PTU Jalandhar CET Chemistry Syllabus
ATOMS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Measurements in Chemistry (Significant figures, S.I. Units), Mole concept, Nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr model, line spectra ( a brief idea). In adequacy of Bohr’s Model, concept of an atomic orbital, quantum numbers and its application to electronic structures of atoms).Paulo’s exclusion principle. Aufbau principle, Stability of filled an half filled orbital Configuration of transition elements in 3d series. Dual nature of particle and radiation (photoelectric effect etc.) de-Brogile equation, uncertainty principle (simple numerical problems), Hund’s rule.
PERIODIC PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS
Periodic law, long form of periodic table. Periodicity in properties like atomic radii and volume, ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity. Division of elements into s, p, d and f blocks.
CHEMICAL BONDING ANDMOLECULAR STRUCTURE
Concept of orbital overlap in bond formation, sigma and pi bonds shapes. Of molecules (VSEPR) Theory, hybridization (sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2, sp3d, sp3d2), properties of covalentcompounds, shapes of simple molecules like H2O, NH3, CH4, PF5, SF6, C2H4 and C2H2. Coordinate bond formation with a few examples, Ionic bonds; definition, factors influencing the formation of ionic compounds. An elementary treatment of metallic and hydrogen bonds. Idea of molecular orbital, bonding and anti bonding, molecular orbital picture in hydrogen and oxygen molecules only.
CHEMISTRY OF REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS
The chemistry of s and p block elements with reference to general trends in physical and chemical properties, anomalous behavior of first member of each group, diagonal relationship.
Group 1 Elements: – Alkali metals;
Group 2 Elements: – Alkali earth metals;
Group 13 Elements: – Boron family;
Group 14 Elements:- Carbon and silicon family;
Group 15 Elements:- Nitrogen family;
Group 16 Elements:- Oxygen family;
Group 17 Elements:- Halogen family; hydrogen
Group 18 Elements:- Noble gases;
Preparation and properties of a few important compounds of representative elements (like halides, oxides and oxyacids etc.)
TRANSITION METALS INCLUDING LANTHANIDES
Electronic configuration: General characteristics properties with special reference to color, magnetism, complex formation and oxidation states. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides and suplhides), Inner transition elements, general feature: Chemistry of iron, copper, silver, gold zinc and mercury (occurrence and extraction without technical details). Preparation of few compounds: Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate.
COORDINATION CHEMISTRY AND ORGANOMETALLICS
Coordination Compounds nomenclature; Isomerism in Coordination compounds; Bonding in Coordination compounds; Valence Bond Theory Application of Coordination Compounds: Compounds containing metal carbon bonds; Application of organometallics.
Energy changes during a chemical reaction. First law of thermodynamics. Concepts of internal energy and enthalpy. Application of first law of thermodynamics. Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Heat of reaction, Heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vapourisation). Numericals based on the above concepts.
Second law of Thermodynamics : Entropy, free energy, spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy and chemical equilibrium, free energy available for useful work.
Third law of Thermodynamics (concept of zero entropy only)
Law of mass action and its application to chemical equilibrium. Effect of changing the conditions of system at equilibrium-Le- chatelier’s principle. Equilibrium involving ions. Ionisation of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes acid –base equilibrium, Bronsted & Lowry’s concept of acids and bases on these concepts.
Rate of reaction-symbolic expressions, rate expression. Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction (n suitable examples). etermination of order of reaction and concentration(first order reactions only). Temperature dependence of rate constant. Activation energy, Photochemical reactions.
STATES OF MATTER
Gaseous state: Properties of a gas, gas laws, kinetic molecular theory of gases. Solid state: classification of solids, X –ray studies of crystal lattices & unit cell. Liquid state; Properties of liquids like vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
NUCLEAR & RADIOCHEMISTRY
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances: nuclear structure and nuclear properties. Nuclear reaction; radioactive disintegration series; artificial transmutation of elements. Isotopes and their uses. Radio carbon dating. Synthetic elements.
Types of solutions, Vapour pressure of solutions and Raoults’ law. Colligative properties of solutions. Calculation of molecular masses. Electrolyte solutions.
Electrolysis, electrolytic conduction ( specific, equivalent and molar conductance ) Kohlrausch law. Voltaic/galvanic cell, electrode potential and electromotive force, Gibbs free energy and cell potential. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (Nernst Equation). Electrode potential and electrolysis. Some commercial cells (batteries and fuel cells ). Corrosion.
SURFACE AND CATALYSIS
Absorption, colloids, emulsions, micelles, modern developments. Interfaces, STEM and technology. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, structure of a catalyst. Structure of a catalyst.
CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS INTRODUCTION TO CARBON COMPOUNDS
Elemental Carbon. Inorganic compounds of carbon (oxides, and carbides).
Alkanes : sp3-hybridization, sigma bond, chain isomerism. Alkanes sp2 hybridization, carboncarbon double bond, sigma and bi-bonds. Planer molecular of ethylene, cistranes isomerism. Alkeynes: sphybridization C (C,linear molecule of acetylene) Arenes: Delocalisation of electronics in benzene, Resonance structure of benzene:o.m.p. –isomers. Systematic nomenclature of organic compounds.
PREPERATION AND PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBONS
Source of hydrocarbons (composition of coal and petroleum; hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum, cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline- octane number; gasoline additives). Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and carboxylic acids). Laboratory preparation of alkynes (Preparation from alcohol and alkyl halides). Laboratory preparation of alkynes (Preparation from calcium carbide and acetylene). Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting points, solubility and density). Reactions of hydrocarbons, (oxidation, additions, substitutions and miscellaneous reactions).
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZA- TION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography), Qualitative analysis of elements. Quantitative analysis(estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen). Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s Method). Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae from weight percentage data of elements and molecular weight.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BASED ON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS HALIDES AND HYDROXY COMPOUNDS
Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl group; haloarens; alcohols and phenols; correlation of physical properties and uses. A few important polyhalogen compounds- chloroforms, carbon tetrachloride, DDT, benzene hexachloride. Polyhydric compounds; ethane1.2- diol. Propane 1, 2, 3, triol.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BASED ON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS-I
Ethers, aldehdes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives: Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Acylhalides, acid anhydride, amides and esters, methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties & uses.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BASED ON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS-II
Nitrogen com[pounds. A brief description of the chemistry of the carbon compounds containing nitrogen(cyanides, isocynides, nitro-compounds and amines) and their methods of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reaction, uses.
SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL POLYMERS
Classification of polymers, some important natural and synthetic polymers ( with stress on their general methods of preparation); some common examples and their important uses. Bio-Chemistry: (structures of complicated molecules excluded) Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides. Aminoacids and Peptides : Structure and classification, properties of aminoacids and peptides, biologically important peptides.
Proteins and enzymes : Structure of proteins, some important proteins, enzymes. Nucleic Acids : Chemical properties of nucleic acids. Biological functions of nucleic acids, protein synthesis Lipids : Classification, structure and function.
Evolution : Chemical evolution, origin of life. Chemistry of Biological Processes
Elementary ideas of Chemistry of Digestion, respiration. Haemoglobin and blood, photosynthesis Immune System. Hormones, Chemistry of some important diseases.
CHEMISTRY IN ACTION
A descriptive account of chemistry involved in the use of important chemicals in every day life such as : Dyes, chemicals in medicines, polymers and fibres, plant growth hormone, pheromones, fertility contraceptives; Materials: Ceramics.
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