1. Prehistoric cultures in India
2. Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures.Problems of decline.
3. Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming communities outside the Indus region, from the neolithic to early iron phases.
4. Vedic society. The Vedic texts; changefrom Rigvedic to later Vedic phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation; evolutuion of monarchy and varna system.
5. State formation and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.
6. The Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.
7. Post-Mauryan India, BC 200- AD 300. Society: Evolution of jatis. The Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion : Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism; Jainism; Culture and art.
8. The Guptas and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political organisation of empire. Economy and society. Literature and science. Arts.
9. Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Postition of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.
10. Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious conditions : importance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and Science. Alberuni’s “India”. Art and architecture.
11-12. Thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the “Slave” Rulers. Alauddin Khalji : Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlug’s innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.
13. The fifteenth and early 16th Century : major Provinicial dynasties; Vijaya-nagara Empire. The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration. The Portuguese.
Montheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti. Growth of regional literatures. Art and Culture.
14-15. The Mughal Empire , 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb : expansion in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji.
Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture.
Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with Europe. Social stratification and status of women.
16. Decline of Mughal Empire, 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.
17. British expansion : The Carnatic Wars, Conquest of Bengal. Mysore and its resitance to British expansion: The three Anglo-Maratha Wars. Early structure of British raj: Regulating and Pitt’s India Acts.
18. Economic Impact of the British Raj : Drain of Wealth (Tribute); land revenue settlements (zamindari, ryotwari, mahalwari); Deindustrialisation; Railways and commercialisation of agriculture; Growth of landless labour.
19. Cultural encounter and social changes: Introduction of western education and modern ideas. Indian Renaissance, social and religious reform movements; growth of Indian middle class; The press and its impact: rise of modern literature in Indian languages. Social reforms measures before 1857.
20. Resistance to British rule : Early uprisings; The 1857 Revolt- causes, nature, course and consequences.
21. Indian Freedom struggle-the first phase: Growth of national consciousness; Formation of Associations; Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate phase;- Economic Nationalism; Swadeshi Movement; The growth of “Extremism” and the 1907 split in Congress; The Act of 1909 – the policy of Divide and Rule; Congress-League Pact of 1916.
22. Gandhi and his thought; Gandhian techniques of mass mobilisation- Khilafat and Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement; Other strands in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, the Left, Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.
23. Separatist Trends in Indian nationalist politics- the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha; The post -1945 developments; Partition and Independence.
24. India independent to 1964. A parliamentary, secular, democratic (republic the 1950 Constitution). Jawaharlal Nehru’s vision of a developed, socialist society. Planning and state-controlled industrialization. Agrarian reforms. Foreign policy of Non-alignment. Border conflict with China and Chinese aggression.
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2.Pre-history and Proto-history:
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization:
Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures:
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period:
Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects.
Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
15. The Thirteenth Century:
16. The Fourteenth Century:
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
24. The Eighteenth Century:
1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
10.Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
11.Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India.
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.
16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
17. Origins of Modern Politics:
19. Nation-State System:
20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
22. World Wars:
23. The World after World War II:
24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
26. Unification of Europe:
27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
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