Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary & Mains) – Sociology
Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) – Sociology
Unit I : Basic Concepts :
- Society, community, association, institution. Culture-culture change, diffusion, Cultural-tag, Cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, acculturation.
- Social Groups-primary, secondary and reference groups.
- Social structure, social system, social action.
- Status and role, role conflict, role set.
- Norms and values-conformity and deviance.
- Law and customs.
- Socio-cultural processes :
- socialisation, assimilation, integration, cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, Social distance, relative deprivation.
Unit II : Marriage, Family and Kinship :
- Marriage : types and norms, marriage as contract, and as a sacrament.
- Family : types, functions and changes.
- Kinships : terms and usages, rules of residence, descent, inheritance.
Unit III : Social Stratification :
Forms and functions; Caste and Class. Jajmani system, purity and pollution, dominant caste, sanskritisation.
Unit IV : Types of Society :
- Tribal, agrarian, industrial and post-industrial.
Unit V : Economy and Society :
- Man, nature and social production, economic systems of simple and complex societies, non-economic determinants of economic behaviour, market (free) economy and controlled (planned) economy.
Unit VI : Industrial and Urban Society :
- Rural-Urban Continuum, urban growth and urbanisation-town, city and metropolis; basic features of industrial society; impact of automation on society; industrialisation and environment.
Unit VII : Social Demography :
- Population size, growth, composition, and distribution in India; components of population growth-births, deaths and migration; causes and consequences of population growth; population and social development; population policy.
Unit VIII : Political Processes :
- Power, authority and legitimacy; political socialisation; political modernisation, pressure groups; caste and politics.
Unit IX : Weaker Sections-and Minorities :
- Social justice-equal opportunity and special opportunity; protective discrimination; constitutional safeguards.
Unit X : Social Change :
- Theories of change; factors of change; science, technology and change. Social movements-Peasant Movement, Women’s Movement, Backward Caste Movement, Dalit Movement.
Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam – Sociology – Paper – I & II
Paper – I
Fundamentals of Sociology
A. Sociology – The Discipline:
- Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
- Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
- Sociology and common sense.
B. Sociology as Science:
- Science, scientific method and critique.
- Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
- Positivism and its critique.
- Fact value and objectivity.
- Non- positivist methodologies.
C. Research Methods and Analysis:
- Qualitative and quantitative methods.
- Techniques of data collection.
- Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
D. Sociological Thinkers:
- Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
- Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
- Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
- Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
- Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups
- Mead – Self and identity.
E. Stratification and Mobility:
- Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation
- Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
- Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
- Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
F. Works and Economic Life:
- Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
- Formal and informal organization of work
- Labour and society.
G. Politics and Society:
- Sociological theories of power
- Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
- Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
- Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
H. Religion and Society:
- Sociological theories of religion.
- Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
- Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
I. Systems of Kinship:
- Family, household, marriage.
- Types and forms of family.
- Lineage and descent
- Patriarchy and sexual division of labour
- Contemporary trends.
J. Social Change in Modern Society:
- Sociological theories of social change.
- Development and dependency.
- Agents of social change.
- Education and social change.
- Science, technology and social change.
Paper – II
Indian Society: Structure and Change
A. Introducing Indian Society:
- i. Perspectives on the study of Indian society:
- 1. Indology (GS. Ghurye).
- 2. Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
- 3. Marxist sociology ( A R Desai).
- ii. Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
- 1. Social background of Indian nationalism.
- 2. Modernization of Indian tradition.
- 3. Protests and movements during the colonial period.
- 4. Social reforms
B. Social Structure:
- i. Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
- 1. The idea of Indian village and village studies-
- 2. Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
- ii. Caste System:
- 2. Features of caste system.
- 3. Untouchability – forms and perspectives
- iii. Tribal communities in India:
- 1. Definitional problems.
- 2. Geographical spread.
- 3. Colonial policies and tribes.
- 4. Issues of integration and autonomy.
- iv. Social Classes in India:
- 1. Agrarian class structure.
- 2. Industrial class structure.
- 3. Middle classes in India.
- v. Systems of Kinship in India:
- 1. Lineage and descent in India.
- 2. Types of kinship systems.
- 3. Family and marriage in India.
- 4. Household dimensions of the family.
- 5. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
- vi. Religion and Society:
- 1. Religious communities in India.
- 2. Problems of religious minorities.
- Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
C. Social Changes in India:
- i. Visions of Social Change in India:
- 1. Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
- 2. Constitution, law and social change.
- 3. Education and social change.
- ii. Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
- 1. Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
- 2. Green revolution and social change.
- 3. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
- 4. Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
- iii. Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
- 1. Evolution of modern industry in India.
- 2. Growth of urban settlements in India.
- 3. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
- 4. Informal sector, child labour
- 5. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
- iv. Politics and Society:
- 1. Nation, democracy and citizenship.
- 2. Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
- 3. Regionalism and decentralization of power.
- 4. Secularization
- v. Social Movements in Modern India:
- 1. Peasants and farmers movements.
- 2. Women’s movement.
- 3. Backward classes & Dalit movement.
- 4. Environmental movements.
- 5. Ethnicity and Identity movements.
- vi. Population Dynamics:
- 1. Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
- 2. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
- 3. Population policy and family planning.
- 4. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
- vii. Challenges of Social Transformation:
- 1. Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
- 2. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
- 3. Violence against women.
- 4. Caste conflicts.
- 5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
- 6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.
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