Atoms Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic:
Measurement in Chemistry (significant figures, SI unit, Dimensional analysis).Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements, and purification).Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulas). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).
Elements, their Occurrence and extraction:
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, Elements in sea, extraction of metals (metallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification).Mineral wealth of India, Qualitative’ test of metals.
States of Matter:
Gaseous state (measurable properties of gases,Boyle’s Law, Charles ‘Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure). Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of a gas, deviation form ideal behavior). The solid state (classification of solids X-Ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals).Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface Tension, Viscosity).
Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron, nuclear model of the atom).Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bhor’s model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle).
Chemical Families-Period Properties:
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (Representative elements-s and p block elements, inner transition elements-d inner transition element-f-block elements).Periodic trends in properties (Ionization energy, electron, affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory).Quantum theory of the covalent rbond (Hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds). Coordinate covalent bond (Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state (Ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals).Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Carbons and its compounds:
Elemental carbon, carbon compounds, Inorganic compounds of carbon (Oxides of carbon, halides, carbides). Organic compounds, Nomenclature of organic compounds (Hydrocarbons, functional groups).Some common organic compounds (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkyles, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Halides, Acids, Nitro compounds and amines).
Energy changes during a chemical reaction. Internal energy and Enthalpy (Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes,Orgin of Enthalpy change in reaction, Hess’s low of constant heat summation, numerical based on these concepts).Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat effusion and vaporization).Sources if energy (Conservation of energy sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source). What decides the direction of a spontaneous change in a chemical reaction? (An elementary idea of free energy change). Why energy crisis if energy is conserved in nature.
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid-gas equilibria, equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes). Equilibria Involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems).Effect of chaining conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of temperature, change of concentration, effect of catalyst-Le Chat liar’s principle). Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numerical based on these concepts).
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solution-electro chemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation & numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (Rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Rates of Chemical Reactions:
Rate of reaction: Instantaneous rate of a reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reaction (factors effecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concepts of activation energy, catalysis ).Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions.
Chemistry of Heavier Metals:
Iron (occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper, silver, and gold (occurrence and extraction’s properties and uses, compound – sulphides, halides, and sulphates, photography). Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compound-oxides, halides, sulphides and sulphates). Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties, uses, compounds-oxides, sulphides, halides).
Structure and Shape(s) of Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation) Stereo Isomerism and chairality (origin of chairality, optical relation, recemic mixture). Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans). Alkyles. Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).
Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons:
Sources of Hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum, cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline- octane number, gasoline additives). Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and carboxylic acids). Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohls, alkyl halides). Laboratory preparation of alkyles (preparation from calcium carbide and acetylene).x Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting points, solubility and density). Reactions of hydrocarbons 9 (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions).
Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds:
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography) Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen sulphur, phosphorus and halogens). Quantitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen). Determination of molecular mass (victor Mayer’s method, volumetric method). Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
The Molecules of Life
The cell. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disacharides and polysacharides). Proteins (amino acids, peptide bond, structure of proteins, tertiary structure of proteins and denaturation, enzymes). Nucleic acids (structure, the double helix, biological function of nucleic acid, viruses).
Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
Atoms-dual nature of matter and radiation. The uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers Shapes of orbitals, Electronic configuration of atoms. Molecules: Molecular orbital method. Hybridization, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
The Solid State:
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close – packed structures. Ionic – radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point defects only). Properties of solids. Amorphous solids.
The Gaseous state:
Ideal gas equation-kinetic theory (fundamentals only).
Types of solution, Vapor-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concept-stoichemistry, volumetric analysis, concentration unit.
First law of thermodynamics: Internal energy, Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics: Entropy, Free energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for useful work. Third law of thermodynamics
Electrolytic conduction. Voltage cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis. Primary cells including fuel cells. Corrosion.
Rate expression. Order of reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rate and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and concentration, (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photo chemical reactions.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group -1
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds)
Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxylgroups:haloalkanes, haloareness; alcohols and phenols. Correlation of physical properties and uses. Preparation, properties and uses of following: Polyhalogen compounds:Chloroform, idoform Polyhydric compounds. Ethane 1,2 –diol; Propane – 1,2,3 triol. Structure and reactivity – (a) induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrohiles and Meneophiles.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group –II:
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives). Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, (acylhalides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters). General methods of preparation , correlation of physical properties with their structure, chemical uses.
(Note: Specific compounds should not be stressed for the purpose of evaluation)
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Groups III:
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)
Nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides; nitro compounds and amines and their methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reactions uses.
Chemistry of Representative Elements:
Periodic properties – Trends in groups and periods (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points c) Carbonates and Sulphates – sikyvukutt, The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:
Group 1 elements –Alkali metals
Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements – Boron family group
14 elements – Carbon family Group
15 elements –Nitrogen family Group
16 elements – Oxygen family group
17 elements – Halogen family Group
18 elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen.
Transition Metals including Lanthanides:
Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halide and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Group wise discussion). Preparation of Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate. Inner transition elements: General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and Lanthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics:
Coordination compounds; Nomenclature : isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds; Stability of coordination compounds; application of coordination compounds; Compounds containing metal-carbon bond; Application of organometallics.
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear structure and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their uses; Radio carbon-dating; Synthetic elements.
Synthetic and Natural Polymers:
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon – 66, terylene. Environmental pollution – pollutants –services-check and alternatives.
Colloids-(preparation and general properties) Emulsions, Micelles.
Catalysis: Homogenous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.
Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides.
Amino Acids and Peptides – Structure and classification.
Proteins and Enzymes – structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes.
Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA
Biological functions of Nucleic acids- Proteins synthesis and replication.
Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry of Biological Process. Carbohydrate and their Metabolism, Hemoglobin blood and respiration; Immune system; Vitamins and hormones. Simple idea of chemical evolution.
Chemistry in Action
Dyes, chemicals in medicines, Rocket propellents. (Structural formulae non-evaluative).
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