselves for their miserable life.The result of this was the lifespan of Indian people was only up to twenty-seven years. People used to get married at a very young age so that there could be as many children as possible before he died.

 

The bad result of the colonial system was that it provided an endless excuse to people against work and so against helping themselves. Indians blamed the Englishmen for all the misery and losses. They even started blaming them for their own responsibilities such as to feed them, to clothe them and to govern them. Even if people were dying, Englishmen were being blamed. And perhaps it is not even wrong to blame Britishmen for this because they snatched their heart and their spirit died with it. Indians were helpless only because of Englishmen.

 

It was clear in her mind that Indian people had deep respect for great men and women. Indians would follow the leadership of those people who they think are capable of giving up self interest which means a leader should think of his group and what would benefit his people first rather than seeking self interest.This was the main quality of a leader that Indians respected and which actually mattered to them. A person who has the ability to give up his personal benefits in order to aim for perfection, the one who was also honest , high-minded and yet trustworthy.After fighting for India’s freedom Mahatma Gandhi received all the love, loyalty, and enthusiasm from everyone nationally as well as internationally. Not only Mahatma Gandhi but there were several other local persons who were also leaders because they were selfless , they also got special honour and respect publicly for all their hard work and selflessness.

The author got invited for luncheon by a moderately educated family. . The lunch was quite plain and simple country fare with lentils, rice, spinach which was boiled too much and mustard or pickle. Before they started the lunch an old cousin brought  a jar made of brass filled with water and a clean home-made towel to clean their hands. Eating with fingers was like a necessary groundwork.Religion was one thing in India which was present everywhere and in everyone’s life in its best as well as in its worst aspect for them and elsewhere the quality of being fanatical reached into sin. The author liked the simple acceptance of religious motives that Indians followed but the perfect way in which a person can behave according to one’s religion moved the soul. She saw this in her first meeting of the Indian family which was not only intelligent as well as well-to-do.

 

Author’s life was very busy and crowded because she used to travel a lot and meet a lot of people and for her to put everything in one book or even all her books was not enough to share the things she wanted to share with her readers. Years after she left India, she wrote a book called Come, My beloved against its background. She found it very strange that except for a few rest all the Americans were not able to understand the real meaning of the book she wrote. The book was an achievement universally whatever the goal was it was an absolute achievement.
 
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Video Explanation of India Through a Traveller’s Eyes

 

 
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India Through a Traveller’s Eyes Lesson and Explanation

 

  1. India had always been part of the background of my life, but I had never seen it whole and for myself until now. Yet the stories that our Indian family doctor and his wife told me when I was child had woven themselves into my growing dreams, and I had long read everything that I could find about that country. From my father I had learned of it through Buddhism and the life history of the Lord Buddha.

In this chapter the author (Pearl S. Buck) talked about the country India. She had never seen the entire country on her own but India had always been part of the background of her life. She had heard a lot of stories about the country from her Indian family doctor and his wife. In her childhood she used to relate to those stories in her growing dreams. She also learnt alot about Indian religion and about Buddhism through her father about the life history of Lord Buddha.

 

  1. The very word colour reminds me of the variety of hue that is Indian life, as various as our own American human scene. In Kashmir, where the white barbarian invaders from Europe long ago penetrated India, the people are often fair. Auburn-haired, blue-eyed women are beauties there. A young Indian friend of mine has recently married a Kashmiri man who, though his hair is dark, has eyes of a clear green. The skin colour of the Kashmiri is a lovely cream and the features are as classic as the Greek. But all the people of India must be reckoned as belonging to the Caucasian race, whatever the colour of the skin in the South, though it be as black as any African’s.

Hue- a colour or shade.

Barbarian- savage, uncivilized

Invaders-  to enter for conquest or plunder

Penetrated- go into or through (something), especially with force or effort.

Auburn-haired- having hair of golden brown colour

Classic- standard

Reckoned- establish by calculation.

Caucasian race- a fair skinned race, belonging to the Caucasus region in the USSR

India is a country of colour because you will find people of different shades and colors in India. So the word colour reminded the author about different shades that Indians have just like there are different people of colour  in America as well. White uncivilized people of Europe entered forcefully into India to conquer it . The people in Kashmir were generally of fair skin tone. The author had a young friend who married a Kashmiri man. He had a fair skin colour which was like a lovely cream and had dark hair and green eyes just like the standard Greek people. Most of the Indians belonged to Caucasian race which is basically a fair-skinned race but there are also people from the South who are as black as Africans.

 

  1. And India has an amazing way of appearing unexpectedly in other life, as for example, today in the life of South Africa, the Indians make a third group between the South Africans, and the black and white. For that matter there was our Indian family doctor, and why should there have been an Indian doctor in a Chinese port to tend to an American family? And rumours of India persist, for they are a memorable people, dramatic and passionate and finding dramatic lives.

Dramatic- relating to drama or the performance or study of drama.

Passionate- having, showing, or caused by strong feelings or beliefs.

India is an amazing country. Indians are present in different parts of the world as well, for example in South Africa Indians are ranked as the third big group after the South Africans, the black people and white people. Similarly the author had an Indian family doctor in China for an American family. Indian priests are known for their good memory, drama and strong beliefs and finding dramatic lives.

 

  1. You see how India has a way of permeating human life? And consider how India has managed, merely by maintaining her independence, and yes, by producing superior individuals, to influence the world in these few short years of freedom, they have put to good use the benefits the English gave and left, the knowledge of the West, the pure and exquisitely enunciated English tongue of men and women educated on both sides of the globe — witness Nehru and with him a host of men learning how to govern, and the first woman to be the President of the General Assembly of the United Nations a woman of India, and the man in charge of the prisoner exchange in Korea an Indian General, who won trust from all. Even the blustering and accusations at home and abroad have not changed the quiet confidence of the new India, and this confidence, founded in unyielding idealism, permeates our world life.

Permeating- penetrating

exquisitely enunciated- pronounced in an extremely fine way

Blustering- angry talk

Idealism- he unrealistic belief in or pursuit of perfection.

Accusations- a charge or claim that someone has done something illegal or wrong.

India has a very penetrated human life. India managed to seek independence , and had various individuals who talked about freedom in a few short years. These individuals influence the entire world by making good use of the English language . They talk about their knowledge of the west and speak English in an extremely fine way, both men and women on both sides of the globe. At that time Jawaharlal Nehru with a host of men were learning to govern Indian. Also the first woman to be the President of the General Assembly of the United Nations was also a Women from India. Even the man in charge of the prisoner exchange in Korea was an Indian General, who won trust from all.India faced a lot of anger and false claims that someone had done something illegal or wrong but all these accusations couldn’t break the confidence of the new India , all these people turned out to become more powerful and yet confident. This confidence resulted in the pursuit of perfection that penetrated in Indians life.

 

  1. What did I go to India to see? Not the Taj Mahal, although I did see it and by moonlight, not Fatehpur Sikri, although I did see it, and not the glories of empire in New Delhi, although I did see them. I went to India to see and listen to two groups of people, the young intellectuals in the cities and the peasants in the villages. These I met in little rooms in the city, in little houses in the villages, and I heard their plans for freedom. Already the intellectuals believed that another World War was inevitable. They had been bitterly disappointed after the First World War by what they felt were the broken promises of England. The English, they declared, had no real purpose to restore India to the people. I could believe it, fresh as I was from China, where the period of People’s Tutelage seemed endless and self government further off every year. ‘When you are ready for independence,conquerors have always said to their subjects, etcetera! But who is to decide when that moment comes, and how can people learn to govern themselves except by doing it? So the intellectuals in India were restless and embittered, and I sat through hours watching their flashing dark eyes and hearing the endless flow of language, the purest English, into which they poured their feelings.

Glories- magnificence or great beauty.

Intellectuals-  a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of society

Peasants- a poor smallholder or agricultural laborer of low social status 

Inevitable- certain to happen; unavoidable.

Bitterly- in an angry, hurt, or resentful way

Tutelage- instruction especially of an individual.

Conquerors- a people ruled over by a foreign conqueror

Restless- unable to relax

Embittered- resentful

The author went to India not only to see the magnificence or great beauty of the country. Although she did see the The Taj Mahal by the moonlight and Fatehpur Sikri. She went to India to see and listen to two groups of people which were the young intellectuals who engage in critical thinking and do research about the reality of society and the peasants in the villages which are basically poor agricultural laborers of low social status. She met the young intellectuals in the little rooms in the city and met the peasants in the villages. She wanted to hear about their freedom plans. Young intellectuals believed that there would be another World War which was unavoidable. Indians were already very angry and disappointed by the broken and false promises which were made by England. The language English was declared by England but had no real meaning or purpose to be restored in Indian people.The author could relate to the situations Indians were in because she had seen it in China where there was a guiding influence which seemed endless and the self government appeared to be 

far away in the upcoming years. Rulers asked their people who they were ruling if they were ready for independence. But nobody can tell until and unless the time comes if they would be able to govern themselves. The intellectuals in India were unable to relax and were very angry and the author could see all of this by watching them for hours through their flashing dark eyes filled with anger  and hearing them using the purest English language through which they were showing their feelings.

 

.6. The plan then was that when the Second World War broke, India would rebel immediately against England and compel her, by this complication, to set her free. They would not be forced, as they declared they had been in the First World War, to fight at England’s command.

Rebel- a person who rises in opposition or armed resistance against an established government or leader.

Complication- the difficult situation

India decided if the Second World War happens, India would fight or rise in opposition immediately against England. India would fight until they get freedom from England. They decided they would not let England force themselves like it happened in the First World War. This time India would fight until they set the country free. They would fight for their freedom by all means. 

 

  1. ‘And then;’ I asked.
  2. ‘And then;’ young India said proudly, ‘we will ourselves decide whether we wish to fight at England’s side – or against her.’

The author  asked the young intellectuals what they would do after that. So the young Indians replied with all their pride that they will decide whether they want to fight at England’s side or against it. 

 

  1. What they did not reckon on, when the time came, was the savagery of Nazism and the aggressions of Japan in Asia. When they perceived that they must choose between the Axis and the English, they chose the English, aware that in spite of many injustices they were choosing between barbarism and civilization. They postponed their plans for freedom, Gandhi meanwhile doing his work within his own country until the war was over, and by then the wisest minds in England, understanding the new world, returned India to her people, in spite of all opposition form English men and others who did not have sufficient understanding of Asia to know what wisdom was. Not even Churchill’s prophecy of blood bath, partly fulfilled at that, could prevent the inevitable. India had waited as long as she could, and peasants and intellectuals were on the same side in the old invincible combination. It was Gandhi’s strength that made him know very early that both peasant and intellectual must be won to work together for their country, his hold was equally strong upon both, and so he achieved his end, without war. Perhaps, we Americans do not yet fully understand the great lesson that India has to teach in thus winning her freedom. Beside her mighty triumph of a bloodless revolution our War of Independence shrinks in size and concept. India has taught humanity a lesson, and it is to our peril if we do not learn it. The lesson? That war and killing achieve nothing but loss, and that a  noble end is assured only if the means to attain it are of a piece with it and also noble.

Reckon- establish by calculation.

Savagery- barbaric cruelty

Perceived- become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand

Nazism- The philosophy believed in by the National Socialist German Workers Party, reorganised on military lines by Hitler

Aggression- anger

Prophecy- forecast

blood bath- bloodshed

Invincible- unconquerable

Triumph- a great victory or achievement.

Peril- serious and immediate danger.

Noble- having or showing fine personal qualities or high moral principles.

But Indians did not calculate or assume what could happen in the Second World War. In the Second World War there was extreme cruelty of Nazism which was basically The philosophy believed in by the National Socialist German Workers Party, reorganised on military lines by Hitler and anger of Japan in Asia. When India became aware of this situation they had to choose between an imaginary line and English men, India chose English men even after being aware of many injustices they were choosing between extreme cruelty or brutality and civilization.India had to postpone the plan for their freedom but in the meanwhile Mahatma Gandhi was working really hard within his own country until the war was over. After a while all the hard work and efforts of Indians turned in their favour, even the wisest minds in England after understanding how the new world works returned India to her people. Finally India got the freedom inspite of English men and others who were fighting with India for slavery did not have complete understanding of Asia to know what wisdom was. Even the forecast of former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that in order to win there should be bloodshed for defeating the opposition could not prevent India from seeking Independence. India had waited for this moment for a really long time and in this victory even the peasants and intellectuals were together in the old unconquerable combination. It was Mahatma Gandhi who realised that in order to win this fight it was very important that peasants and intellectuals should come together for their country. Mahatma Gandhi had a really strong hold on both the groups which were peasants and intellectuals. So Mahatma Gandhi achieved his end without even a War. Author refers to all Americans that they don’t fully understand the great lesson that India taught them about how freedom can be achieved. India taught a lesson that there can be a great victory in the War of Independence without shedding blood which shrinks in size and concept. India taught everyone in the world a lesson of humanity and it was their loss if they did not learn from this lesson. The lesson was that a war and killing does not achieve anything but loss. 

In order to expect high morals from a War. The War should be attained with a piece and in a noble way. 

 

  1. The real indictment against colonialism, however, was to be found in the villages of India. There was rot at the top, too, in the thousands of young intellectuals trained in English schools for jobs that did not exist except in the limited Civil Service. The towns and cities were frothing with unhappy young men, cultured and well educated, who could find no jobs and were not allowed by the old superstructure of empire to create them. But the real proof of evil, I say again, was in the miserable villages. I thought I had seen enough poverty in China, yet when I saw the Indian villages I knew that the Chinese peasants were rich in comparison. Only the Russian peasant I had seen years before could compare with the Indian villager, although that Russian was a very different creature, and inferior in many ways. For the Indian peasant was like the Chinese in being a person innately civilized. The maturing culture of an organised human family life and profound philosophical religions had shaped his mind and soul, even though he could not read and write. And the children, the little children of the Indian villages, how they tore at my heart, thin, big bellied, and all with huge sad dark eyes! I wondered if any Englishman could look at them and not accuse himself. Three hundred years of English occupation and rule, and could there be children like this? Yes, and millions of them! And the final indictment surely was that the life span in India was only twenty-seven years. Twenty-seven years! No wonder, then, that life was hastened, that a man married very young so that there could be children, as many as possible, before he died. I loved England, remembering all the happy journeys there, but in India I saw an England I did not know. And I was forced to see that if the English were, in many ways the finest people on earth, people who blazed the way for all of us to achieve the right of men to rule themselves, if colonialism could so corrupt even these, then indeed none of us could dare become the rulers of empire. 

Indictment- charge or accusation of a serious crime

Colonisation- the process by which colonies are set up and governed

Rot- a process of deterioration; a decline in standards.

Civil service- the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial.

Frothing- bubbling

Superstructure-  structure built on top of something else

Evil- profoundly immoral and wicked

Profound- very great or intense.

Innately- Naturally

Miserable- wretchedly unhappy or uncomfortable

Philosophical- relating or devoted to the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence.

The actual charge or crime against the process of colonies which were being set up and governed could be found in the villages of india. There was deterioration or decline in the standard at the top level too. Thousands of intellectuals were being trained in English schools for jobs but the jobs were not even there except for Civil Services. Civil services are basically the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. Indian towns and cities were filled with young men who were very unhappy with the current situation ,bubbling with anger because they were cultured and well educated but could not find jobs and were not even allowed by  the old structure built on top of the empire to create jobs for them. But the reality of profoundly immoral and wicked life and situations could be found in miserable villages of India. The author thought she had seen enough poverty in China but she was wrong. When she came to India she saw the actual meaning of Poverty . She realised that Chinese peasants were rich in comparison to Indian peasants. She could only compare the life of Indian villagers with the Russian peasants that she had seen years before. Russian peasants were very different . They were different creatures and were inferior in many ways. The only similarity she could find in Indians peasants and Chinese peasants was they both were naturally civilized. In India all the people were raised by the maturing culture of an organised human family life with great and devoted knowledge, reality, and existence of religion. Even their mind and soul were shaped that way although they could not read and write. Looking at Indian children with thin, big bellies and huge sad dark eyes, the author’s heart got torn down. She wondered if the Englishmen could look at them and not accuse themselves for their miserable life. The Englishmen ruled and worked for three hundred years but still there were millions of children and miserable peasants suffering.  The result of this was the lifespan of Indian people was only upto twenty-seven years. People used to get married at a very young age so that there could be as many children as possible before he died. The author loved England by remembering all the happy memories she experienced during her journey there but in India she saw the part of England that she never knew. It was believed that The Englishmen were the finest people on earth. They were the people who brightly achieved the rights of men and ruled them. If there would be corruption even in colonialism then nobody could dare become the rulers of the empire. 

 

  1. It seemed to me, as I lived with Indian friends, new and old, that all the ills of India could easily have been mended if there had been a government whose purpose was first of all to benefit the people rather than to live upon them. The desert-dry country, for example, the fruitless land between Bombay and Madras, was already famished although it was only February, and the sun was hot enough to fertilize and seed, had there been water. And why was there no water? Why not sink artesian wells, or even dig shallow wells, since I was told the water table was high? But the enervated and exhausted people had not the strength to take such initiative after the years of colonialism. It was more than that. The worst result, perhaps, of the colonial system was to provide the subject people with an infinite excuse against work and so against helping themselves. ‘You are responsible for me,’ is always the sullen attitude of the subject to the ruler. `You have undertaken to feed me and clothe me and govern me. If I die it is your fault.’ There were always the British to blame, and certainly the blame was not always just. Yet essentially perhaps it was, for when the heart of a people is gone, their spirit dies with it.

Famished- starved

artesian wells- wells through which water comes to the surface due to high water level.

Enervated- weakened

As the author lived in India she had new and old Indian friends. She believed that If India would have a government whose purpose was to benefit the people first and then to live upto then, then all the problems in India could be easily changed.India was a dry country like desert because farmers were not getting water for their farming. The land between Bombay and Madras was fruitless even in February when the sun was hot enough to fertilize and seed but if farmers would get the supply of water they would be able to take care of their crops. The real question at that time was why there was no water ? The wells through which water comes to the surface due to high water level were not being made, no shallow wells were being dug even after having high water tables. But Indians were so weakened and exhausted that they had no strength to take the first step after the years of colonialism. The bad result of the colonial system was that it provided an endless excuse to people against work and so against helping themselves. Indians blamed the Englishmen for all the misery and losses. They even started blaming them for their own responsibilities such as to feed them, to clothe them and to govern them. Even if people were dying, Englishmen were being blamed. And perhaps it was not even wrong to blame Britishmen for this because they snatched their heart and their spirit died with it. Indians were helpless only because of Englishmen

 

  1. Looking back, I find that among the many impressions of the people of India, absorbed while I lived among them, and still clear in my mind, is their reverence for great men and women. Leadership in India can only be continued by those whom the followers consider to be good – that is, capable of renunciation, therefore, not self-seeking. This one quality for them contains all others. A person able to renounce personal benefit for the sake of an idealistic and is by that very fact also honest, also high-minded, therefore also trustworthy. I felt that the people, even those who know themselves venal and full of faults, searched for such persons.

Reverence- deep respect

Renunciation- process of giving up self interest

Venal- corrupt

The author looked back and absorbed many impressions of the people of India while she lived among them. It was clear in her mind that Indian people had deep respect for great men and women. Indians would follow the leadership of those people who they think are capable of giving up self interest which means a leader should think of his group and what would benefit his people first rather than seeking self interest.This was the main quality of a leader that Indians respected and which actually mattered to them. A person who has the ability to give up his personal benefits in order to aim for perfection, the one who was also honest , high-minded and yet trustworthy. Even those people who were corrupt and were full of faults searched for that leader who was not selfish and would take the decision which would benefit the entire group.

 

  1. The devotion given nationally to Gandhi and finally even internationally is well known, but I found the same homage paid to local persons who in their measure were also leaders because of their selflessness. Thus I remember a certain Indian village where I had been invited to visit in the home of a family of some modern education, though not much, and by some means, though not wealth. The house was mud-walled and the roof was made of thatch. Inside were several moms, however, the floors smooth and polished with the usual mixture of cow dung and water. The active master of the house was not the head of the family, but a younger brother. This I discovered when I arrived, for before we entered the house, my host led me to a curious sort of cage standing well above the ground on four posts. Inside the cage, made of wire netting, I saw to my amazement an aging man lying on his back, his head supported by a pillow.

Devotion- love, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person or activity.

Homage- special honour or respect shown publicly.

Thatch- a roof covering of straw, reeds, palm leaves, or a similar material.

Curious- Strange; unusual.

Posts- a long, sturdy piece of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used as a support or marker.

Amazement- a feeling of great surprise or wonder.

After fighting for India’s freedom Mahatma Gandhi received all the love, loyalty, and enthusiasm from everyone nationally as well as internationally. Not only Mahatma Gandhi but there were several other local persons who were also leaders because they were selfless , they also got special honour and respect publicly for all their hard work and selflessness. The author was invited to an Indian village in the home of a family which was somewhat educated, not much and not very wealthy. The house was built with mud-walls and the roof was made with straw, reeds, palm leaves, or a similar material. The floors of the house were smooth and polished with a regular mixture of cow dung and water. The author discovered when she arrived at the house that the younger brother of that house was an active master of the house. He was not the head of the family. 

The host took the author to some strange and unusual sort of cage which was standing on the ground on four long and sturdy pieces of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used as a support or marker. The cage was made of wire netting. The author was surprised because she saw an aging man who was lying on his back and his head was supported by a pillow. 

 

  1. ‘My eldest brother,’ my host explained. ‘He has had a stroke of paralysis, and though we beg him to live in the house, he chooses to live out here so that he may be ready to listen to the villagers when they come to him.’ 

Stroke- an act of hitting or striking someone or something; a blow.

Paralysis- the loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, typically as a result of illness, poison, or injury.

The author explained that the aging man in the cage was his eldest brother. His elder brother had a stroke and lost his ability to move . Other family members begged the eldest brother to live in the house but he decided to stay in the cage so that he may be ready to listen to the villagers when they come to him.

 

  1. My host spoke fair English, but the elder brother spoke none; and we could only exchange greetings and look at each other with friendliness. What I saw was an intelligent thin, pain-sharpened face, whose eyes were at once wise and piercing. The body was quite helpless, but it was scrupulously clean and the cotton garments were snow-white. We exchanged a few remarks, and then a group of villagers approached, not to see me but to talk with the elder brother, and so my host led me into the house to meet his young wife and children. 

Scrupulously- in a very careful and thorough way

The host who invited the author to his house could speak fair English but his elder brother could not speak and understand English. So the author and the elder son could only look at each other and exchange greetings with friendliness. The elder brother was an intelligent man. He was thin and the pain he had was visible on his face. He looked wise by looking at his eyes. Due to paralysis his body was not working so he looked quite helpless but it was clean in a very careful and thorough way. He was wearing cotton clothes which were clean and white as snow. The author and the elder brother could not talk but exchanged a few remarks and then a group of villagers came to talk to the elder brother. So the host took the author into his house to meet his young wife and children.

 

  1. All during my stay I watched that cage, and seldom indeed did I see it except surrounded by people, and never, as long as daylight lasted, without at least one man squatting on the ground, talking earnestly and then listening. My host said, ‘My brother has always been our wise man. Now he is our saint.’

Seldom- not often; rarely.

Squatting- crouch or sit with one’s knees bent and one’s heels close to or touching one’s buttocks or the back of one’s thighs.

Earnestly- with sincere and intense conviction; seriously.

Saint-  very virtuous, kind, or patient person.

The author kept watching at the cage throughout her stay and it was very rare for her . The elder brother was surrounded by people as long as there was daylight. There was atleast one man sitting on the ground talking seriously  and then listening to the elder brother. The host explained to the author that his elder brother had always been their wise man. Now he was their Saint.

 

  1. My host, I observed, had his own place, too, in the village life, for twice while we were seating our luncheon that day he rose from his corner of the room and went out, to answer a shout, apparently from a neighbour. When he came back he made the same explanation.

Author noticed that the host who invited her to his house also had his own place in the village just like his elder brother, he was also a known man. While they were having lunch together the host rose from the corner of his room and went out to answer somebody shouting from his neighborhood. When he came back he made the same explanation.

 

  1. ‘I was called to kill a dangerous snake.’

The author was called to kill a dangerous snake.

 

  1. The luncheon was plain country fare, lentils, rice, spinach boiled very much, and condiments. Before we ate, an old cousin brought in a brass ewer of water and a clean homespun towel for us to cleanse our hands with, a necessary preliminary to eating with the fingers. Chopsticks I had used all my life and preferred them to knife and fork, but after I had got used to eating with my right hand, I liked it as well. After all, what is so clean as one’s own right hand washed? And from babyhood the Indian children are taught that the right hand is for clean services such as eating, and the left hand may perform the more lowly tasks.

Condiments- a substance such as salt, mustard, or pickle that is used to add flavour to food.

Ewer- jar

Homespun- made at home

Preliminary- prior

Lowly- to a low degree; in a low manner

The lunch was quite plain and simple country fare with lentils, rice, spinach which was boiled too much and mustard or pickle. Before they started the lunch an old cousin brought  a jar made of brass filled with water and a clean home-made towel to clean their hands. Eating with fingers was like a necessary groundwork. The author had used chopsticks all her life which she even preferred over knife and fork but after she used her hands for eating she liked them better than chopsticks. She thought that hands are the cleanest thing to eat. Since childhood children in India were taught to use their right hand for all the clean services such as eating and left hand to perform the more low degree tasks.

 

  1. Another cleanliness was that our food was served on fresh green banana leaves instead of plates. Well-cooked rice piled on a broad green leaf is a pleasant sight and stimulates the appetite. In any household where caste was observed the food was placed on such leaves or on dishes of fresh pottery, broken after we had finished with them. My host fulfilled the requirements of his caste by eating in the opposite corner of the room, and sitting on the floor with his back to us. By now I had learned to overcome my first feeling about a distance such as this. It was simply a private devotion to a religious feeling and not inhospitality.

Stimulates- activates, arouses

Inhospitality- the quality of being unfriendly and unwelcoming towards people

The other cleanliness that the author observed was that the food was served on fresh green banana leaves instead of plates.It was a pleasant sight for author watching the Well-cooked rice being piled on a broad green leaf which even activates the appetite. Everyone in India who followed the caste system the food was placed on the leaves or on dishes which were made from fresh pottery and after finishing the meal they broke the leaves. The host also followed the cast. He ate the food in the opposite corner of the room, sitting on the floor with his back to the author. After watching this the author understood the concept and overcame her first feeling about distance. For Indians it was a private devotion to a religious feeling and it was not an unfriendly or unwelcoming gesture towards people.

 

  1. Religion is ever-present in Indian life, in its best as well as in its worst aspects, for there, as elsewhere, fanaticism reaches into evil. I liked the simple acceptance of religious motive, however, and the perfect freedom to behave as one’s religion moved the soul. Thus in my first Indian family, an intellectual and fairly well-to-do one, while I sat and talked with my hostess in her living-room, an Indian gentleman came in without speaking to us and moved gracefully to the far end of the room, his bare feet silent upon the floor. There he knelt his head bowed, and so remained for perhaps a quarter of an hour. When I glanced at him curiously my hostess said in a manner entirely casual. ‘It is my husband’s eldest brother. He comes here during the day at his prayer times, since his own home is at some distance from his place of business.’ 

Fanaticism- the quality of being fanatical.

Evil- sin, wrong

Religion was one thing in India which was present everywhere and in everyone’s life in its best as well as in its worst aspect for them and elsewhere the quality of being fanatical reached into sin. The author liked the simple acceptance of religious motives that Indians followed but the perfect way in which a person can behave according to one’s religion moved the soul. She saw this in her first meeting of the Indian family which was not only intelligent as well as well-to-do. She was sitting in a room with the host’s wife in her living room, and an Indian gentleman came in without speaking to anyone and moved to the far end of the room. He was barefoot and then he knelt his head down and started praying for forty fives minutes continuously. The author was looking at her with curiosity and then the hostess explained to her in a very casual manner because it was a very common sight for Indians and then she said that the man was his husband’s eldest brother. He came to the house every day at his prayer time because his home was far away from his place of business and in order to pray he comes everyday. 

 

  1. When the prayer was over the brother went away again, and it was not until later that I met him, and then it was outside of prayer hours.

After praying the brother went away and the author was able to meet him later when he came outside of his prayer hours.

 

  1. My life has been too crowded with travels and many people for me to put it all within the covers of one book, however, and indeed all my books have not been enough to tell the things I would like to tell. Years after I left India I wrote Come, My Beloved against its background. Strange, the Americans, except for a few, have not understood the real meaning of that book, but the Indian readers understand. We have not lived long enough, perhaps, to know universally that the price of achievement, whatever the goal, is an absolute.

Author’s life was very busy and crowded because she used to travel a lot and meet a lot of people and for her to put everything in one book or even all her books was not enough to share the things she wanted to share with her readers. Years after she left India, she wrote a book called Come, My beloved against its background. She found it very strange that except for a few rest all the Americans were not able to understand the real meaning of the book she wrote. The book was an achievement universally whatever the goal was it was an absolute achievement.

 

  1. In my book I chose three Christian missionaries to prove it, for of all the people that I have ever known the missionary is, in his way, the most dedicated, the most single-hearted. He believes that God is the One, the Father of mankind and that all men are brothers. At least the Christian says he believes and so he preaches. Then why has he failed to change the world in spite of his sacrifices? Alas, they have not been enough, and he has not been willing to pay the full price for faith. Ha pays only part, unable to accept utterly the full meaning of his creed. I see the same refusal here in my own country, over and over again, and not only among Christians. But the people of India know what it is to be willing to pay the last full measure of the cost of and idealism. They understand, and to them my book is not a puzzlement. 

Missionaries- persons sent to propagate religion

Alas- used to express unhappiness, pity, or concern

Creed-  system of religious belief; a faith.

Idealism- belief in ideal ways of life

Puzzlement- confusion, bafflement 

The author chose three christian promoters to prove about religion in her book, for her the missionary is a person who was most dedicated and single-hearted. The missionary believed that God is one who is the father of mankind and that all men are brothers. According to christians that’s what the Missionary said and preached to his people. But after all his sacrifices he failed to change the world.The author showed her unhappiness and concern and said all the sacrifices were not enough and he has not been willing to pay the full price for faith. He also paid part of the price and was unable to accept the full meaning of the system of faith or religion. Author saw the same level of denial in her own country China over and over again, not only in Chrisitans. The people of India knew the actual meaning of religion and were willing to pay any cost and belief in ideal ways of life. They were able to understand and get the true meaning of the book, for them the book was not a confusion.
 
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India Through a Traveller’s Eyes Question and Answers

 

B.2.1. Read the following sentences and write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements: 

  1. The writer blames the English rule for all the ills of India. 
  2. Colonization had made the Indian enervated and exhausted. 

iii. Long period of slavery made the people quite dependent. 

  1. According to the writer, selflessness is the main quality of a leader. 
  2. Very few people in villages had respect for age and experience. 
  3. The writer did not like the idea of eating with right hand.

vii. Indians are by nature religious. 

viii. The book ‘Come, My Beloved’ has an Indian background. 

  1. A Christian missionary believes that ‘God is the one’. 

 

Answer-

  1. The writer blames the English rule for all the ills of India. True
  2. Colonization had made the Indian enervated and exhausted. True

iii. Long period of slavery made the people quite dependent. True

  1. According to the writer, selflessness is the main quality of a leader. True
  2. Very few people in villages had respect for age and experience. False
  3. The writer did not like the idea of eating with right hand. True

vii. Indians are by nature religious. True

viii. The book ‘Come, My Beloved’ has an Indian background. True

  1. A Christian missionary believes that ‘God is the one’. True

 

B.1.1. Read the following sentences and write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements:

  1. Pearl S. Buck had an Indian family doctor.
  2. The Mongolian from Europe invaded Kashmir.

iii. According to the writer, the Indians belonged to the Caucasian race.

  1. The first woman President of the General Assembly of the United States was an Indian.
  2. The writer wanted to listen to four groups of people.
  3. The young Indian intellectuals were disappointed with the English rule. 

vii. Indians were willing to fight in the Second World War at England’s command. 

viii. Indians believed in the nobility of means to achieve a noble end. 

  1. The worst effect of colonisation was seen in towns, in the form of unemployment. 
  2. Indians, under British rule, had a life span of just twenty seven years. ‘

 

Answer-

  1. Pearl S. Buck had an Indian family doctor. True
  2. The Mongolian from Europe invaded Kashmir. False

iii. According to the writer, the Indians belonged to the Caucasian race. True

  1. The first woman President of the General Assembly of the United States was an Indian. True
  2. The writer wanted to listen to four groups of people. False
  3. The young Indian intellectuals were disappointed with the English rule. True

vii. Indians were willing to fight in the Second World War at England’s command. False

viii. Indians believed in the nobility of means to achieve a noble end. True

  1. The worst effect of colonisation was seen in towns, in the form of unemployment. True
  2. Indians, under British rule, had a life span of just twenty seven years. ‘True

 

B.1. 2. Answer the following questions briefly : 

1) What does the word ‘colour’ remind the writer of? 

2) What were the benefits of the English rule? 

3) Why were the intellectuals in India restless and embittered? 

4) What was the ‘great lesson’ that India had to teach the West? 

5) Where was the real indictment against the colonisation to be found?

6) Why was the writer moved at the sight of the children of the Indian villages? 

Answers-

1) What does the word ‘colour’ remind the writer of? 

Answer-

The very word colour reminded the author of the variety of complex in Indian life as many as in her American human scene.

 

2) What were the benefits of the English rule? 

Answer-

The benefits of the English rule was an education in English and the knowledge of the west, which Indians acquired. They were able to speak English very fluently.

 

3) Why were the intellectuals in India restless and embittered? 

Answer-

 The intellectuals in India were restless and embittered because they were deceived during the first world war when the Englishmen promised them to be free .They were disappointed with the British rule because they were not happy to live a life of slavery. 

 

4) What was the ‘great lesson’ that India had to teach the West? 

Answer-

 India fought its struggle without involving the bloodbath and massive killing of humans because Indians knew that war and killing bring nothing but loss. So India taught a ‘great lesson of humanity’ as it got freedom without war.

 

5) Where was the real indictment against the colonisation to be found?

Answer-

The real indictment against colonialism, however, was to be found in the villages in India in the form of unemployment. 

 

6) Why was the writer moved at the sight of the children of the Indian villages? 

Answer-

The children of the Indian villages were lean, weak and with huge sad dark eyes. The writer moved to see their poor condition and it tore at her heart.

 

B.2. 2. Answer the following questions briefly : 

1) Why was the land between Bombay and Madras famished? 

Answer-

The land between Bombay and Madras was famished due to scarcity of water and food and it was burning like a hot desert.

 

2) Why did the Indians always blame the British for their suffering? 

Answer-

The colonial system exhausted Indians so  it is an easy excuse to run away from their problems and realities.Thats why The Indian always blame the British for their suffering.

 

3) Who was the real master of the house which Buck visited? 

Answer-

The real master of the house which Buck visited was a younger brother.

 

4) Why did the writer not mind her host eating in the opposite corner of the room? 

Answer-

The writer did not mind that her host was eating in the opposite corner of the room, because he (host) had fulfilled the requirement of his religion by eating in the opposite corner of the room. It was his family tradition.

 

5) What does she mean by saying ‘Religion is ever present in Indian life’? 

Answer-

By saying-’Religion is ever present in Indian life’ she meant that religion is very important for the people of India, and it is present in all aspects of the life of Indians.

 

6) What are her views on the Christian missionaries? 

Answer-

The writer thinks that Christian missionaries believe that God is the One, the Father of mankind and that all men are brothers. They preach this too then why they have failed to change the world despite their sacrifices.

 
C. 1. Long Answer Questions 
 

  1. How does Pearl S. Buck describe Kashmir? 

Answer-

Pearl S. Buck described Kashmir as a place of beautiful people. In Kashmir, where the white barbarian invaders from Europe long ago penetrated India, the people are often fair. Auburn-haired, blue-eyed women are beauties there. A young Indian friend of hers had recently married a Kashmiri man who has dark hair and clear green eyes. She also said that the skin colour of the Kashmiri is a lovely cream and their features are as classic as the Greek.

 

  1. How has India influenced the world in the post Independent era? 

Answer-

India has influenced the world in many positive ways after independence. It has produced superior individuals.The Indians make the third group between the South Africans and the black and white for that matter. India had put the benefits which Englishmen left or it took from them to good use. Nehru with his fellow leaders governed India in a developed way. Indians also served internationally and to prove this we can take the example from the chapter itself which says that ‘the man in charge of the prisoner exchange in Korea was an Indian General’. India also boosted women’s empowerment after independence as the first woman to be the President of the General Assembly of the United Nations was a woman of India. We Indians started winning trust from everywhere in the world soon after independence.

 

  1. Why had the Indian intellectuals decided not to support the British in the Second World War? 

Answer-

The Indian intellectuals had decided not to support the British in the Second World War because the British were ruling India, the intellectuals were disappointed with the British rule because they were not happy to live a life of slavery. In those times Indians suffered a lot. Everyone, the kids, women, old people, everyone. A fire of freedom was burning in the hearts of Indians. Though the Britishers knew that, they still had no real purpose to restore India to its people. The Indian intellectuals were restless and embittered. So they made a plan that if World War broke and they also had to participate, then Indians would rebel against Britishers instead of supporting them, and thus they would govern themselves.

 

  1. What lesson had India taught humanity by gaining Independence? 

Answer-

Indians did not assume what could happen in the Second World War. In the Second World War there was extreme cruelty of Nazism . When India became aware of this situation they had to choose between an imaginary line and English men, India chose English men even after being aware of many injustices they were choosing between extreme cruelty or brutality and civilization. Meanwhile, Mahatma Gandhi was working really hard within his own country until the war was over. After a while all the hard work and efforts of Indians turned in their favour, even the wisest minds in England after understanding how the new world works returned India to her people. Finally India got the freedom inspite of English men and others who were fighting with India for slavery did not have complete understanding of Asia to know what wisdom was. Even the forecast of former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that in order to win there should be bloodshed for defeating the opposition could not prevent India from seeking Independence. India taught a lesson that there can be a great victory in the War of Independence without shedding blood which shrinks in size and concept. India taught everyone in the world a lesson of humanity and it is their loss if they do not learn from this lesson. The lesson was that a war and killing does not achieve anything but loss. 

 

  1. What was the psychological impact of colonisation on Indian people? 

Answer-

The psychological impact of colonisation on Indian people was negative and devastating. People were not happy at all. They developed a rebellious attitude towards the Britishers. There was rot at the top, too many thousands of young intellectuals trained in English schools for the jobs that did not exist except in the limited Civil Service. The towns and cities were frothing with unhappy young men, cultured and well educated, who could find no jobs and were not allowed by the old superstructure of the empire to create them. Indians were so weakened and exhausted that they had no strength to take the first step after the years of colonialism. The bad result of the colonial system was that it provided an endless excuse to people against work and so against helping themselves. Indians blamed the Englishmen for all the misery and losses. They even started blaming them for their own responsibilities such as to feed them, to clothe them and to govern them. Even if people were dying, Englishmen were being blamed. And perhaps it is not even wrong to blame Britishmen for this because they snatched their heart and their spirit died with it. Indians were helpless only because of Englishmen.

 

  1. Who, according to Buck, could be the real leaders of Indian people? 

Answer-

According to the writer, Pearl S. Buck, the real leaders of Indian people could be those whom the followers consider being good that means who were capable of renunciation, and not self-seeking. According to Indians, this one quality for them contains all others. A person who can renounce personal benefit for the sake of an idealistic and is by that very fact also honest, also high-minded, therefore also trustworthy. Not only Mahatma Gandhi but there were several other local persons who were also leaders because they were selfless , they also got special honour and respect publicly for all their hard work and selflessness. The author felt that the people, even those who know themselves venal and full of faults, searched for such persons. So leadership in India can only be continued by those who have such a kind of selfless nature.

 

  1. What are some of the features of Indian family life, as noticed by Buck? 

Answer-

The features of the Indian family noticed by buck were that in India all the people were raised by the maturing culture of an organised human family life with great and devoted knowledge, reality, and existence of religion. Even their mind and soul were shaped that way although they could not read and write. Looking at Indian children with thin, big bellies and huge sad dark eyes, the author’s heart got torn down. She wondered if the Englishmen could look at them and not accuse themselves for their miserable life. The Englishmen ruled and worked for three hundred years but still there were millions of children and miserable peasants suffering.  The result of this was the lifespan of Indian people was only upto twenty-seven years. People used to get married at a very young age so that there could be as many children as possible before he died.

 

  1. Why did the writer believe that her book Come, My Beloved was not a puzzlement to the people of India? 

Answer-

The writer believed that her book “Come, My Beloved”, was not a puzzlement to the people of India because The people of India knew the actual meaning of religion and were willing to pay any cost and belief in ideal ways of life. Indians not only praise and respect the famous people but also dignify the local leaders also. Their devotion is not fame-based but value-based. The leaders of India understand the real values and sacrifices one has to make before stepping onto the path of idealism. The writer saw the refusal of the price for idealism in her own country, over and over again.But the people of India knew what it is to be willing to pay the last full measure of the cost of an idealism and hence, they were able to understand and get the true meaning of the book, for them the book was not a confusion.

 

C. 3. COMPOSITION 

  1. You have a pen Friend in America who wants to know about India. Write a letter to your friend describing some of the values that govern Indian family life.

Answer-

Answer-

Pitampura, Delhi

 

October 9, 2022

 

I hope this letter finds you in a happy and healthy mood. As you had expressed the wish to know about India in your previous letter,in the following lines I have tried my best to give you glimpses of our culture,traditions, and unity. You will be amazed to know that our culture is the oldest culture in the world and the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism,

and Sikhism. You won’t find any other culture as varied and multi-colored, multi-lingual as ours. There are 22 official languages in India. Basically, India is a spiritual country with orthodox traditions. For example the people of India believe in traditions set by their wise forefathers. Arranged marriages,joint-family system, universal brotherhood, vegetarianism, celebrating festivals such as Diwali, Holi, Eid, etc., are the salient features of our culture and traditions. Another unique aspect about our country is ‘unity in diversity’. In spite of the multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-traditional, multi-cultural society, people live peacefully together, respecting one another’s views, cultures, traditions, and differences. I am sure you would love to visit India soon, and have a first-hand experience of the multi-colored culture. Give regards to uncle and aunt. Do visit India with your family and experience our hospitality.

Your friend,

Deepak

 

  1. Write a paragraph in about 100 words on India’s contribution to world peace 

Answer-

India is a peace-loving country and has been a member of the United Nations from the very existence of the United Nation Organisation.India’s sincere efforts in maintaining peace in the sub-continent have been reflected several times through its relations with neighboring countries.The Constitution of India through the directive principles of state policy directs the government to promote International peace and seek peaceful settlement of International disputes.Indian armed forces helped in the maintenance of peace in Korea, Egypt and Congo. It has been participating in the activities of the UN agencies, like ILO and UNESCO. It is no exaggeration if we call our country as a Mediator for peace in the past and the present. We can proudly quote many instances in the history of our country which undoubtedly prove the anxiety of our people for peace and paint them as Mediators for peace.
 
D. WORD STUDY
D.1. Dictionary Use

Ex. 1. Look up a dictionary and write two meanings of the following words – the one in which it is used in the lesson and the other which is more common. 

 

evilfindpenetrateliveseducateglobewitness

 

Answer-

 

Evil

1.Wicked

2.immoral

Find

1.Discover

2.Realise 

Penetrate

1.Find

2.Locate

Lives

1.Existence

2.Reside

Educate

1.Teach

2.Train

Globe

1.A planet 

2. A sphere

Witness

1.Observer

2.Eyewitness

 

D.2. Word-formation

Read the following sentence carefully:

India had always been part of the background of my life, but I had never seen it whole and for myself until now.

In the sentence given above the background is made of back and ground. Similarly myself is made of my and self. 

 

Form compound words using the words given below: 

 

everybluehomechopbabyover
thingeyedmadespunstickshood
comelivingroomoutsidein
deedwell dayhouseholdsnow
facedwhite lighttrustworthymud 
walledself seekinghighminded water
birdnewcookedbornheartedever
greenhowsingleglass house

 

Answer-

 

Every- everyoneBlue-

Navyblue

Home-

Homeless

Chop-

Chopsticks

Baby-

happybaby

Over-

Flyover

Thing-

everything

Eyed-

Darkeyed

Made-

Handmade

Spun-

Hand spun

Sticks-

Chopsticks

Hood-

Childhood

Come-

Welcome

Living-

Good living

Room-

Single room

Out-

drove out

Side-

Road side

In-

Insane

Deed-

Misdeed

Well-

Well being

Day-

Everyday

House-

lighted house

Hold-

Hold on

Snow-

Snow white

Faced-

Ill faced

white 

Whitehead

Light-

Light house

Trust-

Trustworthy

Worthy-

Self worthy

Mud-

Mud house

Walled-

Strong walled

Self –

Selfmade

Seeking-

Seeking help

High-

Highend

Minded-

Strong Minded

Water-

Blue Water

Bird-

Baby bird

New-

New born

Cooked-

ill cooked

Born-

New born

Hearted-

Strong hearted

Ever-

Forever

Green-

bright green

How-

However

Single-

Single man

Glass-

Glass ware

House-

Housewarming

 

D.3. Word-meaning

Ex 1. Match the words given in Column A with their meanings given in Column B: 

 

Column AColumn B
1. creeda. of poor quality
2. piercingb. deep and subtle
3. exhaustedc. penetrating
4. profoundd. drained of all strength
5. inferiore. a set of beliefs
6. perilf. decayed
7. rot g. danger 

 

Answer-

 

Column AColumn B
1. creeda set of beliefs
2. piercingpenetrating
3. exhausteddrained of all strength
4. profounddanger
5. inferiorof poor quality
6. perildeep and subtle
7. rot decayed

 

D. 4. Phrases
Ex.1. Read the lesson carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Then use these phrases in sentences of your own:

 

further offin spite oflive uponsearch for
as long asserve onput in

 

Answer-

Further off-

But all that development looks to be even further off in the future.

 

In spite of-

In spite of the pain in his leg, he completed the marathon.

 

Live upon-

Radha lives upon his own rules.

 

Search for-

 Bad weather is hampering the search for survivors.

 

As long as-

We are very happy for you to stay at our house as long as you like.

 

Serve on-

We should serve in our country.

 

Put in-

Rahul was going to be paid a salary, whether he put in forty hours or not.

 
E. GRAMMAR
Ex.1. Read the following sentences, taken from the lesson, carefully:

a) They could not be forced to fight at England’s command.
b) No wonder, then, that life was hastened. 

 

In both the sentences in the passive voice given above, the ‘agent’ or ‘doer’ is not specified. We do not specify doer when it is (i) obvious from the context, (ii) not needed, and (iii) not known. 

Find sentences in the lesson where the passive structure has been used without a specified doer. 

Answer-

Sentences from chapter

  1.  Even their mind and soul were shaped that way although they could not read and write.
  2. Today in the life of South Africa, the Indians make a third group between the South Africans, and the black and white.
  3. The life span in India was only twenty-seven years.

 

Ex.2. Change the following sentences as directed: 
i. The features of the Kashmiri are as classic as the Greek. (from positive to comparative)
The features of the Kashmiri are not more classic than the Greek.

 
ii. My host said, “I was called to kill a dangerous snake.” (from direct to indirect speech)
My host said that he had been called to kill a dangerous snake.

 

iii. My life has been too crowded with travels and many people for me to put it all within the covers of one book. (Remove ‘too’)

My life has been so crowded with travels and many people that it is impossible for me to put it all within the covers of one book.

 
iv. What did I go to India to see? ( from interrogative to assertive) 

I went to see India

 
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