UGC NET Exam Syllabus 2021 for Tourism Administration and Management
Check out for UGC NET New Syllabus for Tourism Administration and Management for 2021 – UGC NET is conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) on behalf of UGC for determining the eligibility of Indian nationals for the Eligibility for Assistant Professor only or Junior Research Fellowship & Eligibility for Assistant Professor both in Indian Universities and Colleges. This page includes new syllabus for NTA UGC NET 2021 Tourism Administration and Management exam
The Test will consist of two papers. Both the papers will consist of only objective type questions and will be attempted with a break of 30 minutes between them.
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Paper I will have 50 question for 2 marks each – The questions will be generic in nature, intending to assess the teaching/research aptitude of the candidate. It will primarily be designed to test reasoning ability, comprehension, divergent thinking and general awareness of the candidate.
Paper II will consist of 100 questions each carries 2 marks – the question will be based on the subject selected by the candidate. All the questions of Paper–II will be compulsory
NET Syllabus for Tourism Administration and Management
Tourist/ visitor/ traveller/ excursionist – Definitions and Differences, Early and Medieval Period of Travel, Renaissance and its Effects on Tourism, Birth of Mass Tourism, Old and New Age Tourism, Forms of Tourism – Inbound, Outbound, National, International, Nature, Scope and Characteristics of Tourism. Need for Measurement of Tourism, Interdisciplinary Approaches, Different Tourism Systems- Leiper’s Geo-spatial Model, Mill-Morrison, Mathieson & Wall, Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) – Doxey’s Irridex Index – Demonstration Effect – Crompton’s Push and Pull Theory, Stanley Plog’s Model, Gunn’s Model
Meaning and Nature of Tourism Industry, Input and Output of Tourism Industry, Tourism Industry Network- Direct, Indirect and Support Services, Basic Components of Tourism – Transport- Accommodation- Facilities & Amenities, , Horizontal and Vertical Integration in Tourism Business, Tourism Business during Liberalization & Globalizations, Tourism Impacts: Economic Social, Cultural, and Environmental; Positive & Negative Impacts of Tourism, Factors affecting the future of tourism business; Seasonality & tourism, Sociology of tourism, Travel motivators.
Role and functions of Important Tourism Organizations in development and promotion of Tourism – UNWTO, IATA, ICAO, UFTAA, ASTA, PATA, WTTC, IHA, TAAI, IATO, FHRAI, ITDC, ICPB, State Tourism Development Corporations, Airport Authority of India, Archeological Survey of India, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Railways , Civil Aviation of Government of India.
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Earth’s movement; Latitude, Longitude; Areas, Sub Areas and Sub Regions as per International Air Transport Organization (IATA), IATA Three Letter City Code, Two Letter Airlines and Airport 2 | P a g e Code, International Date Line, Time Zones, Greenwich Mean Time, Calculation of Local Time, Flying Time, Grounding Time, Elapsed Time, Daylight Saving Time.
World Geography – Climate & Vegetation of North, South and Central America – Europe – Africa – Asia & Australasia, Elements of weather and climate, Impact of weather and climate on tourist destinations, Climate and Vegetation of India, Physical Geography of India – Distribution of Rivers, Mountains, Plateaus & Plain area, Coastal area, Deccan, major lakes, deserts.
Tourists Movement – Demand and origin factors; destinations and resource factors; Contemporary trends in international tourists movements, Environment Act – Environment rules – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental Information System (EIS), Environmental Management System (EMS) & Carrying capacity, Forest Act – Forest Conservation Act – Wild life Protection Act
Nature and Characteristic of Tourism Products of India – Seasonality and Diversities, Tourist attraction – Concept & Classification, Heritage – Indigenous; Colonial, Handicrafts of India; Fairs and Festivals of Social & Religious importance, Forms & Types of Performing Art, Classical Dances, Folk Dances of different Regions & Folk Culture, Indian Music – Different Schools, Status of Indian Vocal & Instrumental Music, Indian Music abroad, Indian Museums, Art Galleries, Libraries & their Location, Indian cuisine – Regional variations, Historical monuments of India – Ancient temples, caves, stupas, monasteries, forts, palaces, Islamic and colonial art and architecture, Indian rituals, dresses. World heritage sites of India, Major religious centers of India – holy places connected with Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islamism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and other religious sects, places associated with the work and life of legendry figures – Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Subash Chandra Bose & Sardar Vallabhai Patel. Important paces related to India’s freedom struggle.
Major National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves of India and their Locations – Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of Dachigam, Corbett, Ranthambore, Hazaribag, Similipal, Bhitarkanika, Kanha, Bandhavagarh, Mudumalli, Periyar, Gir, Sunderbans, Manas, Valley of flowers, Hill Stations – Locations, Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of Gulmarg, Kullu & Manali, Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital, Panchmarahi, Mahabaleswar, Chikmangulaur, Coorg, Munnar, Ooty, Kodiakanal, Arakku, Darjeeling, Gangtok, Shillong, etc., Tourist potential of Himalayas.
Beach Resorts of India – Locations, Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of important Beaches of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Emerging attractions for Medical Tourism, Ecotourism, Rural Tourism, Agri Tourism, Farm Tourism, Green Tourism, Wilderness Tourism, Film Tourism, MICE tourism, Countryside Tourism, Caravan Tourism, Adventure tourism, Golf tourism, Light house tourism, Fort tourism, Buddhist tourism, Sufi 3 | P a g e tourism, Special interest tourism, Textile tourism, Aqua based tourism, wellness and spa tourism, culinary tourism, shopping tourism, indigenous tourism, industrial & Mining Tourism.
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Transportation – Evolution and importance of Transportation Systems; Role of Transportation in Tourism; Major transport systems – Rail, Road, Air and Water transport; Road Transport Network in North America, South America, Europe, South Africa, Asia and the Middle-East, Austria and New Zealand, Major Railway Transport Network in the World, Modes of transportations in India – Past & Present.
Licensing of air carriers; Limitations of weights and capacities; Scheduled and non-scheduled airlines services; No-frill airlines; Open sky policy; International conventions; Functions of IATA, ICAO, DGCA, AAI; GDS in air transportation. Types of air journey, MPM, TPM, Extra Mileage Allowance, One-way, Return Trip and Circle Tri Journey, Higher Intermediate Fare Check Point, Add-on and Open Jaw Fare, Excursion Fare , Components in International Air Tickets, Airline Business in the World, Major Air Carriers and Major Low-cost Airlines, Domestic Air Transport Business, Distribution of Sales of Airlines Tickets, Baggage and Travel Documents, Air Charter Services, Miscellaneous Charges order (MCO) – Multiple Purpose Document (MPD) – Billing and Settlement Plan.
Surface Transport System – Approved tourist transport, car hire companies including car rental scheme and tourist-coach companies, Documents connected with road transport viz. Regional Transport Authority, transport and insurance documents, road taxies, fitness certificate, contact carriage, state carriage, All India permits, maxi car, motor car etc. Railway System of world, British Rail, Euro Rail, Amtrak, Orient express, Trans-Siberian railway and luxury train of the world. Indian Railways – types of tours available in Indian Rail, Indrail pass, special schemes and packages available, palace on wheels, royal orient, fairy queen and toy trains. Planning itineraries on Indian Railways, reservation and cancellation procedures, Water Transport System – Historical past, cruise ships, ferries, hovercraft, river canal boats. Prospects and future growth of water transport in India. Major cruise lines of the world and their packages
Historical Background of Travel Trade, Significance of Travel Agency Business, Types of Travel Agent- Full Service Agency, Commercial Agency, Implant Agency, Group / Incentive Agency, Skills and Competencies for Running Travel Agency Business, Wholesale and Retail Agents, Future of Travel Wholesaling & Retailing. Types of Tour Operator- Inbound, Outbound , Domestic, Ground and Specialized, Types of Tour- Independent Tour, Escorted Tour, Hosted Tour, Incentivized Tour, Tour Wholesalers and Retailers, Diversified Role of Tour Operators, Distribution Networks of Tour Operation Business, Special Services for Charter Tour Operators, Meeting & Incentive Planners and Activities of Meeting Planners, Convention & Conference Tourism Business, Trade Fairs & Exhibitions, Essential Requirements for Starting Travel Agency & Tour Operation Business, Procedures for Obtaining Recognition, Travel Agency Organization Structure, Sources of Revenue, Use of Information Technology in Travel Agency Business.
Types of Itinerary – Resources and Steps for Itinerary Planning, Tour Costing: Tariffs, FIT & GIT, Confirmation of Tour, Creation of Docket/ File, Issue of Tour Vouchers, Reconfirmation with Airlines, Hotel & Ground Service Providers, Distributing Customized Itinerary to Tour Leader, Guide, Driver & Transporter, Standard Procedures for Pickup and Drop, Preparation of Feedback or Guest Comment Sheet, Analysis of Comments of Guest, Tour Guides & Escorts, WATA guidelines; Relation with service suppliers; Travel agency appointments; International regulations.
Familiarization with TIM (Travel Information Manual), Passport & VISA- Meaning, Types, Procedures, Validity, Necessary Information to fill the Passport and VISA Form for Issuance, Health Certificates, Currency, Travel Insurance, Credit & Debit Card, Customs, Currency, Baggage and Airport information, Citizenship – Passport – Visa – FEMA – Foreigners Registration Act – Customs – RBI guidelines – Criminal Law – Registration of cases, Cargo handling – Baggage allowance, free access baggage, Weigh and piece concept, Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods, Cargo rates ad valuation charges Automation and airport procedures, Tour Brochures – element and importance of brochure.
Distinctive characteristics of Hospitality Industry – Inflexibility, Intangibility, Perishability, fixed location, relatively large financial investment etc.; Concepts of Atithi Devo Bhavah; Hotel and the other lodging facilities; types of hotels and hotel departments; classification of hotels; chain operations; E- Hospitality. Types of accommodation; Activities in Accommodation Management – Front office – Housekeeping – Bar and Restaurant – Supporting services; Fiscal and non-fiscal incentives offered to hotel industry in India, ethical and regulatory aspects in a hotel, international hotel regulations.
Duties and responsibilities of front office staff; Reservation & registration- Types of Room, Types of Bedding, Meal plans, room assignments, check-in, methods of payment, type of hotel guests. Factors affecting the price of accommodation, important functions of Housekeeping Management, liaison with other departments, room supplies, Bed making and related types of service; Housekeeping department-Hierarchy, duties & responsibilities of housekeeping staff.
Food Production Organization, Kitchen, Buffets, Beverages Operation, Functions, Outlets of F & B, Types of Meal Plans, Types of Restaurant-Menu, Room Service, Catering Services-Food Service for the Airlines, Banquette, Corporate, MICE, Retail Food Market, Business/Industrial Food Service, Healthcare Food Service, club food services – Trends in lodging and food services. Food & Beverage Department of a hotel: Hierarchy, duties & responsibilities of staff.
Concept of Goods & Services; Characteristics of Service; Salient features of Marketing Services: Services Marketing – Concept, Need & Significance, Types of Tourism Services, Tourism Marketing Environment, Strategic Planning and Marketing Process, Organizing and Implementing marketing in the Tourism Organization. Service Quality, Gap Model of Service Quality. Marketing Research. Market Segmentation – Targeting and positioning for competitive advantage; Relationship Marketing; Familiarization Trip.
P’s of Tourism Marketing- Product, Place, Price, Promotion, Physical Evidence, People, Process & Packaging, Designing Tourism Product – Branding and Packaging, Product Development – Product Life Cycle & Its Various Stages, Pricing Strategies and Approaches, Advertising – Sales Promotion – Publicity – Personal Selling, Tourism Distribution Channels, Cooperation and conflict Management. Global Marketing, Direct Marketing, Social Media & Digital Marketing, Green Marketing, Corporate Social Responsibility, Marketing Ethics & Consumerism.
Destination Image Development – Attributes of Destinations, Destination resource analysis, measurement of destination image – Destination branding perspectives and challenges Creating the Unique Destination Proposition – Place branding and destination image – Destination image formation process; unstructured image -Product development and packaging – Institutional Support & Public Private Partnership in Destination Marketing.
Tourism planning – Role of Govt. public and private sectors in formulation of tourism policy; Roles of international, national, state and local tourism organizations in carrying out tourism policies. Tourism planning for thrust areas, special tourism areas & zones identified by Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. Sustainable tourism development, Pro-poor Tourism and Community Participation; Responsible tourism.
Tourism Policy – Factors influencing tourism policy; National Tourism Policy, Levels of Tourism planning – International, national, regional, state and local, the traditional, approach and PASLOP method of tourism planning; important feature of five year tourism plans in India; Elements Agents, Processes and typologies of tourism development; State tourism policies. National Planning Policies for Destination Development- WTO Guidelines for Planners – Role of urban civic bodies: Town planning -Characteristics of rural tourism planning.
Economic System and Its Impact on Tourism Development, Macro & Micro Economic System, Demand & Supply, Determinants , Measurement of Tourism Demand, Forecasting, Methods of Demand Forecasting, Inflation, Recession, Savings & Investment, Export & Import, Multiplier Effects &Its Types, Displacement Effect, Costs and Benefits of Tourism, Monetary Policy- Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio(CRR).
Statistics: Measures of central tendency- mean, median, mode; measures of dispersion- range, standard deviation, variance, etc.; skewness and kurtosis; correlation and regression- scatter plots, lines of best fit, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients; Regression- bivariate and multivariate. Distributions- discrete and continuous; Normal distribution, sampling distribution. hypothesis testing – parametric vs. non-parametric tests, t-tests, ANOVA, Chi-square tests, run Test, sign tests, Wald- Walfowitz Test, Kursal Walis Test, Komogrov- Smirnov Test.
Research and theory, types and methods of research; review of literature; variables and measurement, concepts, constructs and formulation of hypothesis; Sampling, methods of data collection, development of schedules and questionnaires, scales and fieldwork. Qualitative research: quantitative vs. qualitative research; techniques- Grounded Theory, Ethnography, Case method of research, Content Analysis, Phenomenology, Narrative research, mixed methods.
Analysis, tools- Factor analysis, discriminant analysis, conjoint analysis, multiple regression, etc. Report writing, types of report.
Managerial processes, functions, skills, and roles in organization, Systems, contingency and operational approaches to management. External and internal environment affecting managerial decisions – social responsibilities of business – evolution of management thought; functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
Understanding & Managing Individual & Group Behaviour – Personality, Perception, Learning, Values & attitudes, persuasion, Theories of Motivation, Factors affecting group behaviour, group & individual dimensions, understanding work team, Communication, Leadership & influence process, Organization structure, centralization vs decentralization, strategy & structure, flat & tall structures, work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control and formalization, Common organizational designs – Simple, bureaucratic, matrix, virtual, boundary less, feminine – Organization as an open system & influence of environment over organizational dynamics with reference to technological innovations.
Basic Accounting Records and Books of Accounts, Double Entry System, Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance, Cash Book, Depreciation Accounting, Final Accounts with Adjustments. Hotel Accounting, Financial management, Concept of raising funds, capital structure, capital budgeting, Internal financial control- meaning, problems unique to hospitality industry, Establishing cost standard, Types of budget, preparation of budget, and zero based budgeting, working capital Management, cash management, Opportunities and challenges for investments in hotel, aviation & Tourism related sectors, Role of TFCI and other financial organizations. Elements of Contract Act – Breach of Contact – Performance of Contract – Indemnity & Guarantee – Bailment – Consumer Protection Act.
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Subject: Tourism Administration and Management
There will be two question papers, Paper-II and paper-III(Part A & Part B) paper –II will be cover 50 objective type question(Multiple type, matching type ,true/false, Assertion Reasoning type) carrying 100 marks Paper-III will have two parts Part-A and Part-B
Paper-III will have 10 short essay type question (300 words) carrying 16 marks ach. In it there will be one question with internal choice from each unit (i.e 10 question form 10 units Total marks will be 160) Paper-IIIB will be compulsory and there will be one question form each of the elective. The candidate will attempt only one question (One elective only in 800 words) carrying 40 marks. Total marks of paper-III will be 200
Paper-II and Paper-III (Part A & B)
Tourist/visitors/Travelers/Excursionist-Definition and Differentiation, Tourism recreation and Leisure inter-relationship. Tourism components, Element ad Infrastructure Types and typologies of Tourism
Emerging Concept: Eco/Rural/Agri/Farm/Green/Wildness/countryside/Special interest tourism
Tourism Trends: Growth and development over the year and factors responsible therein. Changing market destination pattern , traffic flows. receipt rends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism
Linkage and Channels of distribution in tourism
Tourism organisation/instittions: Origin, Organization and function of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI,TAAI, IATO and UFTAA
Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism, Tourism products: Typology and unique features
Natural tourism resources in India: Existing use pattern vis-a-vis potential with relation to varied and form (Mountain, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and islands), Water bodies and biotic wealth (flora -fauna)
Popular Tourist destination for land based (soft/hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies etc), Water Based (rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, waterskiing, scuba/snuba diving) and air based (Para-sailing, Para gliding, ballooning, hand gliding and microlightining etc), Tourist activities, Wildlife-Tourism a conservation related issues-Occurrence ad distributions of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism national parks, wildlife centuries and biosphere reserve (case of Dachigham, corbett/Dudhva/Kaziranga/Kanha/Gir/Ranthumbore/Mudumalai/Sundarban/Shivpuri/Manas/Nanda devi/Valey of flower reserve)
Tourism and nature conservation-conflict, Symbiosis and Synergy
cultural Tourism resources in India: Indian culture and Society Indian History-Ancient, Medieval and Modern
Tradition , customs an costumes., Life Style and Settlements patterns, Food habits and cuisines, Music, Musical instruments and Dance Forms, Daring and Painting, Craftsmanship
Religion/Religious observances ad important pilgrim destination
Architectural Heritage-Forts/palace/Other architectural marvels-Location and Unique features
Accommodation: concepts, types an typologies, Linkage and Significance a with relation to tourism
Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry-Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties, Time share establishments
Hotel an Hoetliering-Origin, Growth and diversification, Classification registration and gradation of hotels, Organixsationla Structure Functions ad Responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel/other catering outlets viz bars, restaurants , fats food centers , In flight catering
Leading Multinational hotel chains operating in India-Requirements, Training facilities Constraints and Scope
Fiscal and non-fiscal incentives available to hotel industry in India, Ethical legal and regulatory aspects
Transportation: Dynamically changing needs and means
Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socioeconomic, cultural and environmental implication ,.Tourism transport system.
Airlines Transportation: The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. organizational of air Transport industry unintentional context. Scheduled and non scheduled Airlines services, Air, Taxis, Multinational Air Transport regulation-Nature, Significance and Limitation, role of IATA, ICAO, and other agencies, Bermuda convention
Air Transport Industry in India-DGCA and other key players, Regulatory Framework, Air Corporation Ac, Indian Cariers-Opertaions Management and performance, Marketing strategies of Air India
Significance of Road Transport in Tourism: Growth and development of road transport system in India, State of existing infrastructure, Public and Private Sector involvement Role of regional Transport Authority, Approved Travel Agencies, Tour/Transport Operators, Crahie/Rental companies
State and inter state bus and coach network, Insurance provision a road taxes and fitness certificate
rail Transport Network-major Railways system of world-British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak
type of Special Package offered by Indian Railways to tourists-Indrail pass Palace on wheel and royal client
Reservation procedure, GSAs abroad
Water Transport system in India-Historical pats, Cruise ships, Ferries , Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise, Future prospects
Travel Agencies and Tour Operators Business: Origin, Growth and development m Definition, Differentiation and linkage Organization and functions, Travel information counseling, Itinerary preparation, reservation, cositng/pricing.Meakteing of tour package .Income sources
Airlines Ticketing: Operational perspective of ticketing-ABC codes Flight scheduling, Flying time, and MPM/TPM calculation TIM (Travel Information Manual), consultation, Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare , fare calculation and rounding up, Currency conversion and payment modes issuance of ticket
Cargo handling: Baggage allowance, free access baggage, Weigh and piece concept, Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods, Cargo rates ad valuation charges Automation and airport procedures
Requirements for setting up team agency and tour operation a business
Approval from organization and institution concerned, Incentives available Indian context, constraint and limitations
Marketing: core concepts in marketing, Needs, Wants, Demands, product market, Marketing Management philosophies-Production, Selling marketing and social perspective, economic importance of marketing
Tourism Marketing: Service chaatetstics of tourism, Unique features of tourist demand an tourist product, Tourism marketing mix
Analysis and selection of market: Measuring and forecasting tourism demand, Forecasting method, managing capacity and demand, Market segmentation and positioning
Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behavior, competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing, interactive and relationship marketing
Planning marketing programmes: Product and product strategies, Product line , Product mix, Branding and packaging, Pricing, Consideration, Approaches and strategies, Distribution channels and strategies
Marketing of Tourism Services: Marketing of Airlines, Hotels, Resort, Travel, Agencies and other tourism related services-challenges ad strategies
Marketing Skill for tourism: Creativity-communication -Self motivation-team building personality development
Tourism Planning: Origin, concept ad approaches, Level ad types of tourism planning,-Sectorial, Spatial integrated, complex, Centralized and Decentralized, Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning a, Urban and rural tourism planning
Tourism planning and policy perspective, planning at national , state and regional levels, India’s tourism policies
Tourism Planning process: Objectives , Setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, goal setting and plan, formulation Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study, Plan implementation, Development and monitoring tourism master plan
Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning: Socio-cultural Economic and physical , Tourism carrying capacity and Environmental impact analysis(EIA)
Business ethics and laws-their relevance and applicability in travel and tourism industry
Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health
Tourist safety and security Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife
The nature of field techniques, field techniques and tourism and hotel business importance and limitations
Research : Meaning, Types, trends, and Challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business, Guiding principles in selection of research problems
Research Methodology: meaning, Procedural Guidelines, and Research design
Field Procedure for data collection and Analysis Techniques: nature, Sources aof Data, Techniques of data collections
Frequency Distribution: Meaning, Problem and consideration misconstruction numerical frequency distributions
Measure of central tendency and Variation
Correlation and Regression analysis
Probability and Probability distribution:
Probability: Meaning Definition and sample points and ample space
Events: Conditional; probability, Baves Theorem and probability on large sample space
Probability distributions: The binomial model, the Poisson model ad Normal Distribution
Sampling and Statistical testing”
Sampling and Sample Design: Sampling and reasons for damping Theoretical basis of sampling, Basic concept of sampling and types of sampling (Random and Non random sampling), Central limit theorem
Statistical testing: Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis , One tail and two tail test
Parametric and Non parametric Testing:
Testing the Hypothesis: Comparison of two population means, comparison of two population proportions and comparison of two population means and standard deviation, F-Test, Student’s distribution and Chi-Square Tests
management: Concept, nature, Process and Functions, Management levels Managerial skills ad roles, the external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics
Planning: Nature , Purpose, types and process, Management by objectives strategies, and policies, Decision making process, Tools and techniques, Decision making models
Organizing: Concept of organizing and organization, Line and Staff , Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, conflict and Coordination, organizational structure and design Management of change innovation and organizational development
Directing: Communication-process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication , Motivation-Theories and practices, Leadership-Concept theories and styles
Controlling: Process, Methods and techniques, Managing international business
Information systems: Automation of manual system Data Processing stages , Evolution form EDOP to MIS
MIS: Introduction Definition, Status, Framework of understanding an designing MIS
Computer networking: Application o CRS( computerized reservation System) in travel a trade and hospitality sector
Financial Management and Planning:
Finance: meaning Goals, Functional, Importance ad typologies of finance0Role of financial management, Organization goal environment, Forecasting and financial planning, Break even analysis
Management of current Assets:
Working Capital Management: Meaning and chaatetstics of working capital , Financing current assets , Cash management Receivables management and inventory management
Management of fixed Assets: importance of Capital Budgeting analytical techniques-non Discounted, Discounted techniques
Financial Structure and Management of Earnings
Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures, Determinants of financial Structure
Financial leverage and effects of financial leverage on net income ad Shareholder’s wealth. Financial leverage ad financial planning. Break even analysis for financial leverage, Dividend policy, Significance of dividend policy and different typed of dividend policies
TFCI: Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI)-Aims, Objectives, Organization and Functions
Accounting: preparation of Business Income statement, Balance Sheet Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement, Hotel Accounting
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