NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation – Important Questions

Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Social Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.



Multiple Choice Questions  (1 mark each )


  1. E.T. Paull produced a music book announcing the __________
  1. Dawn of the world 
  2. Dream of the century 
  3. Dawn of the century 
  4. Dream of the centenary 

Answer – C. Dawn of the century 


  1. Which nation was the first industrial nation?
  1. Britain
  2. America
  3. France
  4. China

Answer – A. Britain


  1. Most historians refer to the early phase of industrialisation as-
  1. Pre- industrialisation
  2. Proto- industrialisation
  3. Modern- industrialisation
  4. England – industrialisation

Answer – B. Proto industrialisation


  1. Who was a “stapler”?
  1. One who gathers cloth by pleating
  2. One who prepared fibres for spinning 
  3. One who sorts wool according to fibre 
  4. All of the above 

Answer- C. One who sorts wool according to fibre 


  1. A fuller’s job was to ___________
  1. Collect wool
  2. Gather cloth by pleating 
  3. Sorting fabrics 
  4. Preparing fibres 

Answer – B. Gather cloth by pleating


  1. London came to be known as _____________, as that’s where cloth was brought before sale 
  1. Trade centre 
  2. Export centre 
  3. Manufacturing centre 
  4. Finishing centre 

Answer- D. Finishing centre 


  1. Goods in proto- industrial system were largely produced in ______
  1. Homes
  2. Factories
  3. Family farms 
  4. Urban industry

Answer- C. Family farms


  1. The processes of carding, twisting, spinning and rolling are related to production of ________
  1. Silk 
  2. Jute bags 
  3. Cotton 
  4. Shipping 

Answer – C. Cotton


  1. When did the earliest factories in England come by  
  1. 1790s
  2. 1650s
  3. 1730s
  4. 1800s

Answer- C. 1730s


  1. What was the first symbol of the new era? (As its production boomed in the late nineteenth century)
  1. Cotton
  2. Silk
  3. Wool
  4. None of the above

Answer- A. Cotton 


  1. Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from _______ dominated the international market in textiles.
  1. India 
  2. China
  3. Africa
  4. Latin America 

Answer – A. India 


  1. Who created the cotton mill?
  1.  J. J. Thompson
  2. E.L. Paull
  3. Richard Arkwright 
  4. Thomas Alva Edison 

Answer- C. Richard Arkwright


  1. Who built the first steam engine?
  1. James Watt 
  2. Newcomen 
  3. Richard Arkwright 
  4. John Keats 

Answer- B. Newcomen 


  1. Who improved upon the steam engine’s original model?  
  1. James Watt 
  2. Newcomen 
  3. Richard Arkwright 
  4. John Keats 

Answer – A. James Watt improved upon the steam engine created by Newcomen.


  1. Arrange the following processes in appropriate chronological order:
  1. Spinning 
  2. Rolling 
  3. Twisting 
  4. Carding 
  1. (i) > (iv) > (ii)> (iii)
  2. (ii) > (iii) > (i)> (iv)
  3. (iii) > (ii) > (iv)> (i)
  4. (iv) > (iii) > (i)> (ii)

Answer – D. (iv) > (iii) > (i)> (ii)


  1. Earlier, cloth production was spread over the countryside and carried out within households. With the introduction of the cotton mill, which of the following processes became easy?
  1. Careful supervision of production process
  2. Scrutiny over quality of goods
  3. A regulation of labour 
  4. All of the above 

Answer- D. All of the above 


  1. Which were the most dynamic industries in Britain?
  1. Cotton and metal 
  2. Mineral and Fabric 
  3. Cotton and wool
  4. Steel and silk

Answer – A. Cotton and metal 


  1. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, _______ percent of workers were employed in technologically advanced industries.
  1. >20
  2. 50
  3. <20
  4. 30

Answer – C. <20 (less than 20%)


  1. How were cotton and steel industries powered?
  1. Fossil fuels 
  2. Electricity 
  3. Non-conventional energy sources
  4. Steam 

Answer- D. Steam


  1. James Watt improved the ______________produced by Newcomen and patented it in 1781.
  1. Cotton mill 
  2. Steam engine 
  3. Spinning jenny 
  4. Automated spindle
    Answer – B. Steam engine 


  1. In the age of industrialisation, the mid-nineteenth century, the typical worker used to be _____
  1. A machine operator 
  2. A traditional craftsperson 
  3. A labourer
  4. Both B. and C. 

Answer – D. Both B. and C.


  1. For industrialists in Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of ______
  1. Raw material
  2. Capital 
  3. Land 
  4. Labour 

Answer- D. Labour 


  1. Which of the following industries had a seasonal demand for labour?
  1. Gas works and breweries
  2. Printers and book binders 
  3. Ship – repairing 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 


  1. ________________ products came to symbolise refinement and class in Victorian Britain.
  1. Industry produced 
  2. Handmade 
  3. Both A. and B. 
  4. None of the above 

Answer- B. Handmade 


  1. Which of the following were advantages of hand-produced products?
  1. Better finish 
  2. Careful design 
  3. They were exported to colonies
  4. Both A. and B. 

Answer – D. Both A. and B. 


  1. Who devised the spinning jenny?
  1. James Watt 
  2. James Hargreaves
  3. Richard Arkwright 
  4. Newcomen

Answer- B. James Hargreaves


  1. When was the spinning jenny devised?
  1. 1763
  2. 1764
  3. 1765
  4. 1766

Answer – B. 1764


  1. Where did the finer varieties of cotton come from? (Before the industrial age)
  1. Armenia
  2. Persia
  3. India 
  4. Afghanistan

Answer- C. India 


  1. ___________________ was a port that connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports 
  1. Surat, Gujarat 
  2. Masulipatam, Coromandel coast
  3. Hoogley, Bengal
  4. Cochin, Malabar coast 

Answer- A. Surat, Gujarat 


  1. Which of the following ports had trade links with southeast Asian ports?
  1. Masulipatam 
  2. Hoogley 
  3. Goa 
  4. Both A. and B. 

Answer – D. Both A. and B.


  1. What led to decline of old ports like Surat?
  1. Concessions from local courts to European companies 
  2. Monopoly rights of trade for European companies 
  3. European Control on trade ports 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 


  1. As old ports decayed, which of the following ports grew?
  1. Bombay 
  2. Calcutta 
  3. Kochi 
  4. A. and B. 

Answer- D. A. and B. 


  1. Who competed with the East India Company to secure woven cloth?
  1. The French 
  2. Local traders 
  3. The Portuguese
  4. All of the above

Answer – D. All of the above 



  1. What did the duties of gomastha include?
  1. Supervision of weavers
  2. Collection of supplies
  3. Examination of cloth- quality 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 



  1. Who had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality.
  1. Henry Patullo
  2. Paolo Coelho 
  3. Thomas Hardy 
  4. Robert Clive 

Answer – A. Henry Patullo 


  1. What marked the growth of the colonial economy?
  1. Growth of new ports 
  2. Increase in Manchester imports
  3. Decline in exports 
  4. All of the above 

Answer- A. Growth of new ports 


  1. Choose the problems faced by Indian weavers
  1. Shoot in prices of raw cotton 
  2. Machine-goods flooding the market 
  3. Miserably low prices from the Company 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above


  1. When was the first cotton mill set up in Bombay?
  1. 1814
  2. 1864
  3. 1854
  4. 1862

Answer- C. 1854


  1. When was the first jute mill set up in Bengal?
  1. 1855
  2. 1864
  3. 1854
  4. 1862

Answer – A. 1855


  1. In the 1860s, a / an __________ was set up in Kanpur.
  1. Jute mill
  2. Spinning jenny 
  3. Elgin mill
  4. Sugar mill

Answer – C. Elgin mill


  1. Weavers faced a crisis of lack of raw cotton as________
  1. Crops failed 
  2. Local markets collapsed 
  3. Exports flourished 
  4. Imports increased 

Answer- C. Exports of raw cotton flourished 


  1. Who were Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Seth Hukumchand and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata?
  1. Industrialists 
  2. Parsee traders 
  3. Gomasthas
  4. None of the above 

Answer- A. Industrialists 


  1. The new merchants could not set up industry in towns due to –
  1. Powerful trade guilds 
  2. Trade Laws 
  3. Lack of resources 
  4. Lack of willingness

Answer- A. Powerful trade guilds 


  1. Who was a jobber?
  1. An old and trusted worker to get new recruits 
  2. A supervisor in mills
  3. A factory owner 
  4. A mill employee

Answer – A. An old and trusted worker to get new recruits 


  1. Where was the famous Indian lungi and handkerchief industry situated?
  1. Madras 
  2. Ahmedabad
  3. Surat 
  4. Kerala 

Answer – A. Madras 


  1. The early cotton industries in India produced____________
  1. Fine fabrics
  2. Coarse cotton yarn
  3. Low quality cloth
  4. Sophisticated weaves 

Answer – B. Coarse cotton yarn 


  1. During the first world war, Indian factories produced _____________
  1. Jute bags, leather boots
  2. Cloth for army uniforms
  3. Tents, mule saddles 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above


  1. What did labels on cloth contain?
  1. Words 
  2. Texts 
  3. Illustrations 
  4. All of the above 

Answer- D. All of the above 


  1. By late 19th century, a popular way to advertise were the_________
  1. Magazines
  2. Newspapers
  3. Calendars 
  4. Labels 

Answer- C. Calendars 


  1. Whose images did the calendars have?
  1. Gods 
  2. Important personages 
  3. Emperors and nawabs 
  4. All of the above 

Answer – D. All of the above 


Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 mark each )


  1. Which ports in India had trade links with south Asian ports?

Answer – Masulipatam and Hoogley ports in India had trade links with south Asian ports.


  1. What did the term ‘orient’ mean?

Answer – The term ‘orient’ was used to refer to the countries to the east of the Mediterranean, usually referring to Asia, opposite to occidental.


  1. What is carding?

Answer – Carding is the process in which fibres, such as those of cotton and wool. Are prepared before spinning.


  1. When did book- binders and printers reach their peak?

Answer – Book binding and printing industries reached peak during Christmas, in winters.


  1. Which industries preferred hand labour?

Answer – Seasonal industries like gas works, breweries, printers and binders usually preferred hand labour, as they had seasonal demands.


  1. Why did the aristocrats and the Bourgeoisie prefer handmade produce?

Answer – Handmade products symbolised refinement and class- they were better finished and carefully designed- which made them the choice of the elite.


  1. Give 2 examples of goods that machines failed at mass-producing.

Answer- Due to intricate designs, shapes and techniques, the following required human skill to produce:

  1. Woven fabrics like Banarsi sarees or Madras lungis.
  2. Nearly 500 varieties of hammers and 45 kinds of axes.


  1. Why were industrialists keen on using mechanical power in America, and not Britain?

Answer – In countries with labour shortage, like America, mechanical power reduced the need for human labour. On the contrary, Britain had no such problem.


  1. How did the job-seekers spend their time in cities before getting employed?

Answer – Job seekers had to wait for weeks, spending nights under bridges, or night refuges set up by private individuals, or casual wards maintained by poor law authorities.


  1. After the 1840s, how were employment opportunities increased?

Answer – Building activities, such as widening of roads, extension of railway lines, laying of drainage and sewers, digging of tunnels and embankments of rivers, opened up great employment opportunities.


  1. How did the supply merchants’ function in India before machine industries came?

Answer – Supply merchants linked the port towns to inland regions, gave advances to weavers, procured woven cloth and carried it to ports to shippers for export.


  1. Who were sepoys?

Answer- The Hindi word “sipahi” was pronounced this way by the British, referring to Indian soldiers working for the British.


  1. Mention 2 problems faced by cotton weavers in India.

Answer- The 2 problems faced by cotton weavers in India were: collapse of export market, and shrink in local market as it was gutted with Manchester imports.


  1. How did the prices of raw cotton shoot up in India by the 1860s?

Answer – As civil war broke out in America, Britain turned to India for raw cotton and exports from India increased, leading to shoot in prices.


  1. What happened to Indian merchants as colonial control over India tightened?

Answer- Indian merchants became increasingly limited in function – they were barred from trading with Europe in manufacturing goods and were edged out of shipping business.


  1. Name three European managing agencies, which controlled a large sector of Indian industries until WW-I.

Answer- Bird Heiglers and Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner and Co.


  1. What was the function of European managing agencies?

Answer- The European managing agencies procured capital from Indian financiers and made all investment and business decisions.


  1. Who was a jobber?

Answer – A jobber was an old and trusted employee, hired by industrialists to get new recruits for work.


  1. How did jobbers become people of authority and power?

Answer-  A jobber got people from villages, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided financial aid in times of crisis – hence becoming a person with some authority and power.


  1. What were the major interests of the European Managing Industries?

Answer- The major interests of the European Managing Industries were- tea and coffee plantations, acquiring cheap land, mining, indigo and jute – prominently for export.


Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each) 


Q1. Who were jobbers? Describe their functioning.

Answer – Jobbers were employees of industrialists for the purpose of getting new recruits. Very often, a jobber was an old and trusted worker. Their role included carrying out the following activities

(i) Get people from the village and ensure them jobs.

(ii) Help them settle in the city after getting work.

(iii) Provide them with financial aid in times of crisis.



Q2. How did the trade monopoly of the east India company affect the Indian weavers?

Answer- The Indian weaver was affected in the following manner-

(i) The company gave them loans to purchase raw materials.

(ii) As demand expanded, they eagerly took advances and leased out land that acted as a secondary source of income.

(iii) The price received from the company was miserably low and the loans and advances tied them to the company.


Q3. How did the first world war lead to a boom in Indian industries?

Answer- Indian industries grew rapidly during the war as-

(i) New industries were established to meet war demand 

(ii) Indian industries produced cloth for uniforms, jute bags, leather shoes, tents etc.

(iii) This also led to increased employment opportunities.


Q4. What reasons made it difficult for new merchants to establish trade in towns?

Answer- New merchants face the following challenges to establishment of new trade in towns-

(i)In towns, the guild system was powerful

(ii)These guilds discouraged new entrants 

(iii)The production was controlled and workers required training too



Q5. What was the role of Gomasthas?

Answer- Gomasthas were employed by the East India company to supervise the quality of woven cloth. There role included the following activities-

(i)Gomasthas gave loans to the weavers

(ii)They also restricted their agency into the local market.

(iii)They examined the quality of cloth weaved as well.

(iv)They were outsiders for the villagers who acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays.


Q6. Why were new industries unable to replace the traditional ones fully?

Answer- Certain traditionally produced products required skills which couldn’t be imitated by a machine, industrial machines hence could not entirely replace the traditional hands- 

(i) There were slow changes in technology, as it was unconventional and expensive to set up.

(ii) As labour was easily available, the industrialists were unwilling to set up costly machinery.

(iii) A large number of handloom products had steady demand in the market, especially from the affluent sections.



Q7. How did the Indian trade network begin to decline?

Answer- By the 1750s the Indian trade network was breaking down.

(i) As European companies gradually gained power, securing concessions from local courts and then monopoly rights of trade.

(ii) This led to decline in old ports like Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated.

(iii) Exports fell dramatically, credit dried up and local bankers slowly became bankrupt.



Q8. How did European products become popular through advertisement?

Answer- Advertisements played a central role in expansion of markets for products, and in shaping new customer culture.

(i) Advertisement calendars were widely used as they communicated through pictures, hence reaching even to the illiterate.

(ii) On cloth labels, there were pictures of gods, and prominent kings and nawabs – which seemed to guarantee their quality

(iii)These pictures also made the produce look familiar to Indians.



Q9. Why did British industrialists prefer hand labour over machines?

Answer- The reasons for the British industrialists to prefer hand labour over machines are as under – 

(i) Hand labour was available in ample quantities and was cheap.

(ii) Installing new machinery required huge capital investment

(iii) Some intricate works could only be done by human hands.

(iv) Hand labour suited seasonal industries better.



Q10. What is the picture on the famous book by E.T. Paull – “Dawn of the Century” indicating?

Answer – The Dawn of the Century –

(i) Depicts an angel of progress, bearing a flag and gently perched on a wheel with wings symbolising time.

(ii) A flight is being taken into the future.

(iii) Behind her, there are progressive inventions such as railways, cameras, printing presses and factory machinery.



Q11. Which problems did the Indian weavers face in the early 19th century?

Answer – The Indian weavers faced the following issues in the early nineteenth century- 

(i) Shortage of raw materials- with increase in raw cotton exports to Britain, the prices shot up.

(ii) Clashes with the gomasthas- they withheld some authority and power and acted arrogantly and abusively towards weavers.

(iii) System of advances- the weavers took loans and advances from the company eagerly, but were paid miserably for their produce.



Q12. What were trade guilds? How did they discourage new merchants from entering town?

Answer- Guilds were associations of industrial manufacturers who trained the workers, controlled production, and regulated prices and competition in the business.

(i) They had procured concessions and monopoly right through local authorities

(ii) The entry to such guilds was also restricted.



Q13. What was the impact of the new trade framework with monopoly of the East India Company?

Answer- The impact of the new trade framework with monopoly of the East India Company- 

(i) Weavers were caught in a loop of advances and loans followed by miserably paid work

(ii) They were forced to spend all their time to weaving along with their entire families

(iii) Due to this lack of time, they leased out whatever land they owned as secondary source of income

(iv) They had clashes with gomasthas.

(v) Many of them migrated in search of a better future.



Q14. Why did many workers oppose the use of the spinning jenny?

Answer- The following are the reasons why many workers oppose the use of the spinning jenny- 

(i) Spinning jenny was devised by James Hargreaves in 1764 for use in the woollen industry.

(ii) This machine increased the spinning process’s efficacy manifold and led to numerous spinners losing their jobs.

(iii) This caused an increase in unemployment and those who lost jobs violently attacked the manufacturers’ property.

(iv) The fear or suffering of unemployment made them violent.


Source Based Questions (1mark  X 4 = 4 marks each)


Q 1. Look at the following image and answer the questions that follow-

two magicians

Image credits – 

NCERT, Textbook in History for class 10 – ‘India and the Contemporary World’


i. Who is the oriental magician?

Answer- Aladdin with his magic lamp

ii. Who is the occidental magician?

Answer – The modern mechanic 

iii. What does the oriental magician represent?

Answer- Aladdin represents the east and the past

iv. What does the occidental magician signify?

Answer- The modern mechanic stands for the west and modernity. He weaves magic with his modern tools – buildings, bridges and ships.


Q2. Look at the following source.


Image credits – 

NCERT, Textbook in History for class 10 – ‘India and the Contemporary World’


i. Name any 2 old ports, prominent before machine industries.

Answer- Hoogly and Masulipatam.

ii. Name new emergent ports with increasing colonial control.

Answer- Bombay and Calcutta.

iii. Which Gujarat port connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea port?

Answer- Surat port.

iv. Name a coromandel port that had trade with southeast Asia.

Answer- Masulipatam port.


Q3. Will Thorne is one of those who went to London in search of seasonal work, loading bricks and doing odd jobs. He says, “I have always wanted to go to London…and my desire was stimulated by my friend’s letters. With two friends I started to walk the journey, filled with hope that we would be able to find employment…. we had little money when we started…for two days we slept out…The next day we went to apply for work and I was given a job”

Now answer the questions that follow

i. Why did industrialists, in Victorian Britain, not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour?

Answer- There was plenty of low waged labour available that didn’t require large capital investment.

ii. Name any 2 industries with seasonal labour demand

Answer- Binding and printing industry, breweries.

iii. Mention any 2 places of refuge for people in search of work.

Answer- Casual Wards by the Poor Law authorities, Night Refuges set up by private individuals.

iv, What did London come to be known as? 

Answer- ‘Finishing centre’ for cloth.


Q4. A magistrate reported in 1790 about an incident when he was called in to protect a manufacturer’s property from attacks of workers.

‘From the depredations of a lawless banditti of colliers and their wives, for the wives had lost their work to spinning engines…which they suppose, if generally adopted, will lessen the demand for manual labour. The women became clamorous.’

Now answer the questions

i. Women, who survived on hand spinning, began attacking which machine of the woollen industry?

Answer – The spinning jenny 

ii. Who devised the spinning jenny?

Answer – James Hargreaves.

iii. When was the spinning jenny devised?

Answer – 1764

iv, Name any 2 inventions which sped up industrialisation.

Answer – The cotton mill and the steam engine.


Long Answer Type Questions (5 marks each)


  1. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton textiles from Indian weavers? 

Answer- The East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton textiles from Indian weavers in the following manner- 

(i) After establishing political power in India, the East India Company asserted monopoly right to trade. 

(ii) Then the company developed a system that would eliminate competition, control costs, and would ensure a regular supply of cotton and silk by limiting the weavers’ access to local markets and entrapping them in a system of advances.

(iii) The Company appointed Gomasthas to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth produced by them.

(iv) To directly control weavers, the company started the system of advances. According to this system, once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material. They had to hand over the produce to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.

(v) This led to huge suffering for the weavers and they suffered immensely.


  1. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?


(i) During the First World War, Manchester was busy with war production. So, their export to India declined. 

(ii) Because of this, Indian cotton mills suddenly got a huge opportunity to supply to the market.

(iii) As the war continued, Indian mills were asked to supply jute bags, uniform for war, leather shoes, fabrics for tents and other war related produce

(iv) To meet up these demands, new industries were established and the production system boomed. 

(v) Even after the War Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Britain failed to compete with the progress of the USA and Japan and its economy collapsed. As cotton cloth production declined in Britain, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position in the international market.


  1. What was Proto-industrialisation? Explain in detail.

Answer – Proto- industrialisation is explained below- 

(i) The earliest stage of industrialization, when manual labour constituted the majority of production, is referred to as proto-industrialization by historians.

(ii) It was ruled by business guilds or merchants with a monopoly on commerce and manufacture of those times.

(iii) Members of the household used to work on the production in family farms. The production facilities were built in rural areas, or the countryside.

(iv) The income from these manufacturing activities added on to the income of rural households and improved their financial conditions. 

(v) This stage/ period in the history of industrialisation formed the basis for the industrial revolution in the coming years.


  1. Explain any five ways by which new markets and consumers were created in India by British manufacturers.

The following are the five ways by which new markets and consumers were created in India by British manufacturers- 

(i) The products were advertised through newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, etc. to appear desirable and also essential to the potential consumers.

(ii) Products like cloth were labelled with place of manufacturing along with the company’s name to make the consumer familiar with the product and brand while creating an identity in the market.

(iii) Images of Indian gods and goddesses were also illustrated to show the association with Gods and depict an approval of the advertised product by the Gods.

(iv) Manufactures also printed calendars to popularise their product. They visually appealed to the people who could not read.

(v) Nationalist messages were also used to popularise the product and expand the market within the country.


  1. Why were there frequent clashes between Gomasthas and weavers in the villages? Explain five reasons. 

Answer-The following were the reasons for the clashes between the gomasthas and the weavers in the villages –
(i) The gomasthas were outsiders and had no social link with villagers, the village weavers  thus had feelings of unfamiliarity with them.

(ii) They were arrogant and marched into the village with sepoys and peons to assert their authority onto the weavers.

(iii) They punished weavers for any delay in supply.

(iv) The weavers could not sell their clothes to other buyers because they had to sell to the company due to the loans they took from them, this dramatically shrank their reach within the market and hence their incomes too.

(v) They had to accept the price offered by the company to them, even though it was very low.


  1. How, in spite of the strict economic restrictions enforced by the British Government, did many Indian entrepreneurs survive?

Answer- The reasons listed below explain why many Indian entrepreneurs continue to thrive in the face of severe economic restrictions imposed by the British government- 

(i) Indian merchants avoided competing with Manchester products in the Indian market when they first started establishing industries in the late nineteenth century.

(ii) Nationalists encouraged people to boycott foreign clothing as the Swadeshi movement reached its zenith, and it had impacts on a large extent.

(iii) Industrial associations formed themselves to safeguard their group interests as well as protect their positions in the market.

(iv) They put pressure on the administration to increase tariff protection and make other changes.

(v) Indian entrepreneurs started making fabric when the demand for Chinese and Japanese yarn caused the export of Indian yarn to China to drop.


  1. Describe any five major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the industrial revolution.

Answer –  Before the industrial revolution, the following problems were faced by the new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns- 

(i) Due to expansion of world trade, the merchants wanted to expand their production. But trade and craft guilds were very powerful.

(ii) They could create many problems for the merchants in their towns. 

(iii) Rulers had granted the monopoly rights to different guilds to produce and trade in specific products, this further discouraged new merchants.

(iv) In the countryside, peasants and artisans were available for work and most of the production work was based in rural regions.

(v) Craft guilds were very powerful. They maintain control over production, regulated completion and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.


  1. Why were hand made products preferred in Victorian Britain? Explain any five reasons.

Answer – In Victorian Britain,  hand made products were preferred for the following reasons-

(i) Handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class, and received constant demand from the elite and aristocratic class.

(ii) They were better finished and sometimes involved intricate skills of craftsmen to be made, and hence were also more expensive and valuable.

(iii) They were each individually produced by the artisans.

(iv) They were carefully designed and symbolised eleganc.

(v)  Machine made goods were common and were meant for export to the colonies.

(vi) There was also a certain lack of uniformity in goods produced by hand sometimes, especially art or texts, this gave the owner a feeling that they own a unique piece which isn’t the exact same as any other.


  1. How were the lives of workers negatively affected due to abundance of labour? Explain.


  (i) The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers adversely. When there is plenty of labour, the wages are low. This led to underpaid labour.

(ii) As the labourers were available in huge numbers with no systematic way of getting hired, the actual possibility of getting a job depended on connections through friends and family. 

(iii) Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters , even in cold or harsh climates.

(iv) There was a seasonal demand for labour in many industries which led to unemployment for the remaining time of the year.

(v) Workers also had no job security. With the introduction of new machinery, most work was being automated and they were constantly being thrown out of work.


  1. Why did technological advances occur very slowly?

Answer – The following points explain why technological advances occurred very slowly- 

(i) New technology required huge capital to set up and maintain, which was either unavailable to most industrialists or seemed unneccessary.

(ii) Manufacturers were sceptical of the promises and claims made by the inventors of the new technology or machinery as they drastically differed from conventional industrial practices.

(iii) Most of the manufacturing or production work was effectively, cost-efficiently done due to abundance of low-waged labour, especially in the countryside where most of the manufacturing was based.

(iv) Especially for seasonal industries, investment in machinery made little sense for the owners when they could easily get labour when their seasons peaked.

(v) There were also prejudices and taboo surrounding these unconventional technological advances.