NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and The Modern World – Important Questions


Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and The Modern World. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Social Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.



Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each)


  1. Where did the print originate?
  1. Europe 
  2. India 
  3. East Asia 
  4. Africa 

Answer – C. East Asia 


  1. Which kind of Chinese book was folded and stitched at the side?
  1. Accordion book 
  2. Parchment 
  3. Clay tablets
  4. Papyrus books 

Answer – A. Accordion book


  1. Who used the print before the seventeenth century?
  1. Scholars 
  2. Revolutionaries 
  3. Merchants 
  4. Women 

Answer – A. Scholars 


  1. Which place became the hub of new print culture?
  1. Beijing
  2. Shanghai 
  3. Tokyo 
  4. Paris 

Answer – B. Shanghai


  1. Who introduced hand printing technology to Japan?
  1. Merchants 
  2. Ambassadors
  3. Travellers
  4. Buddhist missionaries 

Answer- D. Buddhist missionaries


  1. What is the name of the oldest Japanese book? 
  1. Tripitaka Koreana
  2. Buddhist sutra 
  3. Diamond sutra 
  4. Ukiyo 

Answer- C. Diamond sutra


  1. In 9th century Japan, pictures were printed on 
  1. Textiles 
  2. Playing cards 
  3. Paper money 
  4. All of the above 

Answer- D. All of the above 


  1. What was the medieval name of Tokyo?
  1. Kasuka-be 
  2. Edo 
  3. Okinawa
  4. Fuji 

Answer – B. Edo


  1. Tripitaka Koreana, a collection of buddhist scriptures is on _
  1. Fabrics 
  2. Sewn sheets of fabric 
  3. Woodblocks 
  4. Papyrus 

Answer – Woodblocks 


  1. Choose the artist associated with ukiyo 
  1. Kitagawa Utamaro 
  2. Akatsuki Kakashi 
  3. Shunmun Kubo 
  4. Both A. and C.

Answer- D. Both A. and C.


  1. Ukiyo is _______
  1. a printing technique 
  2. an art form
  3. a thought school 
  4. an instrument 

answer- B. an art form 


  1. What does “the floating world” refer to?
  1. Lucid dreaming 
  2. Realm of fantasies
  3. Supernatural visions
  4. Ordinary human experiences 

Answer – D. Ordinary human experiences


  1. __________ is a parchment made from animal skin.
  1. Jikji
  2. Vellum 
  3. Papyrus 
  4. Ukiyo

Answer – B. Vellum 


  1.  Marco Polo, a/an __________explorer returned with knowledge about woodblock printing in 1295.
  1. Greek 
  2. French 
  3. Italian 
  4. English 

Answer – C. Italian 


  1.  The jikji of Korea is printed with –
  1. Woodblock printing 
  2. Movable metal types 
  3. Woodblock carving 
  4. Calligraphy copying 

Answer – B. Movable metal types


  1. Upon which material were the luxury editions of books handwritten in Europe?
  1. Fabric 
  2. Parchment paper
  3. Vellum 
  4. Wood 

Answer- C. Vellum


  1. Who developed the first known printing press?
  1. Johann Gutenberg of Italy
  2. Schmidt Gutenberg of Germany 
  3. Johann Gutenberg of Germany 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – C. Johann Gutenberg of Germany 


  1. When was the first known printing press devised?
  1. 1550s
  2. 1450s
  3. 1430s
  4. 1330s

Answer – C. 1430s


  1. What provided the model for the printing press?
  1. Wine press
  2. Olive press
  3. Lead moulds 
  4. Iron

Answer – B. Olive press


  1. Which of the following was not a part of the oral culture?
  1. Ballads 
  2. Folk tales
  3. Penny magazines 
  4. Plays 

Answer – C. Penny magazines


  1. Who was Martin Luther?
  1. A protestant reformer
  2. A social reformer 
  3. An anti-racism leader
  4. A political figure

Answer- A. A protestant reformer 


  1. The first text printed by Gutenberg was-
  1. A dictionary 
  2. The bible 
  3. Ballads and folklore 
  4. Thoughts and ideas 

Answer – B. The Bible 


  1. Which text, by Martin Luther criticised many practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church?
  1. The New Testament 
  2. Ninety-Five theses 
  3. L’Imprimerie
  4. No such text existed

Answer – B. Ninety-Five Theses


  1. When was the Ninety-Five theses written?
  1. 1715
  2. 1414
  3. 1517
  4. 1618

Answer- C. 1517


  1. “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one”

The above was said by _______

  1. Louise Sebastien Mercier 
  2. Martin Luther 
  3. Charles Dickens 
  4. Mercury 

Answer – B. Martin Luther 


  1. When did the Roman church begin the maintenance of the index of prohibited books?
  1. 1558
  2. 1517
  3. 1715
  4. 1858

Answer – A. 1558


  1. Minerva is the Greek goddess of ______
  1. Knowledge 
  2. Life 
  3. Wisdom 
  4. Compassion 

Answer- C. Wisdom


  1. When did the development of the periodical press begin?
  1. Early 17th century 
  2. Early 18th century 
  3. Mid-18th century 
  4. Late 17th century

Answer – B. early 18th century 


29. Who, among the following, was not a thinker who published his ideas.

  1. Thomas Paine
  2. Voltaire 
  3. Jean Jacques Rousseau
  4. The Grimm brothers

Answer- D. The Grimm brothers


  1. Whose idea is this –

“The printing press is the most powerful; engine of progress”

  1. Thomas Paine 
  2. Jean Jacques Rousseau
  3. Louise Sebastien Mercier 
  4. Voltaire 

Answer – C. Louise Sebastien Mercier 


  1. When did the Grimm brothers publish their collection?
  1. 1857
  2. 1812
  3. 1817
  4. 1818

Answer – B. 1812


  1. Where was the penny magazine published?
  1. England 
  2. France 
  3. Germany 
  4. Italy 

Answer – A. England 


  1. What was the penny magazine aimed at?
  1. Feminism 
  2. Working class
  3. Children 
  4. Both A. and C. 

Answer- B. Working class


  1. Who perfected the power-driven press, in the mid-19th century?
  1. James watt
  2. Richard M. Hoe
  3. Richard Arkwright 
  4. Albert Einstein

Answer- B. Richard M. Hoe


  1. In the 1920s England, popular works were sold in cheap series, called ____________
  1. Penny Magazines 
  2. Shilling series
  3. Cheap paperback editions
  4. None of the above

Answer- B. Shilling series


  1. The first printing press in India was brought by the ______
  1. French missionaries 
  2. Dutch missionaries 
  3. Portuguese missionaries 
  4. Germans 

Answer- C. Portuguese missionaries 


  1. Who authored Gita Govind?
  1. Tulsidas
  2. Mirabal 
  3. Jayadeva 
  4. Ramabai 

Answer- C. Jayadeva 


  1. Where in India did the first printing press come up?
  1. Bombay 
  2. Calcutta 
  3. Goa 
  4. Tamil Nadu 

Answer – C. Goa 


  1. In which language did Jesuit priests print tracts?
  1. Malayalam 
  2. Tamil 
  3. Konkani 
  4. English 

Answer – C. Konkani 


  1. What was the name of the first weekly newspaper brought out by an Indian?
  1. Smachar Chandrika
  2. The Bengal Gazette 
  3. Sambad Kaumudi 
  4. Shamsul Akhbar 

Answer- B. The Bengal Gazette


  1. Who started the weekly: the Bengal gazette?
  1. Raja Rammohun Roy 
  2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak 
  3. Gangadhar Bhattacharya 
  4. None of the above 

Answer- A. Raja Rammohun Roy 


  1. Who edited the Bengal gazette?
  1. Gangadhar Bhattacharya 
  2. James Hickey 
  3. Rammohun Roy 
  4. Richard M. Hoe

Answer- B. James Hickey 


  1. Hindu orthodoxy commissioned _________ to oppose Rammohun Roy’s opinions published in Sambad Kaumudi 
  1. Kesari 
  2. Samachar Chandrika 
  3. Bombay Samachar
  4. Samachar Kaumudi 

Answer- B. Samachar Chandrika 


  1. Which of the following was a journal of caricature and satire?
  1. Indian Charivari 
  2. Samachar Chandrika 
  3. Samvaad kaumudi 
  4. Shamsul Akhbar 

Answer – A. Indian Charivari 


  1. Who wrote gulamgiri?
  1. E. V. Ramaswamy 
  2. B. R. Ambedkar 
  3. Jyotiba Phule 
  4. Periyar 

Answer – C. Jyotiba Phule 


  1. The first printed edition of Tulsidas’s Ramcharitmanas came in _______
  1. 1817
  2. 1816
  3. 1815
  4. 1814

Answer- B. 1816


  1. Who wrote “chhote aur bade ka sawaal”?
  1. Sudarshan Chakra
  2. Kashibaba
  3. Rama chaddha 
  4. Jaydeva 

Answer – B. Kashibaba


  1. When did the Calcutta Supreme Court pass regulations to control press freedom?
  1. 1820s
  2. 1920s
  3. 1850s
  4. 1900s

Answer – A. 1820s


  1. When was the Vernacular press act passed?
  1. 1878
  2. 1778
  3. 1898
  4. 1858

Answer – A. 1878


  1. What was the Vernacular press act based upon?
  1. British press laws
  2. Irish press laws
  3. French press laws 
  4. None of the above

Answer – B. Irish press laws


Very Short Answer Type Questions  (1 mark each )


  1. How was the line separating oral and reading cultures blurred?

Answer – Oral culture, as ballads and folk tales were printed, entered print and printed material was orally transmitted, this blurred the line separating oral and printed cultures.


  1. What was the platen?

Answer- In letterpress printing, platen is a board pressed onto the paper to get an impression from the type. It used to be made of wood, but now it’s made of steel.


  1. What was the role of a compositor in a printer’s workshop?

Answer- A compositor was the person who composed the text that was to be printed in the printer’s workshop.


  1. Why was print feared by some?

Answer- Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debates and discussion. Prints could persuade people to think and act differently, that’s why it was feared.


  1. What were ballads?

Answer- Ballads were commonly, publically recited or sung historical accounts or folk tales which were hence a significant part of the oral culture. 


  1. In what ways could the authority of ‘valuable’ literature be destroyed?

Answer- It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed then rebellious and irreligious thoughts would be circulated, destroying the authority of ‘valuable’ literature.


  1. What do you understand by ‘the protestant reformation’ ?

Answer – The protestant reformation was a sixteenth century movement to reform the catholic church in Rome, out of which, several anti-Catholic Christianity traditions developed.


  1. What were Heretical beliefs? Why were they punished?

Answer – Heretical beliefs did not follow the accepted teachings of the church. 

In medieval times, heresy was seen as a threat to the Church’s rights to decide what should be believed and hence was punishable.


  1. What was the inquisition and its purpose?

Answer- The Inquisition was a former Roman Catholic court meant to identify and punish Heretics. It was there to repress Heretical Ideas and Beliefs.


  1. What was the main reason behind the reading mania of the 17th and 18th centuries?

Answer- High literacy rates in most arts of Europe led to the reading mania of the 17th and 18th centuries.


  1. What was the almanac?

Answer- An almanac was an annual publication which contained astronomical data, information about the movements of the sun and the moon, timings of full tides and eclipses etc.


  1. What are chapbooks?

Answer- Chapbooks are pocket-sized books sold by travelling peddlers called chapmen.


  1. What was the ‘Bibliotheque Bleue’?

Answer- In France, the ‘Bibliotheque Bleue’ were low- priced small books printed on low quality paper, and bound in cheap blue coloured covers.


  1. What do you understand by ‘despotism’?

Answer- Despotism is a system of governance in which absolute power is exercised by an individual, unregulated by legal and constitutional checks.


  1. Who published Penny magazine?

Answer- The society for the diffusion of useful knowledge published the Penny magazine.


  1. Name some prominent women novelists from the nineteenth century.

Answer – Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters and George Eliot were prominent women novelists from the nineteenth century.


  1. Describe the new kind of woman as defined in 19th century novels.

Answer- The new kind of woman was a person with will, strength of personality, determination and power to think.


  1. How were handwritten manuscripts preserved in India?

Answer- Manuscripts were either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation.


Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each)

Q1. How had the Imperial State in China been the major producer of printed material for a long time? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi, Set 1, 2019]

Answer- In China, books were produced by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks starting in AD 594. The imperial state of China was the main manufacturer of printed matter. China also printed textbooks for the civil services examination. Under the sponsorship of the imperial state, a large number of textbooks for this exam were printed. Since the fifteenth century, there have been more test takers, which has led to more print. By the seventeenth century, print had many different functions as China’s urban culture flourished. Reading grew in popularity as a pastime. Print was a common tool used by women, revolutionaries, poets, and even businesspeople.


Q2.  How had the printing press created a new culture of reading in Europe? Explain with examples. [CBSE OD, Set 1, 2019]

Answer- A new print culture emerged in Europe with the invention of the printing press. Its definition was accelerated by printing and book creation material. Massive book production brought down the cost of books and the flow of them grew. The culture of reading was not limited to the wealthy, but also for the average citizens as access to these books was simple. Printers have a publishing-focused approach. Folklore and ballads with excellent illustrations could be illustrated for a less educated person to appreciate. Such books give more and more people a chance to express their thoughts and ideas as well as enlighten themselves through reading.


Q3. How had novels been easily available to the masses in Europe during the nineteenth century? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi, Set 1, 2019]

Answer- Because of the aforementioned factors, novels have been widely accessible to the general public in Europe in the following manner- 

(i) The printing press’s invention and further technological developments were primarily the reason behind novels’ rising popularity in Europe.

(ii) Improvement in the tools for communication and transportation made it possible for the copies to be sent of books around Europe.

(iii) Establishing public libraries or Novels were also created for easy reachable reading material


Q4. Give any three reasons for the enhancement of literacy in the 17th and18th centuries in most parts of Europe. [CBSE, Term 1, 2016]

Answer- In most of Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, literacy increased for three reasons:

(i) Congregations of various denominations were built.

(ii) Villages and schools began educating peasants about literacy.

(iii) By the 18th century’s close, literacy rates varied across some of Europe were between 60 and 80 percent. As literacy and schools proliferated in countries of Europe experienced a reading craze and books were printed in an ever-growing number.


Q5. Why did the British government curb the freedom of the Indian press after the revolt of 1857? [CBSE, Term 1, 2016]


(i) After the uprising of 1857, the British administration restricted journalistic freedom in India because public opinion had changed.

(ii) Angry Englishmen urged that the “native” press be suppressed.

(iii) The colonial authorities started considering steps for strict control as local publications started to take a strong nationalist stance.


Q6. What was Protestant Reformation? [CBSE, Term 1, 2015]

Answer- Rome ruled the Catholic church throughout the sixteenth century. There were so many imperfections in the church’s path that needed to be corrected. The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that took place in the 16th century to improve the Catholic Church. In the 16th century, Martin Luther was a very well-liked social reformer who published the well-known book “Ninety-five Theses.” This book harshly criticised numerous religious practises and rites. Following the movement, a number of traditions hostile to the Catholic Church emerged.


Q7. Explain how print helped the poor people to express their ideas on various issues. [CBSE, Term 1, 2015]


(i) Public libraries for the underprivileged were established at the turn of the 20th century. Casteism became a topic of discussion in the late 19th century.

(ii) In “Gulamgiri,” Jyotiba Phule addressed the mistreatment of the lower classes.

(iii) Ramaswamy Naicker and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar both wrote on untouchability and other social ills.

These novels and works emphasised how upper castes took advantage of the lower classes. These publications were popular throughout India and helped to better the lives of the underprivileged.


Q8. Why couldn’t the production of hand written manuscripts satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books? Give any three reasons. [CBSE 2016]

Answer- Due to the following factors, the production of handwritten manuscripts was unable to meet the steadily rising demand for books:

(i) Manuscripts written by hand in many languages and copied on palm leaves or handmade sheets have a long and rich tradition in India.

(ii) These manuscripts were extremely pricey and delicate.

(iii) They required careful treatment.


Q9. Explain any three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India. [CBSE 2010, 2014, 2016]

Answer- Before the invention of printing, India’s handwritten manuscripts had three characteristics:

(i) Manuscripts written by hand in many languages and copied on palm leaves or handmade sheets have a long and rich tradition in India.

(ii) These manuscripts required careful handling because they were valuable, delicate, and rare.

(iii) These were kept alive by stuffing or sewing them together in between the wooden covers.

(iv) Because the manuscripts were written in various styles, it was difficult to read them. This limited their usefulness.


Q10. Explain any three factors responsible for the invention of new printing techniques. [CBSE 2016]

Answer- The following three elements led to the development of new printing techniques:

(i) The creation of handwritten texts was insufficient to match the demand.

(ii) These manuscripts required careful handling because they were valuable, delicate, and rare.

(iii) Copies of the handwritten texts were costly and time-consuming to make.


Q11. In what three ways did the printed books at first closely resemble the written manuscripts? [CBSE 2015]

Answer- Three things made the printed books initially resemble written manuscripts quite a bit:

(i) The look of printed books at first was similar to that of written manuscripts.

(ii) Because the borders were illuminated by hand and the metal letters mimicked the ornate handwriting styles, the layout was similar.

(iii) The buyer decided the design for the decorating area in the books made for the wealthy.


Q12. Describe wood-block printing. [CBSE 2015]


(i) Woodblock printing was a method of printing books that involved rubbing the paper  against the inked woodblock surface. 

(ii) In 1295, Marco Polo travelled to China and took woodblock printing technique back to Italy. 

(iii) The export of books rose, book fairs were created, the manufacturing of handwritten manuscripts were organised, and woodblock printing gained popularity in ordeer to satisfy the growing demand for books.


Q13. Explain any three reasons which created a large number of new readers in the nineteenth century.

Answer- The nineteenth century saw a significant growth in readers for three reasons:

(i) As literacy levels rose throughout this time, more children, women, and workers became readers.

(ii)  Since primary school became required, children have become a significant group of readers. The first school textbooks were created by the publishing industries. A children’s press was established in France in 1857 specifically to publish children’s literature. This press published both new works and classic fairy tales and folklore.

(iii) A method used in the 19th century in Europe of lending libraries to educate white collar workers.


Q14. Examine the role of missionaries in the growth of the press in India. [CBSE 2013]

Answer- The Chinese Buddhist missionaries brought hand printing to Japan between AD 768 and 770. The Buddhist Diamond Sutra, which is regarded as the earliest Japanese text, was published in 868 AD. Six sheets of text and woodcut pictures are included.

(i) In the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced the printing press for the first time to Goa in India.

(ii) In India, Jesuit priests studied Kanara and Konkani.

(iii) By the year 1710, Dutch missionaries had printed and translated 32 Tamil works.


Q15. Who invented the printing press? How did he develop the printing technology? [CBSE 2009]

Answer- In the 1430s, Johann Gutenberg created the first printing press in Strasbourg, Germany.

He spent the majority of his childhood on a sizable agricultural estate where he observed wine and olive presses. He developed lead moulds and acquired stone polishing skills.

The printing press was modelled after the olive press, and metal types for the letters of the alphabet were created using moulds.


Source – Based Questions (1mark X 4 = 4 marks each)


Q1. Look at the following image: 

Now answer the following in a word / phrase

i. Where was the earliest kind of print technology developed?

Answer- in China, Japan and Korea

ii. How were books printed in China from 594 AD?

Answer- by rubbing paper against inked woodblocks.

iii. What is calligraphy?

Answer- the art of beautiful and stylised writing 

iv. How was printed material used in different ways in China  

 Answer- for printing civil services exams textbooks, and by merchants to store trade information.


Q2. Look at the following image 
an ukiyo print



Now answer the following in a word / phrase

i. Which art form is Kitagawa Utamaro associated with?

Answer- an artist with contributions to the art form called ukiyo.

ii. What is the literal meaning of ukiyo?

Answer- ‘pictures of the floating world’

iii. Which artists were influenced by her prints?

Answer- Manet, Monet and Van Gogh

iv. What did ukiyo prints depict?

Answer- they depicted ordinary human experiences, especially urban ones.



Q3. Observe the following Japanese print carefully, then answer the questions that follow – 

Japanese print


i. What is the name of the print- art- form that this print belongs to?

Answer- Ukiyo 

ii. What is the name of this popular print from the late 18th century?

Answer- A morning scene 

iii. Name the artist behind this print.

Answer – Shunman Kubo

iv. Name any other ukiyo artist.

Answer- Kitagawa Utamaro


Long Answer Type Questions (5 marks each)


1) The ‘print revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE 2018]

Answer- The print revolution was a change in the way books were produced that made people’s lives better, changed how they interacted with knowledge and information, and allowed for fresh perspectives on the world. The printing presses invention resulted in the following changes:

A new reading culture developed, prices for books dropped, publication required less time and labour, more copies were created, and the market was saturated with books.

The print culture facilitated the conversation, debate, and exchange of ideas. It was a tool utilised by the insurrections to inform the populace of the truth and inspire them to rebel against the ruling class.

A virtual reading fever resulted from the churches opening several schools in the 17th and 18th centuries to promote literacy among the peasants, artisans, and villagers.

The number of readers among children, women, and workers increased during this time as literacy rates rose.


2) Why did the Roman Catholic Church begin keeping an Index of Prohibited Books from the mid-16th century? Explain by giving five reasons. [CBSE, Term 1, 2016]

Answer-  The Roman Catholic Church begin keeping an ‘Index of Prohibited Books’ from the mid-16th century for the following reasons-

(i) It was feared that insurrection and irrational beliefs may spread if there was no control over the printed material.This was seen as a threat to the religious and social authority of the church.

(ii) Many kings believed that if no restrictions were put in place, printed books may spark uprisings against the ruling class.

(iii) Free printed literature, in the opinion of many religious authorities, could inspire individuals to reject their religious ideologies and pre-existing beliefs.

(iv) Even many authors and artists started to worry that valued publications’ authorities would be destroyed if no control was applied to printed materials.


3) ‘The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution in Europe.’ Explain the statement with examples. [CBSE, Term 1, 2015]

Answer-  ‘The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution in Europe.’

(i) The print revolution in Europe was sparked by the transition from manual printing to mechanical printing.

(ii) A novel, revolutionary idea for the general public acquiring knowledge quickly had emerged.

(iii) During the hand printing era, printed books were only available as manuscripts to a select few people and were not distributed widely for reading. The process of production of reading material was also very time taking and tedious.

(iv) After mechanical printing was developed, handwriting evolved into a more fashionable style. In this method of printing, the letters were composed of metals.

(v) To make it more appealing, paper borders were produced and various patterns were incorporated in the printing.


4) “Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century.” Analyse the statement.  [CBSE 2016]

Answer- It is accurate to state that ‘the printing press had a significant impact on the development of 19th-century Indian society’ for the following reasons-

  1. In the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced the printing press for the first time to Goa in India.
  2. People debated, interpreted, and criticised various religious beliefs during the 19th century, including widow immolation, monotheism, the Brahmanical priesthood, and idolatry. While some people argued against the reform, others refuted the reformers’ claims.
  3. The dissemination of new ideas and the shaping of the debate’s nature through printed materials and newspapers gave people the chance to participate in public debates.
  4. Middle-class women read more because their thoughts and feelings started to be expressed in writing and because their liberal husbands and fathers put more emphasis on their education.
  5. small books were published and public libraries were established so that even the poorest people could easily and affordably access printed books.


5) What was the attitude of the liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading? How did women like Kailashbhashini Debi respond to this in their writings? [CBSE 2014,2015]

Answer-  The liberal and conservative Indians reacted in the following manner towards women’s reading- 

The liberal Indians promoted the advent of print culture.As middle-class women started writing down their thoughts and feelings, and began publishing, and because their liberal husbands and fathers prioritised their education, the number of women who read grew.

The conservative Hindus and Muslims reacted in a rather disappointing manner.

The literate girl would become a widow, according to the orthodox and conservative Hindu familial ideology.

The traditional Muslim families believed that their wives would get corrupted if they read Urdu romance novels.

Writing on women’s experiences, such as how they are imprisoned at home, ignorance, forced labour, unfair treatment at home and in society, etc., was Bengali author Kailashbhashini Debi.


6) How was the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2014]


  1. The history of the earliest printing techniques can be summarised as follows: a. Hand printing was initially developed in China, Japan, and Korea.
  2. China is where woodblock printing originated. Using this method, books were printed by rubbing the paper against the woodblocks’ surface.
  3. As more people applied to take the civil services exam, which allowed them to be hired into the vast bureaucratic system, the volume of print increased in China.
  4. The use of print in China was expanded during the 17th century urbanisation. The first people to utilize print were learned officials, businesspeople, wealthy women, wives, and courtesans.
  5. Western printing methods and mechanical presses made it to China’s periphery, and Shanghai as a result became the centre of this new print culture.


7) Martin Luther remarked, “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.” Explain his remarks in the light of religious reforms that took place in Europe. [CBSE 2013]

Answer- Martin Luther’s conduct caused a rift within the church and served as the catalyst for the rise of the Protestant reformers. Because 5000 copies of his translation of the New Testament were sold in a matter of weeks, and because the second edition was released on the market in just three months, Luther claimed that “printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.”

Menocchio was an Italian miller who explained the Bible’s message. His conception of God and creation infuriated the Roman Catholic Church.

Menocchio was hauled up twice before being put to death because the Roman Catholic Church began to identify those who spoke against the church and their ideas, beliefs, and leaders. The church imposed a number of limitations on publishers and retailers, and it also mandated that they abide by the Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.


8) Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside.” Support the statement with any five examples. [CBSE 2013]

Answer – a. Notable female novelists include Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, and George Eliot. These female novelists created a brand-new category of strong, independent women with a strong sense of self. Writing on women’s experiences, such as how they are imprisoned at home, ignorance, forced labour, unfair treatment at home and in society, etc., was Bengali author Kailashbhashini Debi.

  1. Maharashtrian authors Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote about the miserable lives of widows.
  2. Along with domestic and fashion advice, the Hindi printing covered topics like women’s education, widow remarriage, and national movements.
  3. Ram Chaddha of Punjab published Istri Dharm Vichar to instruct women on how to be obedient wives.
  4. The Khalsa Tract Society also discussed the positive traits of women in their writings. Essentially, it took the shape of dialogues.


9) How did a new reading public emerge with the printing press? Explain. [CBSE 2009]


  1. A new culture of reading arose, book prices decreased, publication required less time and labour, more copies were created, and the market became oversaturated with books as a result of the invention of the printing press.
  2. Previously, the society was split into reading(wealthy) and oral(common) cultures.
  3. The texts were read aloud, recited aloud, or narrated to the common people as a group.
  4. The elites were the only ones who had a reading culture, and they only read books aloud to themselves. This culture may have developed because most European nations had very low literacy rates, costlier books, and fewer books published overall.
  5. Popular ballads and folktales that were sung and recited in rural meetings and pubs in towns were published as an effort to address the issue of illiteracy.Thus, the distinction between the oral and the written cultures began to dissolve.


10) How did print introduce debate and discussions? Explain any five points. [CBSE 2011]


  1. The ideas of great thinkers like Voltaire and Rousseau were disseminated through print culture. They questioned the power of the church as well as custom, tradition, and superstition. They want rationality, questioning, and rules of reason.
  2. This sparked debate and discussion, which led to a revaluation of the institutions, norms, and values. It had given rise to the notion of a social revolution.
  3. The social order was questioned and the morality of the royal powers was criticised. The hedonistic pleasures of the rulers and the plight of the common people were shown in the caricatures and cartoons. As a result, the populace opposed the monarchy.
  4. People debated, interpreted, and criticised various religious beliefs during the 19th century. While some people argued against the reform, others refuted the reformers’ claims.

e.Thus, print culture led to widespread debates and discussions.