**KLE UGAIET Physics Syllabus**

**Introduction and Measurement:**

What is physics, scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology, Need for measurement, system of units –SI, fundamental and derived units. Dimensions and their applications. Orders of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurements – random and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off, Graphs, Trigonometric functions, simple ideas of differentiation and integration.

**Description of Motion in one dimension:**

Objects in motion in one dimension. Motion is a straight line, unit and direction for time and position measurement. Uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, Instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, its velocity-time graph, position time graph and formulae. General relation between position and velocity, application to uniformly accelerated motion. Acceleration in general one dimensional motion.

**Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimension:**

Vectors and scalars, vectors in two dimensions, general-vector addition and multiplication by a real number, zero-vector and its properties. Resolution of vector in a plane, rectangular components. Scalar and Vector products. Motion in two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion, general relation among position velocity-acceleration for motion in a plane-uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space.

**Laws of Motion:**

Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, some kinds of forces in nature, Third law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication, inertial and non-inertial frames.

**Work, Energy and Power:**

Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, kinetic energy, power, Elastic collision in one and two dimensions, Potential energy, gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Different forms of energy equivalence, conservation of energy.

**Rotational Motion:**

Center of mass of a two particle system, momentum conservation and center of mass motion. Center of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular moment of inertia, its physical significance, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements only).

**Gravitation:**

Acceleration due to gravity, one dimensional motion under gravity, two dimensional motions under gravity. Inversal law of gravitation, inertia and gravitational mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, gravitational potential, escape velocity.

**Heat and Thermodynamics:**

Specific heat, specific heat at constant, volume and pressure of ideal gas, relation between them, first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state, equation of state and isothermal, pressure-temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of Thermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines: Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity, black body radiation, Wien’s law, Stefan’s law. Newton’s law of cooling.

**Oscillations:**

Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring, Kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., simple pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance and damped oscillations.

**Waves:**

Wave motion, speed of wave motion, principle of super-positions, reflection of waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only) standing waves and normal modes and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect. Musical scale, acoustics of building.

**Electrostatics:**

Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, elementary unit, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, dipole field and dipoles 1 behavior in an uniform (2- dimensional) electric field, flux, Gauss’s law in simple geometric, Conductors and insulator, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectric(concept only), Capacitance (parallel plate) series and parallel, energy and capacitor, high voltage generators, atmospheric electricity.

**Current Electricity:**

Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f.(cells: simple, secondary, chargeable), electric current resistance of different materials, temperature dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, color code of carbon resistance, Ohm’s law, Kisrchoff’s law, resistance in series and parallel, series and parallel circuits, Wehetston’s bridge, measurement of voltages and currents potentiometer.

**Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents:**

Electric power, heating effects of current, chemical effects and law of electrolysis, simple concepts of thermoelectricity, thermocouple.

**Magnetic Effect of Currents:**

Oersted’s observation, Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field due to a current element), magnetic field due a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field(Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torque on currents in a magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.

**Magnetism:**

Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoids), lines of force, torque on a bar magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer, para, di and ferromagnetism (simple idea).

**Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:**

Induction e.m.f., Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s law, induction, self and mutual inductance, alternating currents, impedance and reactance, power in a.c., electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil, generators, simple motors, choke and starter).

**Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment):**

Electromagnetic oscillations, some history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose, Marconi) Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet, x-rays, alpha, beta and gama rays) including elementary facts about their uses and propagation, properties of atmosphere with respect to various parts of electromagnetic spectrum.

**Ray Optics and Optical Instruments:**

Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, optical fiber, curved mirrors, lenses, mirror and lens formulae, Dispersion by a prism, spectrometer and spectra-absorption and emission, scattering, rainbow, Magnification and resolving power, telescope (astronomical), microscope.

**Electrons and Photons:**

Discovery of electron,e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases, particle nature of light, Eienstein’s photocelectric equation, photo cells.

**Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei:**

Rutherford model of the atom, Bhor model, energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum, composition of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, size of nucleus, radioactivity, Mass energy relation, nuclear fission and fusion, nuclear holocaust.

**Solids and Semiconductor Devices:**

Crystal structure – Unit cell, single, poly and liquid crystal (concepts only) Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, PN junction, diodes, junction transistor, diode as rectifier, transistor as a amplifier, and oscillator, logic gate and combination of gates.

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