Karnataka PGCET Exam Syllabus for Environmental Engineering

Post Graduate Common Entrance Test

(PGCET) for admission to M.E/M.Tech/M.Arch course in Karnataka

Visvesvaraya Technological University

“Jnana Sangma”‘  Machhe, Belgaum 590 014




Environmental Chemistry, Biology and Ecology: Chemistry: Basic concepts of physical chemistry – Osmosis, Dialysis, Adsorption, Pollution Parameters – pH, COD, BOD, DO, TOC, Nitrogen, Fluoride, Sanitary Significance of Sulphate, Nitrates and Phosphates.

Microbiology: Plant kingdom, Animal kingdom, Morphology and Growth of Bacteria, Air, Water and Soil, Microbiology, Virology, Microbial Metabolism of Pesticides ad Heavy Metals.

Ecology: Ecosystem concepts, Food Chain and Food Web.  Energy Flow in Ecosystem – Lotic and Lentic Systems, Eutrophication of Lakes. Population Growth Forms, Carrying Capacity, quantitative Ecology, Concept of Ecosystem.

Environmental Fluid Mechanics And Water Resources Engineering: Fluid properties and classifications, Newton’s Law of Viscosity, Fluid Pressure and its measurements; Hydrostatics, Kinematics of Fluids, Bernoulli’s equation, Momentum equation; Flow through Pipes – Darcy’s equation, Friction factors, Pipes in Series, Parallel and equivalent pipe, minor losses; Flow measurements – Orifices, Mouthpieces, Notches, and Weirs; Flow in Open Channels – Uniform Flow, most economical sections, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump; Water Hammer in pipes, impact of Jet on Vanes, Turbines – types; Pumps – Types, working and problems; Quantitative and Qualitative Hydrologic Cycle, Precipitation and Runoff Estimation. Unit Hydrographs, Stream Flow Analysis – time series, return period, mass diagrams for computing storage capacity, stream flow measurement; Groundwater – Definitions, type of Aquifers; Well Hydraulics – Steady state, Basic equation of groundwater flow. Open and Tube wells – type. Yield estimation, drilling maintenance of borewells; Artificial recharge, water conservation and Reuse, Soil conservation, Economic aspects of water resource planning.

Water Supply and Treatment: Drinking and Industrial Water Quality Standards; Water Quantity based on various demands; Types of intakes, raising main economics, Pumps in series and parallel. Hazen William Equations, Types of reservoirs, Preventive maintenance, regional water supply system;  Physico-chemical and Bacteriological characterization of water – surface and sub-surface; Aeration, coagulation and Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration  – slow rapid and pressure; Hardness and colour removal; Disinfection process – Mode, rate and factors; Corrosion and corrosion control; Operation and Maintenance of water treatment system.

Wastewater and Treatment:  Quantity of Domestic Wastewater, characteristic wastewater, Disposal of  Sullage water in rural areas; Classification of Watewater Treatment Techniques – Unit operations and process; Screening, Grit Chamber, primary, sedimentation; Biological units: Suspended and fixed growth system, Aerobic and Anaerobic systems, activated sludge process, Trickling filters, RBC, Biofilter, Secondary sedimentation tank, Stabilization ponds – aerobic, facultative and Anaerobic Lagoons, Septic tanks, digesters, sludge drying beds; Industrial Wastewater Survey; Variation in Quantity and Quality of Industrial wastewater; Guidelines for discharge of Industrial Effluent on land into Muncipal Sewers and Natural water; Joint treatment, volume reduction, strength reduction, equalization neutralization and proportioning; Estimation of process kinetic parameters; Origin, characteristics and treatment of cane sugar industry, diary, distilleries and pharmaceuticals; Wastewater reuse and waste recovery from different industries.

Solid and Hazardous Wastes Management: Sources, Composition and properties of Municipal Solid Wastes, Solid Waste Generation, storage and processing at source; Landfill – Classifications, types, control of gases and leachates, preliminary design of  landfills; Separation, Transformation and recycling – size reduction, density separation; Thermal processing – combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, energy recovery; Composting – Aerobic and Anaerobic digestion and energy production; Incineration – Types, processes, heat recovery, incineration products; Definition, sources and classification of Hazardous waste; Characterization of Harardous Waste – Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity, Toxicity, Quantification, Waste Minimization; Toxicology – Toxic effects, Carcinogens, Ecotoxicology, Toxicology Assessment; Physico-chemical and Biological treatment – Air stripping, Soil vapor extraction, carbon absorption, steam stripping, stabilization and solidification. Slurry phase and solid phase treatment.  Thermal methods – combustion, liquid injection; Land disposal and site remediation, monitoring of disposal sites.

Atmospheric Pollution and Control: Atmospheric structure and composition, Air pollution episodes; Sources and classification of air pollutants – Natural and anthropogenic, primary and secondary pollutants.  Properties of major air pollutants along with sources and sinks – particulate and gases, photochemical air pollutants, air pollution due to automobiles; Air pollution effects on human health and welfare, vegetation, animals, materials and structure/ monuments, visibility problem, acid rain, green house effect, Ozone depletion and heat island effect; Measurement of air pollutants – Measurement of gaseous and particulate pollutants, sample train, air pollution indices and index; Air pollution Meterology – scales, factors like heat, solar radiation, temperature, lapse rate, wind, humidity, precipitation, mixing height, pressure atmospheric stability conditions, wind velocity by profile, windrose diagram; Atmospheric dispersion of stack effects – Plume rise, effective stack height, plume rise formulations, gaussian dispersion coefficients, ground level concentration; Air pollution control equipments – setting chambers, inertial separators, cyclones, fabric filters, scrubbers, ESP. Control of gaseous pollutants – adsorption, absorption, combustion and condensation.

Transport Processes and Water Quality Assessment: Process Dynamics – Transport and Reaction Process, Material Balance, Kinetic Approach to Equilibrium; Mechanics of Mass Transport – Diffusive Mass Transport and convective Mass Transport in Molecular and Turbulent Flow Regimes; Chemical Thermodynamics – Free Energy, Entropy Formation, Effects of Ionic Strength on the value of equilibrium constant. Simultaneous reactions. Factors affecting equilibrium concentration and their temperature effects; Process Kinetics – First order reaction, parallel, reversible and enzyme reaction; Gas Absorption and Adsorption, Particle treatment, Ion exchange and electrodialysis; Groundwater Quality – Basic Differential Equation, 1-D  and 2-D approaches; Ultimate Disposal of wastewater in water bodies and on land; Wastewater disposal in rivers – effects of Oxygen demanding outfall, pipe and diffuser outfall; Wastewater disposal in Lakes – Steady state ‘DO’ analysis for completely mixed and stratified lake, nutrient loading; Wastewater disposal in estuaries – characteristics of Eastuarian flow regime; Wastewater disposal on land – application rate, leaching factor, SAR, Microbial effects on soils; Subsurface Water Quality Assessment – Impacts of point source, discharge and leachate from landfill sites.

Environmental Impact Assessment: Introduction – Rapid and comprehensive EIA, Need of EIA studies.  Baseline data.  Hierarchy in EIA, Statutory requirements of EIA; Advantages and Limitation of EIA, Step-bystep Proceudre for conducting EIA; Objective and Scope of EIA; Environmental attributes, Public participation in EIA, Environmental and Dsiaster Management Plans; Project Activities – Attribute, Activity relationships, Matrices and BEES; Impact Quantifications – Hazardous Waste Dumpsites, Sanitary Landfilling; EIA of Infrastructural  Projects – Highways, Airports, Water supply and  Sanitation, Wastewater treatment; EIA of Construction projects – Effects and Mitigation; EIA of Water Shed Development Programme (Reservoirs, Dams, Irrigation and Agricultural Activity); EIA of Power projects – Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear; EIA of Industrial Developmental Process.