Social Science Class 10 Important Questions Political Science Chapter 4 Gender, Caste and Religion

 

Gender, Caste and Religion Question Answers – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Political Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Multiple Choice Questions (1 Mark each

  1. What kind of social division is often understood as natural and unchangeable?
  1. Gender division 
  2. Religious division 
  3. Class division 
  4. Caste division 

Answer- A. gender division

 

  1. What is gender division based on?
  1. Biology 
  2. Social expectations 
  3. Stereotypes 
  4. Both B and C

Answer – D. both B. and C. 

 
 

 

  1. Which of the following Is not a Scandinavian country?
  1. Sweden 
  2. Norway 
  3. Australia 
  4. Finland

Answer – C. Australia

 

  1. What is the literacy rate among women? 
  1. 54 per cent 
  2. 76 per cent 
  3. 64 per cent 
  4. 74 per cent 

Answer – A. 54 per cent 

 

  1. What is the literacy rate of men in India?
  1. 75%
  2. 76%
  3. 80%
  4. 90%

Answer – B. 76 % 

 

  1. The Equal Remuneration Act concerns ________
  1. Minimum wages
  2. Equal wages for equal work 
  3. Universal adult suffrage 
  4. Domestic abuse 

Answer – B. Equal wages for equal work 

 

  1. What is India’s child sex ratio?
  1. 993
  2. 951
  3. 919
  4. 845

Answer – C. 919

 

  1. Which of the following states has child sex ratio below 875?
  1. Rajasthan 
  2. Gujarat 
  3. Haryana 
  4. Bihar

Answer – C. Haryana 

 

  1. Which of the following states have a child sex ratio above 950?
  1. Chhattisgarh 
  2. Tripura 
  3. Kerala 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. For the first time in 2019, the percentage of women members in Lok Sabha has touched its highest percent at_________
  1. 15
  2. 29.6
  3. 14.36
  4. 30

Answer – C. 14.36

 

  1. What do Feminist Movements demand?
  1. Matriarchy 
  2. Voting rights 
  3. Equality with male counterparts 
  4. Supremacy 

Answer – C. Equality with male counterparts 

 

  1. What is the share of women representatives in state assemblies?
  1. Less than 5 %
  2. Less than 2 % 
  3. More than 5 %
  4. 15%

Answer – A. less than 5 %

 

  1. What proportion of seats is reserved for women in local governments?
  1. One third 
  2. One fourth 
  3. Half 
  4. A quarter 

Answer – A. one – third 

 

  1.  Family laws deal with ________
  1. Marriage 
  2. Adoption 
  3. Inheritance 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. In some places in India, child sex ratio has fallen as low as _____
  1. 950
  2. 850
  3. 800
  4. 900

Answer- C. 800

 

  1.  What is leading to downfall of casteism?
  1. Urbanisation 
  2. Education 
  3. Occupational mobility
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above

 

  1. More radical women’s movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called…………… movements.
  1. Feminist 
  2. Equalist 
  3. Leftist 
  4. Rightist 

Answer- A. Feminist 

 

  1. The social / familial system wherein there is a male head of the family is ___________
  1. Matriarchy 
  2. Patriarchy 
  3. Blasphemy 
  4. Monarchy 

Answer – B. Patriarchy 

 

  1. What kind of social division exists uniquely in India?
  1. Caste based
  2. Gender based
  3. Religious
  4. Linguistic

Answer – A. Caste based 

 

  1. In India, seats are reserved for women in ___________
  1. Lok Sabha 
  2. State assemblies
  3. Local governments 
  4. Cabinets

Answer – C. local governments 

 

  1. What did Gandhi ji mean when he said that religion and politics can never be separated?
  1. Politics is bound to be communal 
  2. Secularism is impossible 
  3. Ethics (from religion) guide politics 
  4. This statement is not from Gandhiji

Answer – C. Ethics (from religion) guide politics 

 

  1. In which countries, among the following, do women actively participate in public life?
  1. India and Latin America 
  2. Finland and Denmark 
  3. Australia and Sri Lanka 
  4. Sweden and Nepal 

Answer – B. Finland and Denmark 

 

  1. The distinguishing feature of communalism is:
  1. Lack of political ambition 
  2. Looking at religion as the sole identity 
  3. Secularism 
  4. Ideology conforming to Fraternity 

Answer – B. looking at religion as sole identity 

 

  1. When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
  1. Biological difference 
  2. Unequal assignment of roles by society 
  3. Unequal child sex ratio 
  4. Unequal voting rights 

Answer – B. Unequal assignment of roles by society 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about Indian constitution are wrong? It 
  1. Prohibits religion – based discrimination
  2. Gives official status to one religion 
  3. Provides freedom to religion 
  4. Ensures equality among citizens

Answer- B. Gives official status to one religion 

 

  1. A person who believes in equal rights for both men and women, is a:
  1. Communalist 
  2. Feminist 
  3. Secularist 
  4. Casteist 

Answer – B. Feminist 

 

  1. What is meant by cast hierarchy?
  1. A shift from rural to urban areas
  2. Freedom to change professions
  3. Anarchy due to casteism 
  4. A ladder like system of caste classification 

Answer – D. a ladder like system of caste classification

 

  1. What is communal politics based on?
  1. Religion is the sole and most important identity of people 
  2. One religion is superior than others 
  3. Creation of religious vote banks by parties
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. Who said that religion can never be separated from politics?
  1. Lal Bahadur Shastri
  2. Mahatma Gandhi 
  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak 
  4. Jawaharlal Nehru 

Answer – B. Mahatma Gandhi 

 

  1. In which countries is the participation of women the highest (among the given options) 
  1. African nations 
  2. Scandinavian countries 
  3. South east Asia 
  4. Latin American countries 

Answer – B. Scandinavian countries 

 

  1. Communalism is based on __________ differences.
  1. Economical 
  2. Social 
  3. Regional 
  4. Religious 

Answer – D. Religious 

 

  1. Partly due to the efforts of reformers and partly due to other ________ changes, caste system in modern India has undergone great changes.
  1. Cultural 
  2. Political 
  3. Educational 
  4. Socio – economic 

Answer- D. Socio- economic

 

  1. What is the result of political expression of gender division?
  1. Women’s condition has improved 
  2. Women have gained a superior status 
  3. Nothing changed
  4. All of the above 

Answer – A. women’s condition has significantly improved 

 

  1.  Which of the following is not a part of the feminist movement?
  1. Providing women with equal voting rights
  2. Providing legal and financial agency to women
  3. Equal opportunity for work and education
  4. Women having to fulfil gender roles

Answer – D. Women having to fulfil gender roles.

 

  1. A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community, is a:
  1.  Communalist 
  2. Feminist 
  3. Secularist 
  4. Casteist 

Answer – A. Communalist 

 

  1. A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community, is a:
  1.  Communalist 
  2. Feminist 
  3. Secularist 
  4. Casteist 

Answer – D. Casteist 

 

  1. A person who does not discriminate others based on religious beliefs, is a:
  1.  Communalist 
  2. Feminist 
  3. Secularist 
  4. Casteist 

Answer – C. Secularist 

 

  1. What is the percentage of Hindu population in our country as per the 2011 census?
  1. 75%
  2. 70%
  3. Almost 80%
  4. 90%

Answer- C. Almost 80%

 

  1. Which of the following is not a secular country?
  1. Sri Lanka 
  2. Pakistan 
  3. England 
  4. All of the above

Answer – D. All of the above 

 

  1. Choose the incorrect pair. (Countries and their official religions)
  1. Sri Lanka – Buddhism
  2. Pakistan – Islam 
  3. England – Christianity
  4. India – Hinduism 

Answer- D. India – Hinduism

 

Related Class 10 Geography MCQs

 

Very Short Answer Type  (1 mark each)

 

  1. What do you mean by the term urbanisation?

Answer – Urbanisation is the shift of population from rural areas to urban areas.

 

  1. Which act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work?

Answer –The equal Remuneration Act of 1976.

 

    Who is a feminist?

Answer –A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.

 

  1.  “In our country, women still lag much behind men despite some improvement after independence.’ True or false?

Answer –true.

 

  1. What is ‘sexual division of labour’?

Answer –A system of division of work and other roles based on gender where all domestic work is done by either the women of the family or organised by them through domestic helpers.

 

  1. What is patriarchy?

Answer –Literally, rule by father, this concept refers to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.

 

  1. What do you understand by family laws?

Answer –The laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance etc.

 

  1. In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different religions- state True or False?

Answer –True 

 

  1. Mention any two provisions of our constitution that makes India a secular state.

Answer –There is no official religion for our state and all individuals have freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.

 

  1. What is occupational mobility?

Answer –The shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors.

 

  1. What do we mean by ‘caste hierarchy’?

Answer –A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the ‘highest’ to the ‘lowest’ castes.

 

  1. State two reasons for the breakdown of old notions of caste hierarchy.

Answer –Large scale urbanisation and literacy growth.

 

  1. What is the reason because of which every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections?

Answer –This is because no parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one caste.

 

  1. What shows that all castes and communities are not frozen in their political preferences?

Answer –The ruling party and the sitting MP or MLA frequently lose elections, this implies that voters are not frozen in preferences.

 

  1. What do people mean when they call a caste a ‘vote bank’ of a political party?

Answer –When a large proportion of voters from a particular caste vote for a party, the caste is called a ‘vote bank’.

 

RelatedCBSE Class 10 Poltical Science Chapter-wise Explanation, Notes, Question Answers

 

Short Answer Type Questions  (3 Marks each

 

  1. Suppose a politician seeks your vote on the religious ground. Why is his act considered against the norms of democracy? Explain. (2015)

Answer – 

Politicians who solicit votes on the basis of religion are violating democratic standards because—

 

  1. He violated the Constitution with this action. He is making use of societal disparities that could lead to social division.

 

  1. When religion is used for political purposes and when one religion and its practitioners are set against another, religion becomes an issue.

 

  1. Communal politics results when one religious group’s views are portrayed as superior to those of others, one religious group’s demands are created in opposition to another, and the state power is exploited to promote one religious group’s dominance over the others.

 

  1. Explain the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies. (2014)

Answer – 

Electing more women as legislators is the only way to guarantee that issues relating to women receive enough attention. It is required by law that there be a fair representation of women in the elected bodies in order to accomplish this.

  1. At least one third of seats are reserved in local governments for women, as in municipalities and panchayats.
  2. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha is finally at a mere 14.36 per cent in 2019 and in State Assemblies less than 5 per cent.
  3. India is way behind Latin American and African countries in this arena.

 

  1. What is communal politics? In what circumstances does this become a threat to democracy?

Answer – 

Communalism or communal politics results from the politicisation of religions.

This can become threatening to democracy, or take up ugly forms such as violence and riots when:

  1. When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.
  2. When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and state power is used to establish domination of one religious’ group over the rest.
  3. When one religion and its followers are pitted against another.

 

  1. Explain reasons for the declining of caste system in India. [CBSE 2016-17]

Answer – 

The reasons for gradual decline of caste hierarchy are as under- 

  1. Occupational mobility: There is a shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors. This has helped in breaking the caste hierarchy.
  2. Social reforms: The role played by political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Mahatma Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker was important in this direction. Gandhiji called untouchable ‘Harijan’. The efforts of these leaders tried to remove caste-based inequalities from society.
  3. Economic development: due to economic development and rapid urbanisation, the economic situation of lower caste people has improved too.

 

  1. Describe the benefits and drawbacks of caste differences’ political expression.

Answer- 

Benefits of expression of caste differences in politics are – 

  1. There has been improvement in socio- economic conditions of the ‘backward’ classes.
  2. The people with a caste disadvantage now have better access to educational and professional opportunities as their representation increased.

Drawbacks of political expression of caste differences-

  1. In some cases, this can lead to a greater divide in society due to tensions and pitting of different castes against each other.
  2. This sometimes can take away public attention from other key developmental aspects and lead to slowed development.

 

  1. Explain the various forms that caste can take in politics.

Answer – 

In politics, caste takes the following forms of expressions and hence has an impact on the entire political system-

  1. In order to get the necessary support to win elections, parties choose candidates from a multitude of castes while keeping in mind the make-up of the electorate.
  2. Political parties typically make sure that members from many castes and tribes are included when governments are formed.
  3. In order to obtain support, political groups make appeals to caste prejudice. Political parties have a reputation for favouring certain castes.

 

  1. How far is it correct to say that it is not politics that gets caste ridden but it is the caste that gets politicised? Explain. (2015)

Answer – 

Caste gets politicised as politics impacts caste identities and caste system. This manifests in various ways- 

  1. Many disadvantaged communities have had the opportunity to claim their fair share of power and so obtain access to decision-making when caste differences are expressed in politics.
  2. Numerous political and non-governmental organisations have pushed for the elimination of caste-based discrimination in order to provide some castes more respect and access to resources
  3. New caste groups like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ have come up in the political arena.

 

  1. How has the principle of Universal Adult Franchise helped in combating casteism?

Answer – 

(i) Under the universal adult franchise, any Indian citizen who is at least 18 years old has the right to vote in elections for members of the State Legislatures and the Parliament. They have this right without regard to their caste, creed, colour, sex, religion, or philosophical beliefs.

(ii) Political leaders have been compelled to prepare for the challenge of mobilising and securing political support due to the universal adult franchise and the one-person, one-vote principle.

(iii). Additionally, it transformed the mindset of those from castes that had previously been considered poor and inferior.

 

  1. What is a secular state? Mention provisions from the constitution which make India a secular state.

Answer – 

A secular state has no official religion and all religions are treated with equality.

The following provisions of the constitution make India a secular state –

  1. Each citizen has freedom to practice, profess and propagate any religion of their choice.
  2. No religion has a special status.
  3. No discrimination on religious grounds is allowed.

 

  1. Explain the concept of sexual division of labour. What are the social outcomes of this concept?

Answer – 

Sexual division of labour is a system of division of work and roles in family and society. In this, all work inside the home is either done by women of the family or organised through domestic help.

social outcomes of this concept are – 

  1. Women are largely inactive in public life 
  2. Women lack financial and legal agency
  3. There is a wage gap between men and women.
  4. Girls drop out, and very few females go for higher education.

 

Source Based Questions  (1 X 4 = 4 marks each )

 

  1. Look at the following picture and answer the questions that follow.

 

Democratic Politics

 

Image credits –  NCERT textbook in political science for class 10 Democratic Politics

 

  1. How many all positions in municipalities are reserved for women? 

Answer – at least one third of all seats.

  1.  “A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for men and women” is known as a ______________

Answer- A feminist.

  1. What is the share of women’s participation in the State Assemblies?

Answer – Less than 5 per cent.

  1. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been…… 

Answer – The proposal is pending.

 

  1. Look at the following picture and answer the questions that follow. 

 

Democratic Politics3

 

Image credits –  NCERT textbook in political science for class 10 Democratic Politics

 

  1. In India, people of different ________ follow different family laws.

Answer- religions

  1. Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are ________

Answer – religious minorities.

  1. It is not _________ that gets caste- ridden, but rather it is ___________ that gets politicised.

Answer – politics, caste 

  1. Name any 3 religious minorities in India.

Answer – Jains, Muslims and Christians.

 

Related – Class 10 History, Geography and Political Science Important Questions 

 

Long Answer Type  (5 marks each

 

  1. How does religion influence the political set up in our country? Explain. 

 

Answer – 

Politics and religion cannot ever be separated, according to Gandhiji. He did not mean a specific religion like Hinduism or Islam when he said “religion,” but rather moral principles and ethics that are derived from religion to guide politics.

Each religion’s ethical principles can have a significant impact on politics. Human rights organisations claim that religious minorities make up the majority of victims of communal violence in our nation. To protect them, the government can take specific measures.

All religions discriminate against women in their family laws. Laws can be amended by the government to make them more equitable.

People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as members of a religious community. Thus, it is the responsibility of those whose political power is able to regulate the practice of religion, to prevent discrimination and oppression.

 

  1. “Gender division is not based on Biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.” Support the statement.

 

Answer – 

  1. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is house work and bringing up children. There is sexual division of labour in most families.
  2. Literacy rate among women is only 54% in comparison to 76% among men. In studies, girls mostly perform better than boys, but they drop out simply because parents prefer to spend their resources on their sons’ education.
  3. On an average, a woman works more than an average man everyday. Since much of her work is not paid for, therefore often not valued.
  4. Child sex-ratio (number of girl children per thousand boys) is very low. In India, the national average is 927. In some places it is even lower because parents prefer to have sons so they get girl child aborted.
  5. In urban areas too, women are not respected and are unsafe even in their homes being subjected to beating, harassment and other forms of domestic violence.

 

  1. Explain the factors that have led to the weakening of the caste system in India. (2014)

 

Answer- 

  1. The role played by political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Mahatma Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker was important in this direction. Gandhiji called untouchable ‘Harijan’. The efforts of these leaders tried to remove caste-based inequalities from society.
  2. Socio-economic changes such as:
  1. urbanisation
  2. growth of literacy and education
  3. occupational mobility
  4. weakening of landlord’s position in the village
  5. breaking down of caste hierarchy have greatly contributed
  1. The Indian Constitution forbade any kind of caste-based discrimination and established the framework for measures to redress the injustices of the caste system.
  2. Fundamental rights, universal adult franchise and the spirit of democracy has led to the growth of a widespread consciousness.

 

  1. What is Gender division ? How is it practiced ? What are its consequences ? [2017]

 

Answer – 

Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division. Generally, it is considered as natural and unchangeable. Actually, it is based not on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.

 

Gender division in practice-

  1. There is a widespread misconception that women are primarily responsible for caring for the home and raising children, which is shown by the sexual division of labour.
  2. If the work is paid, men perform tasks like cooking and tailoring. For instance, most hotel cooks and tailors are male.
  3. Women also have outside jobs. While in middle class houses, poor women work as domestic help, in urban areas, women work in offices alongside men. In addition to their homework, it is completed. 
  4. However, their efforts go unappreciated and are not acknowledged.

 

Consequences – 

  1. Despite making up half of the human population, women’s participation in public life, particularly politics, is generally minimal.
  2. This has fueled campaigns for women’s equal rights, including the right to vote, bettering their status in politics and the law, and expanding their options for higher education and employment. They are known as the “feminist” movements.

 

  1. Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India. 

 

Answer – 

  1. The caste system is the division of individuals into social groups for the purposes of marriage, employment, and diet.
  2. The caste system serves as the foundation for Indian society. The Indian caste system is an extreme example of division of labour based on birth, yet social inequality and some type of division of labour exist in all countries.
  3. Although most civilizations pass down their vocations from one generation to the next, India differs from other societies in that hereditary occupational division was approved by rituals under this system.
  4. The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practised the same or similar occupation, married within the caste group, and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
  5. The Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

 

  1. What was the Feminist Movement ? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India.

 

Answer – 

These are the movements organised by various women’s organisations to achieve gender equality in the workplace and in the home.

(i) These feminist movements advocate for women to have the same rights as men in all walks of life.

 

(ii) Campaigns were launched in several nations to give women the right to vote.

 

(iii) The protests called for improving the standing of women in politics and the law.

 

(iv) The movements also called for expanding women’s access to higher education and employment prospects.

 

  1. Describe communalism. What are the communal people’s core beliefs?

Answer- 

 1) Communalism occurs when one community attempts to achieve its own interests at the expense of other communities.

2) The notion that religion is the core principle of social community is the foundation of communal politics.

3) A given religion’s followers must form a single community. Their core interests ought to coincide. Any differences between them are irrelevant.

4) Another aspect of communalism is the fact that members of various religions share some traits. These are inconsequential and surface-level. There will inevitably be a confrontation between their interests.

5) In certain cases, communalism breeds the notion that persons of many religions cannot coexist peacefully as fellow residents of the same country.

 

  1. Explain the various forms that communalism takes in politics.

Answer – Communalism is a situation when a particular community tries to promote its own interest at the cost of other communities.

Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

It takes up the following forms in politics-

  1. A communal mind seeks dominance over other communities. This may happen in the form of majoritarian dominance, or a demand for a national disintegration in case of minorities.
  2. In everyday lives, there can be religious stereotypes and prejudices for certain religious communities in the minds of people.
  3. frequently, there is political mobilisation along communal lines. Parties use religious ideas and symbols to make an emotional appeal to voters. There is special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of particular religions.
  4. Sometimes, communalism takes up extremely ugly and harsh forms such as communal riots, massacres or violence. For example, at the time of India’s partition, there was a large-scale suffering in the masses because of this reason.
  5. Thus, communalism, in many ways, alters individual rationality and in extreme cases, leads to anarchy too.