The Full form of PCNL is Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. PCNL is a minimally-invasive procedure to remove stones from the kidney by a small puncture wound (up to about 1 cm) through the skin. It is most suitable to remove stones of more than 2 cm in size and which are present near the pelvic region. It is usually done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. For a large stone (10 mm to 20 mm or more), it can be faster and easier for you if the surgeon goes directly from your back into the kidney to take out the stone, avoiding the ureter. For very large stones (often called “staghorn stones”) that fill the entire hollow part of the kidney, several PCNL procedures might be needed to remove all the pieces of the stone. A retrograde pyelogram is done to locate the stone in the kidney. With a small 1 centimeter incision in the loin, the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) needle is passed into the pelvis of the kidney. The complications that may take place while doing PCNL are; Injury to the lungs, Injury to the colon, Injury to the renal blood vessels, Urinary leak may persist for a few days, Bleeding and Death.