The concept of length and time. Atomic astronomical range of variation of these physical quantities, different methods of measurement for different magnitudes of the same physical quantity. SI Units. Statement of all SI units. Dimensions and dimensional equations of mechanical quantities: area, volume, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force, energy, and work. Accuracy and errors in measurements.
Displacement as a vector quantity, vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, scalar (dot) and vector (cross) product (not to be done in depth). Newton’s first law of motion, conservation of energy and momentum, collisions, kinematics,Newton’s second law and definition of force. Inertial and gravitational mass, impulse, equations of motion, projectiles, work, relation between work and energy, power, Newton’s third law, friction, law of friction, sliding and rolling friction.
Angular velocity, motion of a body in circular orbits, centripetal force, banking of roads, planetary motion, statement of Kepler’s laws. Newton’s law of gravitation, gravitational field, gravitational potential energy. Earth’s satellites, orbital and escape velocity. Rigid body rotation, moment of inertia-definition and expression for a ring and a circular disc.torque, angular momentum and conservation of angular momentum.
General ideas of intermolecular forces, nature of liquids, cohesion and adhesion, surface tension, surface energy, angle of contact, capillary. Types of flow– Laminar and turbulent. Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s equation and its applications, viscosity. Stoke’s law (derivation from dimensional analysis) and its application.
Elastic and plastic behaviour of solids, stress, strain, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, pure shear.
The constituents of universe, planets, stars determination of their distances and masses. Concept of parallax, brightness, magnitude scale, luminosity, surface temperature, stellar spectra (classification), energy source of stars (concept).
OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (SHM) kinetic and potential energy in SHM, SHM oscillations due to spring, simple pendulum. Wave motion, speed of wave. Principal of superposition, reflection of waves, standing waves, beats, Doppler effect.
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Basic assumption, derivation of expression for pressure, temperature. Translational degrees of freedom, mean energy, gas equation, specific heats of Gases, relation between Cp and Cv and (Cp-Cv=R/J)
Work and heat, First law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot cycle (qualitative), efficiency of Carnot engine, Second law of thermodynamics, absolute scale of temperature, refrigerators, laws of radiation, emissive power, absorptive power, black-body radiation, Kirchhoff’s law. Stefan’s law, energy distribution of black body radiation, Wein’s law.
Frictional electricity, Charges (+ – ),conservation of charges, elementary unit, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, dipole field and dipole behaviour in uniform two- dimensional electric field, flux, Gauss’s law in simple geometries, Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, capacitance (parallel plate series and parallel , energy of a capacitor, high voltage generators, atmospheric electricity (concept only).
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e. m .f. (cell: simple, secondary, chargeable), electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence. thermistor, specific resistivity, colour, code for carbon resistances, Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s law, resistance in series and parallel, series and parallel circuits, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of voltages and currents, potentiometer.
THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CURRENTS
Electric power, heating effects of currents, chemical effects and laws of electrolysis,simple concepts of thermoelectricity.
MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENTS
Oersted’s observation., Biot-Savart law (magnetic field due to a current element), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop an a solenoid . Forces on moving charge in a magnetic field (Lorentz force) example, forces and torques on currents in a magnetic field, Forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.
Bar magnet (comparison with solenoid), lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field, tangent galvanometer.
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
Induced e.m.f., Faraday’s law, self and mutual . Inductance. Alternating currents, impedance and resistance, power in a.c. circuits with L.C.R. series circuit, resonant circuit, phasor diagram, electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil, generator and simple motor, choke and starter).
ELECTRO MAGNETIC WAVES
Electromagnetic oscillation some history of e.m. waves. (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose, Marconi) Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses and propagation, properties of the atmosphere w.r.t. various parts of electromagnetic spectrum.
Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, optical fibres, curved mirrors, lenses, mirror and lens formulae. Dispersion, prisms, spectrometer and spectra –absorption and emission: scattering,rainbow. Punjab Technical University
Wave front and Huygen’s principle, concept of interference, Diffraction and polarization, Young’s double slit experiment & expression, Diffraction from a single slit (qualitative treatment).
Magnification and resolving power, telescope, microscope.
ELECTRONS AND PHOTONS
Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron charge of an electron, electrical conduction in gases, particle nature of light, Einstein’s photoelectric equation.
ATOMS AND NUCLEI
Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr’s model, Energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum, composition of a nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, size of a nucleus, radioactivity, Mass-energy relation, fission, fusion, nuclear reactor, nuclear holocaust.
Structure of crystalline solids, idea of a lattice, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures, packing in crystals.
Energy bands in solids conductor, insulators and semiconductors, p – n junction Diode, Junction Transistor, Logic gate and composition of gate, Diode as a rectifier, transistor as an amplifier and oscillator.
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