GETTING STARTED, DATA REPRESENTATION, BOOLEAN ALGEBRA & COMPUTER ORGANISATION
Evolution of computers; Basics of computer and its operation: Functional Components and their inter-connections, concept of Booting, Use of Operating System for directory listing, renaming, Copying, Deleting Files/Folders, Formatting floppy; Switching between tasks; Loading and executable files; Input/Output and memory Devices : Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, ( Concept of Track, Cylinder, Sector, Access Time, Storage Capacity, Data Transfer Time ), Optical Disk Technology, keyboard, Mouse, Printers ( Dot Matrix, Laser, Deskjet/Inkjet/Bubblejet), Monitor, Primary Memory; RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM; Binary representation f numbers; Integer ( 2’s complement); Real ( standard floating point form): Binary Arithmetic ( addition, subtraction); Octal and Hexadecimal representation of numbers. Representing Characters using ASCII Codes.
Binary-valued Quantities, Basic Postulates of Boolean Algebra, Operations AND , OR , NOT ; Truth Tables: Basic Theorems of Boolean Algebra, Principle of Duality, Idempotent Law, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Absorption Law, Involution Law, DeMorgan’s and its application; Reducing Boolean Expression to
Sum of Products and Product of Sums forms, Use of karnaugh Map for minimization of Boolean expressions( upto 4 variables); Basic Logic Gates ( NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR , XOR, XNOR) and their use in circuits, Application of Boolean Algebra to Half Adder, Full adder; Processor: Description of a Processor using logical structure of a Hypothetical computer consisting of Accumulator, Instruction Register and program Counter; Operation for hypothetical computer : Load, Store, Unconditional Jumps, Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide and Halt; Instruction format; Instructions using single address only.
PROGRAMMING IN C++
” Object Oriented Technology is regarded as the ultimate paradigm for the modeling of information, be that information data or logic. The C++ has by now shown to fulfill this goal.” PROGRAMMING BY EXAMPLE IN C++ LANGUAGE : C++ CHARACTER SET, C++ Tokens( Identifiers, Keywords, Constants, Operators) Structure of a C++ Program ( include files, declaration of an object, main function); Header files: iostream.h. iomanip.h; cout, cin, Use of I/O operators (<< AND >>), Use of setw ( ) and endl, Cascading of I/O operators, Error Message; Use of editor, basic commands of editor, compilation, linking and execution;
DATA TYPES, VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS
Concept of Data types; Built-in Data types; void, char, int, float and double; Constants; Integer Constants, Character Constants ( Backslash character constants : \n,\a,\r,\t), Floating point Constants, String Constants; Variables, of built-in data types, Access Modifier; const; type modifiers : signed, unsigned, short, long;
OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS
Operators : Arithematic operators (-,+,/,%), Unary operator (-), Increment and Decrement Operators (–, ++), Relational Operators (>,>=,<,<=,==,!=), Logical operators (&&, , ! ), conditional operator ? : ( condition ? if statements : else-statements), Precedence of Operators; Expressions: Automatic Type conversion in expression, C++ shorthands (+=,-=,*=,/+,%=); Assignment statement; Variable initialization; Type Compatibility, Type casting;
FLOW OF CONTROL
Conditional Statements: if, if -else, nested if-else statements, ? as alternative to if-else, switch -case, Nested switch, default statement, break statement; Simple Control statements, Comma Operator, exit ( ) function; Loops: while statement, do-while statement, for statement, nested control structures;
INPUT OUTPUT FUN CTION
Header file : sdtio.h-getc,putc() gets () and puts() functions;
STRUCTURED DATA TYPE : ARRAY
Use of arrays one and two -dimensional arrays-declaration, initialization, reading, display, manipulation such as liner search, finding maximum/minimum value, matrix arithmetic; String : String manipulation such as reversing a string , reversing each word of a string, counting vowels, consonants, special characters from sting;
Header files : string.h. ctype.h, math.h. stdlib.h,
Standard functions – character and string related functions : isalnum( ), isalpha( ), isdigit( ), islower( ), isupper( ), tolower ( ), toupper( ), strcpy( ), stract( ), strlen( ), strcmp( ); strcmpi( ), at ol( ), itoa( ), atoll( ), Itoa(). Mathematical functions : abs ( ), sqrt ( ), exp( ), log( ), log10( ),.sin( ), cos( )
FUNCTIONS : Defining a function; Function Prototype, Invoking a function; Passing arguments to function, specifying argument data types, default arguments, constant arguments, call by value, call be reference, returning values from a function, calling functions with arrays: scope rules of functions, and variables ;
POINTERS : Dynamic memory allocation operators : new, delete; Pointers and Arrays : Array of Pointers, pointers to one-dimensional array, Initializing Pointes; Functions returning pointers, Reference variables, and use of alias; Function call by reference, Pointers to structures and use, self referencial structure, Objects as function arguments:Pass by reference ;Pointers to Objects : Deferencing operator : *,->; this pointer.
General; Concepts; Modular approach; Stylistic Guidelines; Clarity and Simplicity of Expression, Names Comments, Indentation; Documentation and program Maintenance; Running and Debugging programs, Syntax Errors, Run-Time Errors, Logic Errors.
Defining a Structure, creating a structure variable, Referencing structure elements, Array of structure, passing structure to functions, functions returning structure, user defined data types; use of typedef. enumerated data types : Definition, declarations, changing default ordinal values, symbolic constants, nested structure;
CLASSES AND OBJECTS : Class Declarations ; Data Members, Member Functions, Private and Public members, default labels, data hiding and encapsulation, Arrays within a class; Class Function definition: Member Function definition inside the class declaration and outside the class declaration, Scope resolution operator (: :), Private and Public member function, Nesting of Member functions; Creating objects, accessing class data members, accessing member functions, arrays of objects, objects as function arguments: Pass by value and references;
CONSTRUCTORS AND DESTRUCTORS
Constructors : Declaration and Definition, Default Constructors, Special Characteristics, Parameterized constructors , Passing initial values as arguments ( by implicit call and explicit call), Cop Constructors, Constructors with default arguments; Destructors : Definition and use;
Function overloading: Declaration, Definition and use;
INHERITANCE : EXTENDING CLASSES : Concept of inheritance, Base Class, Derived Class , Defining derived classes, Visibility modes , Private, Public, Protected;
Single level inheritance, Multiple inheritance and Multilevel inheritance; Derivation by private, public and protected access specifier, Access control to private , and profected members by member functions of a derived class, Nesting of classes;
FILE ORAGANISATION AND FILE HANDLING IN C++
Basic file operations : Text file- Read an Write; Binary File ( Sequential Access)- searching, appending, insertion, deletion, modification; Header File : fstream.h; fstream,ofstream; fstream; reading and writing strings from/todisk; Detecting end-of-file ; open( ), close ( ) functions; reading and writing objects from/to disk using read( ), write ( ) functions;
ARRAYS : One and two Dimensional arrays, sequential allocation, address calculation, Algorithm for one dimensional arrays for traversal, searching ( Linear and Binary Search), insertion, deletion, sorting ( Insertion, Selection and Bubble sort ), merging : STACK : (Array and linked implementation of stack); Operations on stack ( PUSH and POP); Converting expressions form INFIX to POOSTFIX notation and evaluation of POSTFIX notation of expression; Implementation of the above concepts using C++ QUEUE : ( Circular array and Linked implementation ); Operations on Queue ( INSERT and DELETE); Implementation of the above concepts using C++
DATABASES CONCEPTS : Relational data model : Concept of domain , tuple, relation, Cartesian product, Nomalisation; First, Second, Third normal forms;
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE
Processing capabilities , Data Definition. Language and Data Manipulation Language (Retrieving, Manipulating, Updating ), Tables ( Rows, Columns) and Fields; SQL supported by Xbase type products, Data types : SMALLINT, DECIMAL, NUMERIC, CHARACTER, DATE;
SQL commands : CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE, SELECT, DISTINCT, INTO, FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY , HAVING , ORDER BY UNION, UPDATE.. SET.. WHERE, INSERT, DELETE; SQL FUNCTIONS; AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN, and SUM;
Need for networking ; Packet switching techniques ; Communication channels, Twisted pair cables, Coaxial cables, Optical Fibers, microwave, radiowave, Satellite link.
Nodes, Links, Connectivity, Different topologies -Bus , Circular, Star, Tree, Concepts of Lan, Wan, Man, Protocol, internetworking, Backbone Network; Modem;
Application Level-Remote Login (Telnet), File Transfer (FTP), Electronic Mail, (e-mail)
INTERNET RELATED TERMINOLOGY
World Wide Web (WWW), WebSite, WebPages, URL, Web Address, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), extended Markup Language (XML), Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language (DHTML), Downloading and Uploading files from/on the Web, Web Browsers, Chat Service , Video conferencing, ecommerce, Usenet, Firewall, TCP/IP connection, ISP.
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