The Full form of RSA is Rivest, Shamir, Adleman. It is a public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. The public-key encryption technology was invented by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, which is a public-key cryptosystem for secure transmission of data. It is a standard encryption method for transmitting sensitive data, especially for data sent over the internet. Encryption of a message means that a code is added to the message which converts it into a random mess.
The algorithm of RSA is based on the difficulty level involved in the factorization of large numbers. The algorithm is based on the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very large numbers. So, deducing an RSA key would require a huge amount of computer processing time and power. RSA algorithm is asymmetric cryptography algorithm as it works on two different keys; private key and public key. The public key is given to everyone, and private key remains private.
The public key comprises two numbers, one of which is a multiplication of two large prime numbers. Similarly, the private key is also derived from the same two prime numbers. So, the security of a private key can only be compromised if one can factorize the large number, which is not so easy.