NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries
Industries – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Important Question Answers. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the exam. The NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science (Geography) provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.
Source Based Questions
Read the extract and answer the questions that follow-
A. An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labor and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labor, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
1 What does an industrial system consist of?
Ans. An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.
2 Define inputs.
Ans. The inputs are the raw materials, labor and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
3 What factors would affect the location of an industry?
Ans. The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labor, power, capital, transport and market
4 Define outputs.
Ans. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it.
5 Give an example of the industrial system.
Ans. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labor, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
B. The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry. The countries in which the iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of the Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
1 Name the world’s three major industries.
Ans. The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry.
2 Silicon valley IT industry : : ______________ : Iron and steel industry.
3 The _________ and ___________ are the older industries while ___________ is an emerging industry.
Ans. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry.
4 Name the countries where both the iron and steel industry and the textile industry are located.
Ans. The countries in which the iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
5 What are the major hubs of the IT industry?
Ans. The major hubs of the Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
C. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries. Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry. Small scale industries use lesser amounts of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products.
1 What do you understand by the term “size” with reference to industries?
Ans. It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
2 What are two types of industries?
Ans. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.
3 Define small scale industries.
Ans. Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry.
4 Give examples of small scale and large scale industries.
Ans. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.
5 Define large scale industries.
Ans. Large scale industries produce large volumes of products. Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries.
D. Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches
1 Explain Agro- based industries.
Ans. Agro-based industries are those that use agricultural goods as raw materials. These are industries that cater to consumers. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.
2 Iron made from iron ore is the product of a ____________.
Ans. Iron made from iron ore is the product of a mineral based industry.
3 What are mineral based industries?
Ans. Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries.
4 Give examples of agro and mineral based industries.
Ans. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries. Raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches are examples of mineral based industries.
5 Briefly define marine and forest based industries.
Ans. Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing seafood or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. Forest based industries utilize forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
E. The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages. Some of the raw material such as coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh. Between these mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway. Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area. The Ohio, the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.
1 Why is the steel industry located in Pittsburgh?
Ans. Pittsburgh is an important steel city of the United States of America. The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages thus being primarily concentrated there.
2 Where does the coal and iron ore come from in Pittsburgh?
Ans. Coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh.
3 Which is one of the best and cheapest routes for shipping ore?
Ans. Between these iron mines in Minnesota and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway.
4 The water supply is provided by which three rivers?
Ans. The Ohio, the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.
5 What other factories are located in Pittsburgh except steel mills?
Ans. The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills. These use steel as their raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) (1 Mark)
Q1 ___ is an example of a co-operative industry.
A) Steel Authority of India Ltd
B) Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd
C) Sudha Dairy
D) Indian Army
Ans. C) Sudha Dairy
Q2. Market is one of the ____ factors for setting up industries.
Ans. A) locational
Q3 Setting up ____ leads to development of towns.
Ans. C) industries
Q4 Maruti Udyog Ltd is an example of ___ sector industry.
Ans. C) joint
Q5 ___ has been called the backbone of industry.
Ans. C) Steel
Q6 ____ is one of the major steel producing centers.
Ans. A) Bhilai
Q7 Jamshedpur lies on the banks of _______ river
Ans. A) Subarnarekha
Q8 ____ is a steel city in the USA
A) New York City
Ans. C) Pittsburg
Q9 Bhadravati – an important steel center is located in
- A) Jharkhand
- B) Karnataka
- C) Bihar
- D) Odisha
Ans. B) Karnataka
Q10 Sakchi is the old name of ______.
Ans. A) Jamshedpur
Q11 _____ is a prominent coalfield in India.
Ans. B) Jharia
Q12 India’s first successful mechanized textile mill was established in ____.
Ans. D) Mumbai
Q13 Kanpur is famous for ____ factories
Ans. B) textile
Q14 _____ is also famous as ‘Manchester of India.’
Ans. C) Ahmedabad
Q15 In Ahmedabad, the first textile mill was established in which year?
Ans. C) 1861
Q16 _____ is known as the ‘Manchestor of Japan.’
Ans. C) Osaka
Q17 Manufacturing of fish oil is an example of a _____ based industry.
Ans. B) marine
Q18 Basket weaving is identified under
A) cottage industry
B) marine based industry
C) mineral based industry
D) source industry
Ans. A) cottage industry
Q19 Silk manufacturing falls under
A) large scale industry
B) small scale industry
C) marine industry
D) mineral industry
Ans. B) small scale industry
Q20 Kharkai river flows through the steel city of ____.
Ans. A) Jamshedpur
Q21The textile industry of Osaka imports _____ from other countries.
Ans. A) cotton
Q22 ______ river flows through Osaka.
Ans. B) Yodo
Q23 The Great Lake waterway is located near
A) New York
Ans. C) Pittsburgh
Q24 Dolomite mines are located in
B) Tamil Nadu
Ans. A) Odisha
Q25 Chintzes clothes can be found in
Ans. B) Masulipatnam
Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark)
Q1. Expand AMUL. Where are its headquarters?
Ans. Anand Milk Union Limited. Its headquarters are in Anand, Gujarat.
Q2. Name an industrial region in northern India.
Ans. The Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region is an industrial region in northern India.
Q3. What is smelting?
Ans. Smelting is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.
Q4. Define industry.
Ans. Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or provision of services.
Q5. What does information technology deal in?
Ans. Information technology deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information.
Q6. Name three common methods of classifying industries.
Ans. Industries are classified according to raw material used, size and ownership.
Q7. What are the inputs of an industrial system?
Ans. The inputs of an industrial system are the raw materials, labor and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
Q8. Why is Bangalore also known as ‘Silicon Plateau’?
Ans. Bangalore is recognised as India’s Silicon Valley since it is the country’s biggest exporter of information technology (IT). It is so-called because of the large number of startups that are springing up in the city. The city is located on the Mysore plateau, which is also known as the silicon plateau.
Q9. What is the link between the mines and the industry in Pittsburgh?
Ans. The Great Lakes of North America lie between the mines and industrial plant in Pittsburgh.
Q10. What industries have started replacing the textile industry in Osaka?
Ans. Iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement industry have begun to replace the textile industry in Osaka.
Short Answer Questions- (3 Mark)
Q1. Why was the Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) set up at Sakchi, in Jamshedpur? Give reasons.
Ans. The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) established itself in Sakchi, Jamshedpur, for several reasons:
- Sakchi was only 32 kilometers from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line;
- It was close to iron ore, coal and manganese deposits, as well as Kolkata, which provided a large market.
- TISCO obtains coal from the Jharia coalfields, as well as iron ore, limestone, dolomite, and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh. These locations are close to Sakchi.
- The Kharki and Subarnarekha rivers are close to Sakchi, ensuring a steady supply of water.
Q2. Describe briefly the classification of industries on the basis of ownership.
Ans. Industries are divided into four types based on ownership: private, state-owned (public), joint, and cooperative.
- persons or groups of persons own private sector industries.
- The government owns public-sector businesses.
- The state and people own and operate joint sector industries. Maruti Udyog is one example of such a business.
- Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by raw material producers or suppliers, workers, or both. AMUL is one of these industries.
Q3. Mention the main factors that influence the location of an industry.
Ans. The availability of raw materials, land, water, labor, power, capital, transportation, and markets are all the elements that influence the location of industries. Industries are located in areas where any or all of these variables are conveniently accessible. Sometimes the government gives incentives such as subsidized power, decreased transportation costs, and other infrastructure to encourage enterprises to move in underserved areas.
Q4. Give examples of industrial regions in India and the world.
Ans. Eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe, and eastern Asia are the world’s largest industrial regions.
The Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu area, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chota Nagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region, and the Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster are the important industrial regions in India.
Q5. Write the properties and significance of steel.
Ans. Steel has the following characteristics:
- it is tough,
- it may be easily molded (malleability), cut, or
- It can be formed into wire (ductility).
- Adding other components makes it harder, tougher, and more rust-resistant.
Steel is the foundation of contemporary manufacturing. In our daily lives, we come into contact with many steel things. Steel is used as a principal or single constituent in ships, railways, and most other vehicles, small needles and safety pins, machinery and equipment, buildings, and so on.
Q6. Describe the inputs, processes, and outputs in an industrial system with an example.
Ans. Inputs, operations, and outputs comprise an industrial system. Inputs include raw materials, labor, expenses, transportation, power, and infrastructure. In the cotton textile sector, for example, inputs include cotton, human labor, transportation costs, and so on. Processes are operations that are carried out in order to convert raw materials into finished goods. Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and other processes in the cotton textile business. The outputs are the finished product and all earnings earned. The outputs of the cotton textile sector are the garments we wear.
Q7. Give examples of industrial regions in India and the world.
Ans. Eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe, and eastern Asia are the world’s primary industrial regions. The Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu area, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chota Nagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region, and Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster are the key industrial regions in India.
Q8. What does an industrial system consist of?
Ans. Inputs, operations, and outputs comprise an industrial system. Inputs include raw materials, labor, and the costs of land, transportation, power, and other infrastructure. A wide range of activities are included in the processes that turn raw materials into finished goods. The outputs are the finished product and the income generated by it.
Q9. Explain why steel is called as ‘the backbone of the modern industry’.
Ans. Steel is frequently referred to as the “backbone” of modern industry. Almost everything we use is made of iron or steel, or was created using tools and machines made of these metals. Steel is used extensively in the construction of ships, railways, trucks, and automobiles. Even the safety pins and needles you’re using are composed of steel.
Steel machinery is used to drill oil wells. Steel pipelines carry oil. Steel equipment is used to mine minerals. Farm machinery is mostly made of steel.Steel framework is used in large constructions. The iron and steel industry in India has grown through capitalising on raw supplies, inexpensive labour, transportation, and market opportunities. All of the key steel production centres, including as Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, and Bokaro, are distributed over four states: West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh. Thus, steel is referred to as ‘the backbone of modern industry.
Q10. What factors supported Sakchi being chosen to set up the steel plant by TISCO?
Ans. Sakchi was chosen for a number of reasons. The Kalimati Railway Station was nearby. It was also adjacent to resources of iron ore, coal, and manganese. Kolkata, a big market source, was not far away. Jharia coalfields were freely accessible, as were limestone, dolomite, limestone, and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh. The adjacent rivers (Kharkai and Subarnarekha) offered an adequate quantity of water.
Long Answer Questions (5 mark)
Q1. Describe briefly the classification of industries on the basis of raw material used.
Ans. Industries are divided into agro, mineral, marine, and forest-based based on the raw materials used.
- Plant and animal-based products are used as raw materials in agro-based industries. Food processing, cotton textile business, and leather industry are a few examples.
- Mineral ores are the raw materials used in mineral-based industries. Consider the iron and steel industry.
- Raw materials for marine-based industries are derived from the sea and oceans. One such industry is the seafood industry.
- Forest produce is used as a raw material in a forest-based industry. Paper manufacturing and furniture manufacturing are two examples.
Q2. Explain classification of industry on the basis of size.
Ans. Classification of industry on the basis of size is as follows:-
- Industries are categorized into two types based on their size: small scale and large scale.
- Cottage or household industries are a sort of small-scale enterprise in which products are handcrafted by artisans.
- Cottage industry includes basket making, ceramics, and other handicrafts.
- Small scale enterprises require less capital and technology than big scale industries that create vast volumes of products.
- In large scale industries, capital is invested more heavily and technology is superior.
- Small-scale enterprises include silk weaving and food manufacturing. Automobile and heavy machinery manufacturing are large-scale industries.
Q3. Describe the cotton textile industry with special reference to its history and spread in India.
Ans. Cotton is a type of natural fiber crop. The cotton textile business is the industry that produces clothing from the fiber. It is one of the world’s oldest industries. India has a long history of producing high-quality cotton textiles. Dhaka’s Muslins, Masulipatnam’s Chintzes. Calicos from Calicut and gold-wrought cotton from Burhanpur, Vadodara, and Surat were world-renowned for their quality and design. Due to the high cost of handwoven material, the traditional Indian cotton textile sector could not compete with Western textile mills. Furthermore, the procedure was time-consuming.
In 1854, Mumbai saw the establishment of India’s first successful mechanized textile mill. The warm and moist environment, the presence of a nearby port for importing machinery, the availability of raw materials, and trained personnel all contributed to the company’s success. The main reason why the business was initially restricted to Maharashtra and Gujarat was because of humidity.
It is because of the artificial creation of humidity, the industry has now spread to numerous other sections of the country. Cotton textile centers of importance include Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry, and Panipat.
Q4. Write short notes on
(a) the iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh and
(b) cotton textile industry in Osaka.
Ans. (a) Pittsburgh is a major steel city in the United States. The majority of raw materials, such as coal, are locally available. Iron ore is transported from Minnesota’s iron mines. The Great Lakes of North America are also a good route for ore shipping. Trains transport ore from the lakes to the industrial region. Rivers such as the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny give an ample quantity of water. Steel is delivered to the market via both land and maritime methods.
(b) Osaka is a major textile center in Japan. The “Manchester of Japan” is its nickname. Geographic factors, like in every important center, played an important influence in the creation of industry here. The plains surrounding Osaka made land widely available for the expansion of cotton factories. Cotton spinning and weaving thrive in the warm and humid climate. The river Yodo supplies a considerable amount of water. The availability of labor and the port’s location are both important considerations. However, the sector is entirely dependent on imports. The finished product is exported and is reasonably priced.
Q5. Why is Osaka known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’?
Ans. Osaka is renowned as the ‘Manchester of Japan’ since it is a major textile center in the country. Osaka’s textile industry grew as a result of various geographical considerations. The vast plain surrounding Osaka guaranteed that land was easily available for the expansion of cotton mills. A warm, humid atmosphere is ideal for spinning and weaving. The river Yodo supplies enough water for the mills. Labour is easily accessible. The port’s location makes it easier to import raw cotton and export textiles. Osaka’s textile sector is largely reliant on imported raw materials from Egypt, India, China, and the United States. Due to its high quality and low price, the finished product is usually exported and has a large market.
Q6. Explain the factors favorable for the development of the IT industry in California.
Ans. Silicon Valley’s geographic advantages – California
- Close to some of the world’s most advanced scientific and technical centers.
- A pleasant atmosphere with a beautiful and clean environment.
- There is plenty of room for growth and future expansion.
- It is convenient to major highways and airports.
- Good market access and a trained workforce.
Q7. What are the inputs, processes and outputs of the textile industry?
Ans. Inputs, operations, and outputs comprise an industrial system. Inputs include raw materials, labor, and the costs of land, transportation, power, and other infrastructure. The processes consist of a variety of activities that convert raw materials into finished goods. The outputs are the finished product and the income generated by it. Cotton, human labor, factory, and transportation costs are examples of inputs in the textile business. Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and printing are among the operations. The garments that we wear are the result.
Q8. Discuss the locational advantages for the development of the cotton textile industry in Ahmedabad.
Ans. Favorable locational factors were responsible for the development of the textile industry in Ahmedabad.
- Ahmedabad lies in the midst of a cotton-growing region. This guarantees that raw materials are readily available.
- The humid atmosphere makes spinning and weaving perfect. The mills can be established due to the flat topography and easy availability of land.
- Gujarat and Maharashtra, both densely populated states, provide both skilled and semi-skilled workforce.
- A well-developed road and railway network allows for easy transportation of textiles to various regions of the country, allowing for quick market access.
- The adjacent Mumbai port facilitates the import of machinery and the export of cotton fabrics.
Q9. Write a note on the Chernobyl disaster.
Ans. The Chernobyl disaster occurred when a nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union exploded. It was the world’s worst nuclear power plant disaster.
On April 26, 1986, a nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl power station exploded. Further explosions and the ensuing fire released a cloud of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over a wide area. Nearly thirty to forty times more fallout was discharged than during the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic blasts.
Large sections of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were severely contaminated, forcing nearly 336,000 people to be evacuated and resettled. The event sparked questions about the nuclear power industry’s safety.
Q10. Write a short note on Jamshedpur as an Iron and Steel Industry.
Ans. Prior to 1947, the country had only one iron and steel plant: Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO). It was privately held. Following independence, the government took the initiative and established a number of iron and steel mills.
TISCO was founded in 1907 at Sakchi, Jharkhand, near the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai. Sakchi was later renamed Jamshedpur. Geographically, Jamshedpur is the best-located iron and steel center in the country.
Sakchi was chosen to build the steel plant for a variety of reasons. This location was approximately 32 kilometers from the Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway route. It
It was adjacent to iron ore, coal, and manganese deposits, as well as a huge market in Kolkata.
TISCO obtains coal from the Jharia coalfields, as well as iron ore, limestone, dolomite, and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers provided ample water supply. Government initiatives supplied sufficient funding for its eventual development. Following TISCO, several additional industrial plants were established in Jamshedpur. They manufacture chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural machinery, machinery, tinplate, cable, and wire.
The expansion of the iron and steel sector in India paved the way for fast industrial development. Almost every sector of Indian business is strongly reliant on the iron and steel industry for basic infrastructure. The Indian iron and steel industry is made up of both major integrated steel facilities and small steel mills. Secondary producers, rolling mills, and auxiliary sectors are also included.