NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGY
Its relation with other sciences, common techniques and instruments used in biological studies, why to study Biology, Scientific method.
CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE
As a basic unit-the cell as a self-contained unit; Unicellular & multicellular organisms; flow of energy and information, compartmentalization for cellular life; structure of eucaryotic cells. Cellular pool ; Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of none and oligosaccharides, lipids, amono acids, nucleotides, water, minerals Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Unit membrane concept, fluid mosaic model, membranc transport, exocytosis and enocytosis-memberane and cellular movement, Light and electron microscopic structure of cell; cell organelles and their functions-nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast,endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, ribosomes, cell wall, cilia & flagella, centriole, vacuoles, cell inclusions. Fermentation, biological oxidation, glycolysis and Krebs cycle ( flow chart only). Mitochondrial electron transport chaing, high energy bounds and oxidative phosphorylation.
Cell cycle, processes of mitosis and meiosis.
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phytogeny; shortcomings fo a two –kingdom classification-plants and animals, status of viruses and bacteriophage; the fivekingdom classification, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Concept of species, taxon and hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature, principles of classification and nomenclature. Eucaryotic unicellular organisms, Sexual and asexual reproduction in protista ( brief outline only), flagella and cilia as locomotory organs of protista, examples of common protista, diatoms, dinoflageiiates, slim moulds, protozoans; symbiotic forms. Zygomycetes, Ascomycets, Basidiomycetes and lichens. Complex autotrophs, red, brown and green algae ( Chalamydomonas, spirogyra). Conquest of land; bryophytes ( Funaria), ferns ( Dryopteris), gymnospers ( Pinus) and angiospersms. Animal body pattern and symmetry; Body cavity in invertebrate and vertebrate phyla, Salient features with reference to habitat and examples of phyla-porifera , coelenterata, helminthes, annelids; mollusca, arthropoda, echinoderms; chordata-( classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals ) highlighting major characters ( Morphological notes on examples of different phyla of animals are not required)
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION-PLANT LIFE
Morphology and functions of root, stem, leaf and their modifications, Tissue system in flowering plants-meristematic and permanent; Water relation of plant cells, water potential, absorption and transport of water in plants, root pressure; ascent of sap, transpirationand stomatal mechanism. Plant nutrition : I) Photosynthesis : Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation, photorespiration. II) special modes of nutrition in plants. Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, structure and function of flower, inflorescence, development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization, development of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruit, seed dispersal. Plant growth : Hormones and growth regulation, role of plant harmones in relation to seed dormancy, germination, apical dominance, senescence and abscission, Agricultural uses of synthetic growth regulators, brief account of phytocrome as photomorphogenetic pigment.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – ANIMAL LIFE
Animal tissues : epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous. Animal nutrition : digestive system and digestive processes in man, absorption or products and egestion I man. Gas exchange and transport : Pulmonary gas exchange in humans and organs involved, transport of gases in blood. Circulation of body fluids : Closed (human) and open ( prawn) blood vascular systems.Structure and pumpind action of heart, pulmonary and systemic circulation. Heart rate and pulse, blood pressure, Autorhythmicity of heart beat, lymph Excretion and Osmoregulation : Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, Uricotelism, Excretory organs in man, composition and formation of urine. Role of kidney in osmoreguation. Nervous coordination and Receptors : Components of human nervous system, structure and function of brain and spinal cord. Transmission of nerve, impulse, reflex action. Basic physiology ( Structure and functions of sense organs) Hormonal Co-ordination : Endocrine organs in humans, hormones & their functions, diseases caused by hormonal imbalance, roles of hormones as messengers & regulators-hypotahalamo-axis, feedback control. Animal reproduction and development : Asexual and sexual reproduction, reproductive organs of human male and female, gametogenesis and differentiation of gametes, reproductive cycle in the human female, chemical and physical features of fertilization. Development of zygote up to three germinal layers, fate of germ layers. Ageing : Morphological, physiological, cellular and extra cellular changes, theories of ageing, biological meaning of death.
CONTINUITY OF LIFE
Heredity and variation : Introduction I) Mendel’s experiments and idea of factors II) Mendel’s law of inheritance. Chromosomes and Chromosomal basis of inheritance ( in brief), some basic terms used in inheritance studies. III) Other pattern of inheritance, incomplete dominance, multiplegenes, linkage and crossing over, sex linked inheritance.Genetic variations-Recombination, mutation, phenotypic expression in haploid organisms.
DNA as genetic material, its replication, transcription and translation : Evidence from bacterial transformation and viral infection, structure and replication of DNA. Protein synthesis – Genetic code, transcription, translation, effect of mutations on protein synthesis. Gene expression : In prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genetic engineering.
EVOLUTION OF LIFE
Organic evolution : Inter relationship among living organisms, evidences for evolution-fossil evidences and geological time scale, morphological evidence-homologous, analogous and vestigial organs, embryological evidencesimilarities among embryos of different vertebrate classes; evidence from biogeography.
Darwin’s major contribution –Variation & Natural selection : a) Common ancestry b) natural selections as mechanism of evolution. Elementary forces of evolution.
Variation- mutation and recombination as sources of variability, role of selection, genetic basis of adaptation-lederbergs replica plating experiments, Speciation and Isolation-geographical and reproductive
APPLICATIONS OF BIOLOGY
Biofertilisers : Green manures, nitrogen fixation-symbiotic and non symbiotic.
Common Human Diseases:
a) Communicable diseases – Viral, bacterial, protozoan-diseases including STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion such as AIDS and hepatitis.
b) Immune responses – Vaccines and antisera, allergies and inflammations.
c) Non communicable diseases – inherited diseases and sex linked diseases, genetic incompatibility and genetic counselling. Cancer major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissues and organ transplantation. Human Population Growth : Problems and control, inequality of sexes, test tube babies, amminocentesis.
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