Bohr’s atomic model-Sommerfeld’s extension of atomic structure; Electronic configuration and
Quantum numbers; Shapes of s,p,d,f orbitals – Pauli’s exclusion principle – Hund’s Rule of maximum multiplicity- Aufbau principle. Emission and absorption spectra, line and band spectra; Hydrogen spectrum – Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series; deBroglie’s theory; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle – wave nature of electron – Schrodinger wave equation
(No derivation). Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Hybridization of atomic orbitals involving s,p and d orbitals.
p-block elements – Phosphorus compounds; PCl3, PCl5 – Oxides. Hydrogen halides, Inter halogen compounds. Xenon fluoride compounds. General Characteristics of d – block elements – Electronic Configuration – Oxidation states of first row transition elements and their colours. Occurrence and principles of extraction: Copper, Silver, Gold and Zinc. Preparation and properties of CuSO4, AgNO3 and K2Cr2O7.
Lanthanides – Introduction, electronic configuration, general characteristics, oxidation state – lanthanide contraction, uses, brief comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides.
Introduction – Terminology in coordination chemistry – IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Isomerism, Geometrical isomerism in 4-coordinate, 6-coordinate complexes. Theories on coordination compounds – Werner’s theory (brief), Valence Bond theory. Uses of coordination compounds. Bioinorganic compounds (Haemoglobin and chlorophyll).
Lattice – unit cell, systems, types of crystals, packing in solids; Ionic crystals – Imperfections in solids – point defects. X-Ray diffraction – Electrical Property, Amorphous solids (elementary ideas only).
I and II law of thermodynamics – spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, entropy, Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and chemical equilibrium – significance of entropy.
Law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle, applications of chemical equilibrium. Rate expression, order and molecularity of reactions, zero order, first order and pseudo first order reaction – half life period. Determination of rate constant and order of reaction. Temperature dependence of rate constant – Arrhenius equation and activation energy.
Theory of electrical conductance; metallic and electrolytic conductance. Faraday’s laws – theory of strong electrolytes – Specific resistance, specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductance – Variation of conductance with dilution – Kohlrausch’s Law – Ionic product of water, pH and pH– buffer solutions – use of pH values. Cells – Electrodes and electrode potentials – construction of cell and EMF values, Fuel cells, Corrosion and its prevention.
Definition, Classification – structural isomerism, stereo isomerism – geometrical and optical isomerism. Optical activity- chirality – compounds containing chiral centres – R, S notation, D, L notation.
Nomenclature of alcohols – Classification of alcohols – distinction between 10, 20 and 30
alcohols – General methods of preparation of primary alcohols, properties. Methods of preparation of dihydric alcohols: Glycol – Properties – Uses. Methods of preparation of
trihydric alcohols – Properties – Uses. Aromatic alcohols – preparation and properties of phenols and benzyl alcohol.
Ethers – Nomenclature of ethers – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ethers – Properties – Uses. Aromatic ethers – Preparation of Anisole – Uses.
Nomenclature of carbonyl compounds – Comparison of aldehydes and ketones. General methods of preparation of aldehydes – Properties – Uses. Aromatic aldehydes – Preparation of benzaldehyde – Properties and Uses. Ketones – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ketones (acetone) – Properties – Uses. Aromatic ketones – preparation of acetophenone – Properties – Uses, preparation of benzophenone – Properties. Name reactions; Clemmenson reduction, Wolff – Kishner reduction, Cannizzaro reaction, Claisen Schmidt reaction, Benzoin Condensation, Aldol Condensation. Preparation and applications of Grignard reagents.
Nomenclature – Preparation of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids – formic acid – Properties – Uses. Monohydroxy mono carboxylic acids; Lactic acid – Synthesis of lactic acid. Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids; Preparation of oxalic and succinic acids. Aromatic acids; Benzoic and Salicylic acids – Properties – Uses. Derivatives of carboxylic acids; acetyl chloride (CH3COCl) – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Preparation of acetamide, Properties – acetic anhydride – Preparation, Properties. Preparation of esters – methyl acetate – Properties.
Aliphatic nitro compounds – Preparation of aliphatic nitroalkanes – Properties – Uses.
Aromatic nitro compounds – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds. Amines; aliphatic amines – General methods of preparation – Properties – Distinction between 10, 20 and 30 amines. Aromatic amines – Synthesis of benzylamine – Properties, Aniline – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Differences between aliphatic and aromatic amines. Aliphatic nitriles – Preparation – properties – Uses. Diazonium salts – Preparation of benzene diazoniumchloride – Properties. Carbohydrates – Distinction between sugars and non sugars, structural formulae of glucose, fructose and sucrose, with their linkages, invert sugar – definition, examples of oligo and polysaccharides,
Amino acids – Classification with examples, Peptides-properties of peptide bond,
Lipids – Definition, classification with examples, difference between fats, oils and waxes.