PTU Jalandhar CET Biotechnology Syllabus
Overview : Definitions, Historical Perspectives, Scope and importance, Commercial potential, An interdisciplinary challenge. A Quantitative approach, Classical vs Modern concepts, Manufacturing quality control, Product safety, Good manufacturing practices, Good laboratory practices, Marketing, Biotechnology in India and Global trends.
Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering – Concept of pH, Buffer, Physical variables, dimensions and units, Measurement conventions, Physical and chemical property data, Stoichlometry, Errors in data and calculations, absolute and relative uncertainty, types of error, Statistical analysis, Presentation of experimental data, Data analysis, Trends, Testing mathematical models, goodness of Fit, Use of graph paper with Logarithmic Coordinates, General procedure for plotting data, Process flow diagrams, Material and energy balances, fluid flow and mixing, Heat transfer, Mass Transfer, Unit operations, Homogeneous reactions, Heterogeneous reactions, Reactor engineering.
Biotechnology and Society – Public perception, Role of sciences, Engineering, Arts, Commerce, Patenting -Criterion for patents. Discovery vs Invention, Product and process patent, Reading a patent, National and International Patent Laws, Varietal protection, Patenting of biological systems, Ethical issues in agriculture and health care.
Nature of Biomolecules – Building block, functional groups fund in biomolecules, Optical activity/stereo Chemistry. Conformation and Configuration, Chirality, Properties : Physical and Chemical, Biochemical transformation ( Oxidation, Reduction, Cleavage of c-c bonds, Group transfer, Condensation reaction), Precursor-Product relationship, Level of organization ( Supramolecular assembly), Biomolecular databases.
Structure and Function – Nucleic acids-RNA and DNA and their Structures; Proteins-The three dimential structure, Function, Enzymes Rates of enzymatic reactions, Enzymatic catalysis; Carbohydrates – Structure and function, Metabolic pathways of bread-down of carbohydrates-Glycosis, Glycogen metabolism, Transport through membranes, Citric acid cycle, Electron transport an doxidative phosphorylation, Fermentation;
Photosynthesis – Chloroplasts, Light and dark reactions, Photophosphorylation, Carbon dioxide fixation and synthesis of carbohydrats; Vitamins and Co-enzymes; Minerals; Lipids and Biological membranes; Nitrogen metabolism.
Biochemical Techniques – Based on molecular weight: Vapour/osmotic pressure, centrifugation, gel permeation, electrophoresis, mass-spectrometery; Based on spectroscopy: Colorimetery, UV-vis spectrophotometery, fluorescence, IR, X-rays; Based on charge/polarity: Partion Chromatograph, Ion exchange, Iso-electric focusing,hydrophobic interaction; Based on solubility; Salt ppt, organic solvent ppt
The Basic Unit of life – Cell structure and components -Nucleus, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes and other cell inclusion. Various kinds of tissues and organs in animals and plants, Evolutionof populations ( Speciation) and Biodiversity, Adaptation and Natural selection, Organization of life, Size and complexity- Microbial, Plant and animal world, Interaction with the environment.
Cell Growth and Development – Cell divisions and cell cycle, Cell communication and Signal transduction pathways, Movement, Nutrition, Gas exchange, internal transport, Maintaining the internal environment; Reproduction in Microbes, Plants, Animals and Humans; Animal and Plant development, Apoptosis; Immune response in animals and humans. Defense mechanisms in plants, Plant-pathogen interaction; Secondary metabolism; Defense strategies in microbes and insects.
Cellular Techniques – Microscopy; Centrifugation techniques; Cell franctionisation and sorting ; Cell growth determination, Mitotic index.
Principle of Genetics – Historical perspectives, Mendelian genetics, The role of chromosomes in inhertiance, Multiple alleles, Linkage and Crossing over, Genetic recombination, Genetic mapping, Gene interaction, Sex-linked inheritance, Extranuclear inheritance, Quantitative inheritance, Genes at the population level, discovery of genetic material, Mutagenesis-Genome, chromosomal and Gene mutations, Molecular mechanisms of mutations, Transposons, DNA repair, Genetic disorders. Plant and animal breeding.
Genome Function – Genome organization, DNA replication, Fine structure of gene, From Gene to Protein- Transcription, Genetic code and Translation, Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes an deukaryotes, Genetic basis for development; Genetics of cancer, Immunogenetics, Evolutionary genetics.
Genetical Techniques – Chromosome techniques ; Chromosome stains, Chromosome banding techniques, Karyotyping, Chromosome painting; Mutagenic techniques: Physical ( UV, X-rays/Gamma rays) and Chemical ( NTG/EMS) mutagenesis; Recombination in bacteria; Breeding methods in plants; Pedigree analysis in humans; DNA isolations.
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