Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts:
Measurement in chemistry (Precision, significant figures, S.I. units, Dimensional analysis). Laws of chemical combination. Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, mole concept, Molar Mass, determination of Molecular formula. Chemical equation, stoichiometry of Chemical reactions.
Unit 2 : States of Matter
Gaseous state, measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressures.Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas), deviation form ideal behaviour. The solid state ( classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Imperfection in solids, electrical, magnetic and dielectic properties of solids. Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity).
Unit 3 : Atomic Structure
Constituents of the atom (discovery of electron, rutherford model of the atom). Electronics structure of atoms-nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, bohr’s model of hydrogen, hortcomings of the bohr model. Dual nature of matter and radiation. de-Broglie relation. The uncertainty principle, Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom, Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion principle, Hund’s Rule, Electronics Configuration of atoms.
Unit 4 : Solutions
Types of solutions, Units of concentration, Vapourpressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Determination of molecular mass. Nonideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
Unit 5 : Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics
Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy, Internal energy and Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts. Enthalpies of reactions (Enthalpy of neutralization, Enthalpy of combustion, Enthalpy of fusion and vaporization). Sources of energy(conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source) First law of thermodynamics; Relation between Internal energy and Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: Entropy, Gibbs energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, Gibbs energy change and chemical equilibrium, Gibbs energy available for useful work.
Unit 6 : Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibria involving physical changes ( solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solids in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes) Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems). Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle). Equilibria involving ions- ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH scale, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts.
Unit 7 : Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer concept. Redox reactions in aqueous solutionselectrochemical cells. e.m.f. of a galvanic cell. Dependence of e.m.f. on concentration and temperature ( NERNST equation and numerical problems based on it ).Electrolysis, Oxidation number (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number, nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations. Electrolytic conduction. Molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and its applications, Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s energy change and cell potential. Electrode potential and products of electrolysis, Fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention.
Unit 8 : Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions- factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy catalyst. Effect of light of rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions? Rate law expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples).Units of rates and specific rate constant. Order of reaction and effect of concentration ( study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction ( only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Unit 9 : Surface Chemistry
Surface : Adsorption – physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption isotherms. Colloids-Preparation and general properties, Emulsions, Micelles. Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst, Enzymes, Zeolites.
Unit 10 : Chemical Families Periodic properties
Modern periodic law, Types of elements – Representatives elements ( s & p block, Transition elements – d-block elements, inner transition elements-f-block elements. Periodic trends in properties-ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Unit 11: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure, shapes of molecules ( VSEPR theory), Quantum theory of the covalent bond, hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds. Coordinate covalent bond, ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals. Hydrogen bond, Resonance. Molecules : Molecular orbital. Theory-bond order and magnetic properties of H2,O2,N2,F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals (including shapes of simple organic molecules), Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
Unit 12 : Chemistry of Non-Metals – 1
Hydrogen (unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses), Hydrides-molecular, soline and interstitial Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses),simple oxides; ozone Water and hydrogen peroxide, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen- Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen-Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid-preparation, properties and uses.
Unit 13: Chemistry of Non-metals-II
Boron-occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds. Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon-oxides,halides, carbides, elemental carbon.Silicon- occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertilizers. Sulphur – occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid –preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate. Halogens- occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens. Noble gases- discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses.
Unit 14 : Chemistry of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium- occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds-NaCl, Na2CO3,NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI,KOH. Magnesium and calcium-occurrence and extraction,properties and uses. Important compounds Mgcl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2,CaCO3, CaSO4, Plaster of paris, Bleaching Powder. Aluminium –occurrence, extraction properties and uses, compounds-AlCI3, alums. Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Unit 15 :- Heavy Metals
Iron – Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper and Silver- occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds-sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography.Zinc and Mercury- occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates. Tin and Lead- occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds-oxides, sulphides, halides.
Unit 16: Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties- Trends in groups and periods a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates-solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronics configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:-
Group 1 elements – Alkali metals
Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements – Boron family
Group 14 elements – Carbon family
Group 15 elements – Nitrogen family
Group 16 elements – Oxygen family
Group 17 elements – Halogen family
Group 18 elements – Noble gases & Hydrogen
Unit 17 : Transition Metals Including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration : General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of a second and third row transition elements ( Groupwise discussion). Preparation and reactions, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. Inner Transition Elements: General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and lanthanide contraction.
Unit 18 : Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics
Coordination compounds, Nomenclature: Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.
Unit 19 : Nuclear Chemistry
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear reactions; Radio-active disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating.
Unit 20: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography). Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis- estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus ( basic principles only) Determination of molecular mass-Silver salt method, cholroplatinate salt method Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
Unit 21 : Some Basic Principles
Classification of Organic Compounds. Tetravalency of Carbon, Homologous series. Functional groups- – C=C-,-C C-,and groups containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. General introduction to naming organic compounds-Common names and IUPAC nomenclature of alphatic, aromatic and Cyclic Compounds. Illustration with examples of Compounds having not more than three same of different functional groups/ atoms. Isomerism- Structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical). Chirality-Isomerism in Compounds having one and two chiral Centres. Enantiomers, diastereoisomers, recemic forms, recemisation & resolution. Covalent bond fission-Homolytic and Heterolytic: free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles. Electron displacement in a covalent bond-inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Illustration with examples.
Unit:- 22 Hydrocarbons
Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons: Alkanes- General methods of preparation (from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes, ketones and carburoxylic acids). Physical properties and reactions (Substitution), Oxidation and miscellaneous). Conformations of alkanes(ethane, popane butane) and cyclohexane, sawhorse and Newman projections)-mechanism of halogaration of alkanes. Alkanes and Alkynes- General methods of preparation physical peorperties, Chemical reactions-Mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes-Markowni Koff’s Rule, peroxide effect. Acidic character of alkynes.
Polymerisation of alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons- Benzene and its homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of benzene. Structure of benzene, resonance. Directive influence of substituents. Petroleum – Hydro Carbons from Petroleum, Cracking and forming, quality of gasoline-Octane number, gasoline additives.
Unit 23:- Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
( Haloakanes and Haloarenes) Methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions. Preparation, properties and uses of Chloroform and lodoform.
Unit 24:- Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid -their important methods of preparation and reactions. Acidity of carboxylic acids and phenol effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids.
Unit 25 :- Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)Nomenclature and classification of amines, cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their methods of preparation; correlation of their physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses- Basicity of amines.
Unit 26:- Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification on Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers ( with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following. Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene, Bakelite)
Unit 27 :- Bio Molecules and Biological Processes
The Cell and Energy Cycle Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, PolysaccharidesAmino acids and Peptides- Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes-Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids-DNA and RNA Biological functions of Nucleic acids-Protein synthesis and replication. Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Unit 28:- Chemistry In Action
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines ( antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilisers), Rocket propellants. ( Structural formulae non-evaluative)
Unit 29 :- Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, Ozone and its reactions causing ozone layer depletion, effects of the depletion of ozone layer, industrial air pollution.
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