Some basic concepts: Measurement in chemistry (precision, significant figures, SI units, Dimensional analysis). Laws of chemical combination. Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, mole concept, Molar Mass, determination of Molecular formula. Chemical equation, stoichiometry of Chemical reactions.
States of Matter: Gaseous state, measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas), deviation from ideal behaviour.
The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Imperfection in solids, electrical, magnetic and dielectic properties of solids. Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity)
Atomic Structure: Constituents of the atom (discovery of electron, Rutherford model of the atom).
Electronic structure of atoms – nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr’s model of hydrogen, shortcomings of the Bohr model
Dual nature of matter and radiation. De-Brogile relation. The uncertainty principle, Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom, Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule, Electronic Configuration of atoms.
Solutions: Types of solutions, Unit of concentration, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Determination of molecular mass. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics: Energy changes during a chemical reaction, internal energy and Enthalpy, Internal energy and Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts. Enthalpies of reactions (Enthalpy of neutralization, Enthalpy of combustion, Enthalpy of fusion and vaporization)
Sources of energy (conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source).
First law of thermodynamics; relation between internal energy and Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics: Entropy, Gibbs energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, Gibbs energy change and chemical equilibrium, Gibbs energy available for useful work.
Chemical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solids in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes).
Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems)
Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle).
Equilibria involving ions – ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH scale, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts.
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry: Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer concept. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (NERNST equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation number (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number, nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Electrolytic conduction. Molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and its applications, Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s energy change and cell potential. Electrode potential and products of electrolysis, Fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention.
Rates of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics: Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions – factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalyst. Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions?
Rate law expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Surface Chemistry: Surface: Adsorption – Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption isotherms colloids – Preparation and general properties, Emulsions, Micelles Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst, Enzymes, Zeolites.
Chemical Families – Periodic Properties: Modern periodic law, types of elements – Representative elements (s & p block), Transition elements –d-block elements, inner transition elements – f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties – ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure: Chemical bonds and Lewis structure, shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond, hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds.
Coordinate covalent bond, ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, resonance.
Molecules: Molecular orbital. Theory – bond order and magnetic properties of H2, O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals (including organic molecules), Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
Chemistry of Non-Metals – I: Hydrogen (unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses), Hydrides – molecular, soline and interstitial Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses), simple oxides; ozone. Water and hydrogen peroxide, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide – preparation, properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen – Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen – Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid – preparation, properties and uses.
Chemistry of Non-Metals – II: Boron – occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds. Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon – oxides, halides, carbides, elemental carbon. Silicon – occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertilizers. Sulphur – occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid – preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate. Halogens – occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens. Noble gases – discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses.
Chemistry of Lighter Metals: Sodium and Potassium – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds – NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI, KOH. Magnesium and calcium – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4, plaster of paris, Bleaching Powder. Aluminium – occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds – AlCl3, alums. Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Heavy Metals: Iron – occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper and silver – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography. Zinc and Mercury – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates Tin and Lead – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – oxides, sulphides, halides.
Chemistry of Representative Elements: Periodic properties – Trends in groups and periods (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates – solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following: Group 1 elements – Alkali metals Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals Group 13 elements – Boron family Group 14 elements – Carbon family Group 15 elements – Notrogen family Group 16 elements – Oxygen family Group 17 elements – Halogen family Group 18 elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen.
Transition Metals including Lanthanides: Electronic configuration: General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Group wise discussion). Preparation and reactions, properties and uses of Potassium dichromate and Potassium permanganate.
Inner Transition Elements: General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and lanthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics: Coordination compounds, Nomenclature: Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.
Nuclear Chemistry: Nature of radiations from radioactive substances. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their applications: Radio carbon-dating.
Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds: Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography). Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis – estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus (basic principles only) Determination of molecular mass – Silver salt method, cholroplatinate salt method, Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
Some Basic Principles: Classification of Organic compounds. Tetravalency of carbon, Homologous series. Functional group –C = C-, -C C- and groups containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. General introduction to naming organic compounds – common names and IUPAC nomenclature of alphatic, aromatic and Cyclic compounds. Illustration with examples of Compounds having not more than three same or different functional groupds/atoms. Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical). Chirality – Isomerism in Compounds having one and two chiral centres. Enantiomers, diastereoisomers, racemic forms, recemisation and resolution. Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and Heterolytic: free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles. Electron displacement in a covalent bond – inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance. Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reaction. Illustrations with examples.
Hydrocarbons: Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons: Alkanes – General methods of preparation (from unsatmated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes, ketones and carburoxylic acids). Physical properties and reactions (Substitution, oxidation and miscellaneous). Conformations of alkanes (ethane, popane butane) and cyclohexane, sawhorse and Newman projections) – mechanism of halogaration of alkanes. Alkanes and Alkynes – General methods of preparation physical properties, Chemical reactions – Mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes – Markowni Koff’s Rule, peroxide effect. Acidic character of alkynes. Polymerisation of alkenes. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Benzene and its homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of benzene. Structure of benzene, resonance. Directive influence of substituents. Petroleum – HydroCarbons from Petroleum, Cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline – Octane number, gasoline additives.
Organic compounds containing Halogens: (Haloalkanes and Haloarenes), Methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions, Preparation, properties and uses of Chloroform and Iodoform.
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen: General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde and Benzoic acid – their important methods of preparation and reactions. Acidity of carboxylic acids and phenol effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen (Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines) Nomenclature and classification of amines, cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their methods of preparation; correlation of their physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses -basicity of amines.
Synthetic and Natural Polymers: Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following: Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene, Bakelite.
Bio Molecules and Biological Processes: The Cell and Energy Cycle, Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Amino acids and Peptides – Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA, Biological functions of Nucleic acids – Protein synthesis and replication, Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry in Action: Dyes, Chemicals in medicines (antipyretic, analgesic, antibiotics and transquilisers), Rocket propellants. (Structural formulae non-evaluative)
Environmental Chemistry: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, Ozone and its reactions causing ozone layer depletion, effects of the depletion of ozone layer, industrial air pollution.
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