Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer


The Full form of ENIAC is Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. ENIAC is believed and considered to be the world’s first operational electronic digital computer developed by Army Ordnance in the United States to compute ballistic firing tables during World War II. These firing tables enabled the U.S. army to predict the target where a shell would hit. It also helps the troops to dodge incoming shells and hit their targets more precisely.

It was the first general-purpose electronic computer in the world, which was made to be a modular computer comprising separate panels to perform separate functions and run only on electronic components without having any mechanical part to slow it down. ENIAC’s weight was around 30 tons and was spread over an area of 1800 square feet. The ENIAC main components include: 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, capacitors, resistors and inductors. Furthermore, ENIAC had twenty single-number accumulators as primary functional units along with special units for multiplication, division, and square roots.

So, it was not used only by the army but was also suitable for atomic-energy calculations, weather prediction, cosmic-ray studies, thermal ignition, wind-tunnel design, etc. Later, it became obsolete and outdated when over the time there was a need for faster computing speeds.