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UPSC Syllabus for IAS Preliminary & Mains- Philosophy exam

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary & Mains) – Philosophy-09

Civil Service Exam Syllabus (Preliminary) – Philosophy

Section-‘A’

Problems of Philosophy

  1. Substance and Attributes : Aristole, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley’s criticism, Nyaya-Viasesika, Buddhist criticism of Pudgala.
  2. God, Soul and the World : Thomas Acquinas, St. Augustine, Spinoza, Descartes, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Sankara, Ramanuja.
  3. Universals : Realism and Nominalism (Plato, Aristotle, Berkeley’s criticism of abstract ideas, Nyay-Vaisesika, Buddhism).
  4. Bases of Knowledge : Pramanavada in Carvaka, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta.
  5. Truth and Error : Correspondence Theory, Coherence theory, Pragmatic Theory; Khyativada (Anyathakhyati, Akhyati, Anivacaniyakhyati).
  6. Matter and Mind : Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Berkerley.

Section-B

Logic

  1. Truth and Validity
  2. Classification of sentences : Traditional and Modern.
  3. Syllogism : Figures and Moods; Rules of Syllogism (General and special) validation by Venn Diagrames; Formal Fallacies.
  4. Sentential Calculus : Symbolisation; Truth-Functions and their interdefinability; Truth Tables; Formal Proof.

Section-‘C’

Ethics

  1. Statement of fact and statement of value.
  2. Right and Good; Teleology and Deontology.
  3. Psychological Hedonism.
  4. Utilitarianism (Bentham; J.S. Mill).
  5. Kantian Ethics.
  6. Problem of the freedom of will.
  7. Moral Judgements : Descriptivism, Prescriptivism, Emotivism.
  8. Niskamakarma : Sthitaprajna.
  9. Jaina Ethics

10.  Four Noble Truths and Eight fold path in Buddhism.

11.  Gandhian Ethics : Satya, Ahimsa, Ends and Means.

Civil Service Exam Syllabus for IAS Main Exam – Philosophy – Paper –  I & II

Paper-I

History and Problems of Philosophy:

  1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
  2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
  3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
  4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
  5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
  6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
  7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
  9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

10.  Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.

11.  Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

12.  Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

13.  Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

14.  Schools of Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada

15.  Nyaya- Vaisesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

16.  Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation

17.  Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

18.  Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge

19.  Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Isvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda

20.  Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper-II

Socio-Political Philosophy

  1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
  2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
  3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
  4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
  5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
  6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
  7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  8. Development and Social Progress.
  9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.

10.  Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion:

  1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  3. Problem of Evil.
  4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
  6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  7. Religion without God.
  8. Religion and Morality.
  9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.

10.  Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.

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