NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Important Question Answers

Popular Struggles and Movements Important Question Answers – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Political Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Multiple Choice Questions 1 Mark Each

 

CHOOSE THE MOST APPROPRIATE OPTION.

  1. When did the popular movement for democracy emerge in Nepal?
  1. 2000
  2. 2003
  3. 2006
  4. 2009

Answer – C. 2006

 
 

 

  1. Nepal won democracy in the ________ wave.
  1. First 
  2. Second 
  3. Third 
  4. Fourth 

Answer – C. Third 

 

  1. When had Nepal won democracy for the first time?
  1. 1990
  2. 1999
  3. 2001
  4. 2003

Answer – A. 1990

 

  1. Which Nepali king was not prepared to accept democratic rule?
  1. King Birendra 
  2. King Gyanendra 
  3. King Surendra 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – B. King Gyanendra 

 

  1. What is the dull form of SPA?
  1. Special Party Alliance 
  2. Supreme Party Alliance 
  3. Seven Party Alliance 
  4. Surging Party Alliance

Answer – C. Seven Party Alliance 

 

  1. What is the capital of Nepal?
  1. Janakpur
  2. Biratnagar
  3. Pokhara
  4. Kathmandu 

Answer – D. Kathmandu

 

  1. King Birendra was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in the year – 
  1. 1999
  2. 2000
  3. 2001
  4. 2002

Answer – C. 2001

 

  1. When did king Gyanendra dismiss the then PM and dissolve the democratically elected government in Nepal?
  1. 1999
  2. 2001
  3. 2005
  4. 2006

Answer – C. 2005

 

  1. The 2006 movement in Nepal demanded_________
  1. Establishment of democracy 
  2. Restoration of democracy 
  3. Establishment of monarchy 
  4. Restoration of monarchy 

Answer – B. Restoration of democracy 

 

  1. When was the Nepal king served the ultimatum?
  1. 5 April 2005
  2. 5 April 2006
  3. 21 April 2005
  4. 21 April 2006

Answer – 21 April 2006

 

  1. Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen as the new ______ of the interim government. 
  1. President 
  2. Governor 
  3. Prime Minister
  4. Representative 

Answer – C. Prime Minister 

 

  1. Both of whom came to an understanding about the constitution of the Constituent Assembly?
  1. The SPA and Maoists
  2. The PM and SPA
  3. The people and the SPA
  4. The Maoists and the people

Answer – A. The SPA and the Maoists

 

  1. Which of the following organisation supported the Nepalese struggle but did not believe in parliamentary democracy?
  1. SPA 
  2. The socialist party 
  3. The communist party (Maoist)
  4. The democratic party 

Answer – B. The Communist party (Maoist)

 

  1. When did Nepal finally become a federal democratic republic?
  1. 1990
  2. 2005
  3. 2006
  4. 2008

Answer- D. 2008

 

  1. When did Nepal adopt a new constitution?
  1. 2006
  2. 2008
  3. 2015
  4. 2013

Answer – C. 2015

 

  1. Mao was a leader of which revolution?
  1. Korean 
  2. Nepalese
  3. Russian
  4. Chinese

Answer – D. Chinese

 

  1. Maoists seek to establish the rule of _________
  1. Soldiers 
  2. Peasants 
  3. Workers 
  4. Both B. and C. 

Answer – D. Both B. and C. 

 

  1. People in Bolivia struggled ___________
  1. For Restoration of democracy 
  2. Against Privatisation of water 
  3. For Privatisation of water 
  4. For establishment of democracy 

Answer – B. Against privatisation of water 

 

  1. Bolivia is a country in:
  1. Europe 
  2. North America 
  3. Latin America 
  4. Asia 

Answer – C. Latin America 

 

  1. Which international institution pressurised the Bolivian government to give up its control of municipal water supply?
  1. International Monetary Fund 
  2. United Nations General Assembly 
  3. A Multi National Company 
  4. The World Bank 

Answer – D. The World Bank 

 

  1. After privatisation of water in Cochabamba, prices were increased by_______
  1. two times 
  2. four times 
  3. Halved 
  4. 3 times 

Answer – B. Four Times 

 

  1. When was the Bolivian water War over?
  1. 2002
  2. 2001
  3. 2000
  4. 2010

Answer – C. 2000

 

  1. The democratic struggles in Nepal and Bolivia involved:
  1. Mass Mobilisation 
  2. Judiciary procedure 
  3. Peaceful negotiations
  4. None of the above 

Answer – A. Mass Mobilisation

 

  1. Choose the incorrect statement 
  1. The MNC increased the water-prices by 4 times.
  2. Average monthly income in Bolivia is around Rs 5000
  3. Martial law was imposed in Bolivia 
  4. Average monthly income in Bolivia is around Rs 1000

Answer- D. Average monthly income in Bolivia is around Rs 1000

 

  1. Democracy evolves through:
  1. Popular struggles 
  2. Power sharing 
  3. Both of the above 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – A. popular struggles

 

  1. When do the moments of conflict come in   democracy?
  1. During a transition to democracy 
  2. During expansion of democracy 
  3. During deepening of democracy 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above

 

  1. Defining moments in a democracy usually involve________ between those who have exercised power and those who want a share in power.
  1. Negotiation
  2. Violence 
  3. War 
  4. Conflict 

Answer – D. Conflict

 

  1. In case of a deep dispute in a democracy, resolution comes from:
  1. Parliament 
  2. Judiciary 
  3. Mass mobilisation
  4. None of the above 

Answer – C. Mass mobilisation

 

  1. Which of the following is an agency of organised politics?
  1. Political parties 
  2. Pressure groups 
  3. Movement groups 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. Who called for an indefinite strike in Nepal?
  1. The SPA 
  2. The Maoists
  3. The Naxalites
  4. The ruling monarch 

Answer – A. The SPA

 

  1. When did the socialist party come to power in Bolivia?
  1. 2001
  2. 2005
  3. 2003
  4. 2006

Answer – D. 2006

 

  1. The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was led by_______
  1. A political party 
  2. An organisation
  3. The socialist party 
  4. The World Bank 

Answer – B. An organisation

 

  1. Pressure groups are also known as:
  1. Political parties 
  2. Interest groups 
  3. Both above 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – B. Interest groups

 

  1. The struggle in Nepal was called a movement for __________
  1. Freedom 
  2. Independence 
  3. Democracy 
  4. Monarchy 

Answer – C. Democracy 

 

  1. The FEDECOR is an example of a 
  1. Promotional group 
  2. Sectional interest group 
  3. Public interest group 
  4. Both A. and C. 

Answer – D. Both A. and C.

 

  1. There are ________ types of interest groups.
  1. Two 
  2. Three 
  3. One 
  4. None of the above 

Answer- A. two 

 

  1. What is the capital of Indonesia?
  1. Phnom Penh 
  2. Manila 
  3. Jakarta 
  4. Kuala Lumpur 

Answer – C. Jakarta

 

  1. The Sardar Sarovar Dam is built on which of the following rivers?
  1. Tapi 
  2. Gomti 
  3. Narmada
  4. Godavari 

Answer – C. Narmada

 

  1. Which of the following is the name of the Bolivian organisation that led the protest against water privatisation?
  1. BAMCEF 
  2. SPA
  3. FEDECOR
  4. INC

Answer – C. FEDECOR 

 

  1. The city of Cochamamba is associated with:
  1. Indonesian Farmer’s movement 
  2. Bolivian water war 
  3. Nepalese struggle of democracy
  4. Narmada Bachao Andolan 

Answer – B. Bolivian water war 

 

  1. Which political party supported the protest against water privatization in Bolivia?
  1. SPA
  2. The FEDECOR 
  3. Communist party 
  4. Socialist party 

Answer – D. Socialist Party 

 

  1. Which of the following support the collective good of the society?
  1. Social interest groups 
  2. Movements 
  3. Public interest groups 
  4. Popular struggles 

Answer – C. Public interest groups 

 

  1. Which one of these is an organisation that seeks a share in power and contests in elections?
  1. Interest groups 
  2. Pressure groups 
  3. Sectional interest groups 
  4. Political parties 

Answer – D. Political parties 

 

  1. The groups which seek to influence government policies are known as:
  1. Movement groups 
  2. Struggles 
  3. Pressure groups
  4. NGOs

Answer – C. Pressure groups 

 

  1. Environmental movement is a label for a large number of organisations and ____________ movements.
  1. Single issue
  2. Issue specific 
  3. Generic 
  4. Both A. and B.

Answer – D. Both A. and B.

 

  1. Single- issue movements have a _________ lifetime and _________ leadership.
  1. Huge, clear 
  2. Short, unclear 
  3. Huge, unclear 
  4. Short, clear 

Answer – D. short, clear

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT and organisation of organisations?
  1. NAPM
  2. FEDECOR 
  3. SPA
  4. INC 

Answer – D. INC

 

  1. Which movement has planted 30 million trees across Kenya?
  1. Green Belt Movement 
  2. Grow Green Movement 
  3. Tree Belt Movement 
  4. Green Trees Movement

Answer – A. Green Belt Movement

 

  1. Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party? 
    1. Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
    2. Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve a larger number of people. 
    3. Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do. 
    4. Pressure groups do not seek to mobilise people, while parties do.

Answer – C. Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do. 

 

  1. Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties. 
  1. Pressure groups are the organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections. 
  2. Pressure groups take positions on political issues. 
  3. All pressure groups are political parties. 

 

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. a, b and c
  2. a and b 
  3. b and c
  4. a and c

Answer – B. a and b 

 

  1. The Women’s movement is:
    1. A pressure group 
    2. A long-term movement 
    3. A single-issue movement 
    4. A political party

Answer – B. A Long-term movement 

 

  1. Fertilizer dealer’s association is an example of a __________
    1. A pressure group 
    2. A long term movement 
    3. A single issue movement 
    4. A political party

Answer – A. A pressure group 

 

  1. Narmada Bachao Andolan was a ________, initially.
    1. A pressure group
    2. A long-term movement 
    3. A single-issue movement 
    4. A political party

Answer – C.  A single issue movement

 

Related – Class 10 History, Geography and Political Science Important Questions 

 

Very Short Answer Type (1 Mark each)

 

  1. What are pressure groups?

Answer- Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.

 

  1. How are pressure groups different from political parties?

Answer- Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power; this differentiates them from political parties.

 

  1. How are interest groups formed?

Answer- Pressure groups are formed when people with common interest, occupation, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective.

 

  1. What is a movement?

Answer- Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organisational structure are called collectively as ‘movements.

 

  1. What are political parties?

Answer- Political parties are Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political power.

 

  1. Name some popular movements.

Answer- Narmada Bachao Andolan, Movement for Right to Information, Anti-liquor movement, Women’s movement and Environmental movement.

 

  1. What was the name of the organisation that led the protest in Bolivia?

Answer- The name of the organisation that led the protest in Bolivia was FEDECOR.

 

  1. What was the FEDECOR comprised of?

Answer- The FEDECOR comprised local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists, supported by a federation of farmers, the federation of factory workers’ unions, middle class students from the Cochabamba university and the city’s growing population of homeless children.

 

  1. In a democracy, in how many possible ways do different kinds of organisations work behind popular struggles?

Answer- There are two ways (direct and indirect) in which organisations work behind popular struggles.

 

  1. Mention some indirect ways in which people can get governments to listen to their demands or their perspectives.

Answer- People can do so by forming interest groups or pressure groups, undertaking activities generate awareness, or simply act together with a motive.

 

  1. How do organisations play a direct role in struggles?

Answer- The direct way is through participation in competitive politics, by creating parties, contesting elections and forming governments.

 

  1. How is a movement similar to an interest group?

Answer- Like an interest group, a movement attempts to influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition.

 

  1. How is a movement different from an interest group?

Answer- Unlike the interest groups, movements have a loose organisation. Their decision making is more informal and flexible. They depend much more on spontaneous mass participation than an interest group.

 

  1. What are Sectional Interest groups?

Answer- Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group are called as Sectional Interest groups.

 

  1. What are Public Interest Groups?

Answer- Organisations that seek to promote common or general interest are Public Interest Groups.

 

  1. What does BAMCEF stand for?

Answer- BAMCEF stand for Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation.

 

  1. What was the initial objective of the Narmada Bachao Andolan?

Answer- The movement started with the issue of the people displaced by the creation of Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada River. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed.

 

  1. Write the expanded form of NAPM.

Answer- The expanded form of NAPM is National Alliance for Peoples’ Movements.

 

  1. What all constitutes the NAPM?

Answer- Various movement groups struggling on specific issues are constituents of NAPM.

 

  1. What does the NAPM do?

Answer- NAPM coordinates the activities of a large number of peoples’ movements in our country.

 

RelatedCBSE Class 10 Poltical Science Chapter-wise Explanation, Notes, Question Answers

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each)

 

  1.  Who led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? Describe the ways of protest adopted by that organisation[CBSE 2016]

Answer – 

  1. The protest water privatisation in Bolivia was led by an organisation FEDECOR.
  2. It was comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists, and was supported by the federation of farmers, the confederation of factory workers’ unions, middle class students and city’s growing population of homeless street children supported the movement.
  3. The process of protest – In January 2000, an alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders organised a successful four-day strike. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. However, nothing happened and the agitation was started again in February, 2000. During agitation police adopted a policy of brutal repression. Martial law was imposed but ultimately people were successful in their struggle.

 

 

  1. Describe the movement for restoration of democracy in Nepal.

Answer – 

Democracy was established in Nepal in 1990. King Birendra formally remained head of the state, but real power was exercised by the elected representatives. It was a transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy. However, after the massacre of the royal family in 2001, the new King Gyanendra was not ready to accept the democratic rule. In February 2005, the King dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament and assumed all powers.

 

The popular movement started in 2006 for restoration of democracy. The SAP, Maoists and various other organisations were a part of it. They were successful as all their demands were accepted on Girja Prasad Koirala was made the prime minister of the interim 24th April 2006 government, parliament was restored and Nepal became a democracy.

 

 

  1. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement. [CBSE 2015]

Answer – 

The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world for the following reasons- 

  1. It exemplifies the power of people in a democratic nation.
  2. It shows how disputes in a democracy can be resolved when people voice themselves and there is mass mobilisation.
  3. It highlights that in a democracy, moments come when there is a conflict between those in power and those who want a share in power. They lead to expansion and deepening of democracy.

 

  1. Analyse the role of popular struggles in the development of democracy. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Answer – Democracy develops as a result of public conflicts. It’s possible that important choices will be reached by consensus and without any conflict at all. This, however, would be an exception. Conflict between groups that have used power and others who want a portion of it typically characterises democratic moments. These times occur when the nation is through a democratic transition, an extension of democracy, or a deepening of democracy.

  1. Mass mobilization is used to put an end to democratic dispute. It is sometimes feasible that the disagreement can be settled by utilising already-existing institutions like the judiciary or the legislature. But when there is a serious disagreement, it happens frequently that these institutions themselves get involved. The people must be the source of the resolution.
  2.  New political organizations serve as the foundation for these confrontations and mobilizations. True; all of these historical moments contain a certain amount of spontaneity. But structured politics help the unplanned public participation become successful. Agencies of organized politics may be numerous. Political parties, activist groups, and pressure groups are examples of these.

 

  1.  How do popular uprisings contribute to a functioning democracy? Give an example of Bolivia’s fight against water privatization

Answer – Democracy does not emerge without conflict. It follows that conflicts are a necessary component of democracy. This assertion is made in the context of Bolivia’s fight against water privatisation. Latin American nation of Bolivia is underdeveloped. The government was under pressure to relinquish management of the municipal water supply from the World Bank. As a result, the government sold the water rights to an MNC, which caused a fourfold increase in the cost of water. The public was enraged by this.

They campaigned against water privatization and eventually forced MNC officials to leave. Then, the government gave in to all of their requests. The MNC contract was terminated, and the municipality’s water supply was reinstated at previous prices. Bolivia’s Water War became renowned as a result of this. It serves as a reminder that populist uprisings are essential to democracy’s operation.

 

  1. How are ‘movements’ different from “interest groups”? Explain with examples.

[CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 2, 2017]

Answer – In the following respects, “movements” and “interest groups” differ:

(i) Interest organisations, like trade unions, business associations, medical associations, etc., work to further the interests of a specific area or group of society. While movement organisations, like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Nepalese Movement for Democracy, focus on a single goal to accomplish in a short amount of time.

(ii) Interest groups, such as the BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation), promote collective rather than specific interests, whereas movements are more general. They aim to accomplish a big goal over a very long period of time, like the women’s movement.

(iii) interest groups, like the environmental movement, are long-lasting and deal with multiple issues. Interest groups, like FEDECOR, reflect some common or general interest that needs to be protected.

 

  1. Sectional interest groups: what are they? Give two instances.

Answer – Sectional interest groups are organisations that primarily work to advance the interests of one or more specific parts or groups of society in a significant degree. Contrary to common assumption, they essentially represent a segment of society that includes workers, employees, businesspeople, industrialists, adherents of a religion, caste group, etc. Its primary interest is not society as a whole, which is highly significant, but rather the improvement and well-being of their members. Examples include trade unions and commercial organizations in a significant way.

 

  1. How is it possible to state that the Narmada Bachao Andolan was both a movement for a broad cause and a particular issue?

Answer – 

(i) The Narmada Bachao Andolan was founded to address the issue of those who had been uprooted as a result of the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River. Its goal was to prevent the dam from being built.

(ii) Gradually, it became a broader movement which questioned all such big dams and the model of development that required such dams. Basically, pointing fingers towards the contemporary development standards.

(iii) These movements frequently have a defined leadership. But they often have a brief active life.

 

  1.  ‘‘The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.’ Support the statement. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2015]

Answer – The political parties and people of Nepal basically protested King Gyanendra’s dictatorial decision in February 2005. Different ideological political parties banded together to basically defy the curfew, which is quite significant. The leaders rejected the monarch’s half-hearted compromises, and in the end, the king was forced to essentially give in to all three of the protesters\’ requests. As a result, the Second Movement for Democracy, a battle among Nepalis, inspired democratic movements around the globe.

 

  1. Give an overview of the causes and demands of Nepal’s popular movement for democracy.

Answer – In 1990, Nepal has achieved democracy for the first time. Although the monarch still held the title of head of state informally, representatives chosen by the people actually had the real power. King Birendra was assassinated in 2001 after agreeing to the change from an absolute to a constitutional monarchy.

The new king of Nepal, King Gyanendra, was not yet prepared to accept democracy. He benefited from the democratically elected government’s frailty and unpopularity. The king dissolved the elected Parliament and fired the Prime Minister in February 2005. Thus, a new campaign to wrest back popular control of the government from the king began in April 2006.

The Seven Party Alliance in Nepal made the following three main demands:

  • Restoration of Parliament
  • Power to an all-party government
  • A new constituent assembly.

 

Related Class 10 Geography MCQs

 

Source Based Questions  (1 X 4 = 4 marks each)

  1.  Look at the following image and answer the questions that follow.

 

Democratic Politics

Image credits – 

NCERT textbook in political science for class 10

Democratic Politics

 

  1.  Give any 2 examples of pressure groups.

Answer – NGOs and CII.

  1. What do sectional interest groups aim for?

Answer – they aim to promote the good of a particular section.

  1. Which interest groups aim to promote a collective rather than selective good?

Answer – Public Interest Groups

  1. Give an example of an interest group that undertook activity for benefit of others as well as themselves.

Answer – BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation)

 

  1. Look at the following image and answer the questions that follow.

 

Democratic Politics5

 

Image credits – 

NCERT textbook in political science for class 10

Democratic Politics

 

  1. Under which Act, can citizens seek information from government offices pertaining to different activities?

Answer – The Right to Information Act.

  1. When was the RTI act passed?

Answer – In the year 2005.

  1. Which organ of government is responsible for implementation of acts?

Answer – The bureaucracy is responsible for implementation of acts.

  1. Give an example of an organisation of organisations related to peoples’ movements.

Answer – NAPM (National Alliance for Peoples’ Movements).

 

Long Answer Type (5 marks each)

 

  1.  What can be inferred about democracy from popular movements and struggles like the Bolivian water war? Give more information.

Ans- 

(i) Popular uprisings are how democracies develop. There is a chance that important choices will be reached by consensus and without any conflict at all. That would be an exception, though.

(ii) Democracies are typically defined by conflict between parties that have used power and those that want a piece of it.

(iii) These times occur when the nation is through a democratic transition, an extension of democracy, or a deepening of democracy.

(iv) Democratic conflicts are settled by widespread mobilisation. It is possible that the disagreement will occasionally be settled via already-existing institutions like the Parliament or the legal system.

(v) All of these historical events have a certain amount of spontaneity, and these conflicts and mobilizations are built on new political organisations. However, organised politics help the spontaneous public participation become effective.

 

2- How do pressure organisations and movements affect politics? Describe using examples

Ans- Various pressure groups and movements have an impact on politics—

(i) They engage in information campaigns, host meetings, create petitions, and other actions to win the public’s sympathy and support for their objectives. Most of these organisations aim to persuade the media to focus on these issues more.

(ii) They frequently plan acts of protest, such as strikes or the disruption of official activities. These strategies are frequently used by labour unions, employee associations, and most movement organisations to persuade the government to pay attention to their demands.

(iii) Business organisations frequently hire lobbyists with experience or pay for pricey marketing. There may be representatives of pressure or movement groups on official committees and bodies that advise the government.

(iv) In some cases, political party officials either create the pressure organisations or serve as their leaders, or the pressure groups serve as their outposts. For instance, the majority of labour unions and student organisations in India were founded by or are connected to one of the two main political parties. Many of these pressure group leaders are often activists and party officials.

(v) Political movements may give rise to parties. For instance, the end of the student-led anti-foreigner agitation in Assam resulted in the creation of the Mom Gana Parishad.

 

3- How has the struggle of the Nepali people inspired democratic activists around the world? Explain.

Ans- I Democracy develops because of public uprisings. It is possible that important choices will be reached by consensus with no disagreements at all. This, however, would be an exception.

(ii) Conflict between groups that have used power and those that want a piece of it typically characterises democratic moments.

(iii) These times occur when the nation is through a democratic transition, a democratic expansion, or a democratic deepening.

(iv) Mass mobilisation is used to end democratic strife. Utilizing current institutions like the Parliament or the judiciary may occasionally be able to resolve the disagreement.

(v) All of these historical events have a certain amount of spontaneity, and these conflicts and mobilizations are built on new political organisations. However, organised politics help the spontaneous public participation become effective.

 

4- “Democracies around the world are inspired by the Nepali people’s battle.” Defend the assertion.

Ans- I A public campaign to restore democracy in Nepal was initiated in April 2006. The cause was that King Gyanendra, the country’s new monarch, was unwilling to submit to democratic governance under any conditions.

(ii) The Seven Party Alliance (SPA), made up of all the major political parties in the Parliament, issued a request for an ongoing strike. They received assistance from a number of groups, including Maoist militants. This initiative received a lot of support from Nepal’s common people as well.

(iii) Realizing the seriousness of the situation, the king consented to grant some of the SPA leaders’ requests. The leaders persisted in pressing for the restoration of Parliament, the establishment of an all-party government, and the creation of a new constituent assembly.

(iv) The king finally gave in to all the demands made above. Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen by the SPA to lead the transitional administration.

(v) The revived Parliament convened and approved measures stripping the king of the majority of his authority.

It is incredibly inspiring to see how Nepal’s democracy was eventually restored. People were persistent, and they eventually succeeded in achieving the objective they had been working toward. This conflict became known as Nepal’s second democratic movement.

 

5- Differentiate between Nepal’s movement and Bolivia’s popular struggle. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Ans- Conflicts in Bolivia and Nepal: Democracies nearly always entail conflicting perspectives and interests. These distinctions frequently show up in organised methods. Bolivia and Nepal fights over competing wants and constraints influenced democracy.

Movement in Nepal

(i) Nepal experienced a remarkable April 2006 saw a popular movement.

(ii) In 1990, Nepal achieved democracy. The King officially continued to lead the actual power was used in the state by the elected officials. But as soon as King Gyanendra succeeded As Nepal’s new monarch in 2001, he did not abide with democratic law. Next, people began to rebel against him and a movement to regain in April 2006 public influence over the government final message from the king accede to the requests. Consequently, the Laws and the reconstituted parliament passed to remove the majority of the King’s royal authority

 

Bolivia Water War

(i) Bolivia is a tiny, underdeveloped nation in Latin America. The government was under pressure from the World Bank to relinquish management of the municipal water supply. These rights were sold by the government to an MNC. The prices were promptly raised four times by the corporation. Serious agitation resulted from this.

Finally, the contract with MNC was terminated, and municipal water service was resumed at previous prices. 

(ii) Popular movements were carried out in various ways in both Bolivia and Nepal. While the conflict in Nepal concerned the underpinnings of the nation’s policies, it was about a single specific policy in Bolivia. Both times, large-scale mobilisation was necessary to win the battle.

 

6- Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2016]

Ans- Under pressure from the World Bank, the Bolivian government chose to privatise water supplies in Cochabamba, the third-largest city in the nation. The government’s choice had angered the populace. In January 2000, demonstrations and a national strike broke out in opposition to the rate rise and what was thought to be the privatisation of water resources. Oscar Olivera, the demonstrators’ leader, was taken into custody by the authorities. However, the demonstrations extended over the entire nation, and in April the government proclaimed a state of emergency. Even after multiple deaths, protests persisted. After ultimately releasing Oscar Olivera, the government made a pact with him that the concession would terminate.

The MNC contract was cancelled and the municipal water supply’s old prices were reinstated as a result of similar public objections.

 

7- ‘‘The democracy has been evolved through struggles and movements all over the world.’’ Support the statement with examples. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 2, 2015] 

Ans- Through conflicts and movements on a global scale, democracy has developed. These typically occur when a nation is transitioning to democracy, expanding democracy, or deepening democracy. The examples of Bolivia and Nepal make this clear. Nepal experienced conflict as a result of its fundamental problem. Bolivia, on the other hand, had to contend with the issue of growth and development.

Examples:

(i) The goal of the democratic movement in Nepal was to take back political power from the king.

(ii) The World Bank put pressure on the Bolivian government to relinquish control over the municipal water supply. The Cochabamba city administration sold these rights to a multinational corporation (MNC). Bolivians’ fight resulted in the MNC contract being cancelled and the municipality’s water supply being restored at previous prices. Both times, large-scale mobilisation was necessary to win the battles. The conflict was resolved by a public show of solidarity for a large cause. There is a chance that important choices will be reached by consensus without any disagreements. Mass mobilisation is used to resolve conflicts in democracies.

 

8- How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 3, 2015]

Ans- Pressure groups and movements create pressure on the political parties in the following ways:

(i) Bringing up public issues: They run informational campaigns, host events, start petitions, and other things in an effort to win people over to their viewpoints and their causes. Most of these organisations aim to persuade the media to focus on these issues more. 

(ii) Participation in governmental operations: They frequently plan protest actions like strikes that cause disruptions to government programmes. Worker’s organisations from pressure groups or movement groups are allowed to take part in the committees and formal bodies that advise the government.

(iii):  Impact on political parties the majority of political parties borrow ideas from these organisations. Most movement organisations adopt political positions without belonging to a party. 

(iv) New political parties are created as a result of these movements. AIADMK, DMK, etc.