NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India – Important Questions

 

Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Social Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (1 Mark Each)

 

  1. When was the oppressive Rowlatt act passed ?
  1. 1918
  2. 1917
  3. 1919
  4. 1921

Ans – c

 

  1. The “Purna Swaraj ” was formalised in the congress session of –

  (choose correct combination of time and place)

  1. 1921 , Poona
  2. 1929, Lahore
  3. 1925, Kolkata 
  4. 1929, Bombay

Ans : b

 

  1. Who created the first image of Bharat Mata ?
  1. Rabindranath Tagore 
  2. Raja Rammohun Roy 
  3. Abanindranath Tagore
  4. Bankim chandra Chatterjee

Ans : c

 

  1. Which act bound the tea plantation workers of Assam to be confined into the plantations?
  1. Inland immigration act, 1859
  2. Inland Emigration act , 1859
  3. Indian Emigration act , 1859
  4. Inland Emigration Act, 1865

Ans : b

 

  1. Who is the author of the book “Hind Swaraj”?
  1. Sardar Patel
  2. Lala Lajpat Rai
  3. Mahatma Gandhi
  4. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Ans : c

 

  1. When did Gandhi-ji lead the Ahmedabad Mill- workers’ satyagraha? 
  1. 1916
  2. 1917
  3. 1918
  4. 1919

Ans : c

 

  1. The depressed classes association was established by – 
  1. Jawaharlal Nehru
  2. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar 
  3. C. R. Das 
  4. Netaji S. C. Bose

Ans : b

 

  1. Gandhiji returned to India in –
  1. 1885
  2. 1905
  3. 1916
  4. 1915

Ans : d

 

  1. Who put forward the vague offer for “Dominion Status” of India in 1929?
  1. Viceroy Lord Irwin
  2. Sir John Simon 
  3. A. O. Hume
  4. Lord Curzon 

Ans : a

 

  1. The muslim league was formed in- 
  1. 1905
  2. 1904
  3. 1906
  4. 1903

Ans: c

 

  1. Who among the following wrote the Vande Mataram ? [CBSE OD, Set 1, 2020]
  1. Rabindranath Tagore
  2. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
  3. Abindranath Tagore 
  4. Dwarkanath Tagore

 

Ans: b

 

  1.  Certain events are given below. Choose the appropriate chronological order : [CBSE OD, Set 1, 2020]
  2. Coming of Simon Commission to India 
  3. Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC.
  4. Government of India Act, 1919
  5. Champaran Satyagraha

 

Choose the correct option :

a 3 – 2 – 4 – 1 

b 1 – 2 – 4 – 3

c 2 – 3 – 1 – 4

d 4 – 3 – 1 – 2

Ans: d

 

  1. Name the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]
  1. Sardar Patel
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. Mahatma Gandhi
  4. Bankimchandra Chatterjee

     Ans: c

 

  1. What is the meaning of ‘Begar’? [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 2, 2017]
  1. forced labour 
  2. free food
  3. an agricultural system
  4. a vocation

Ans : a

 

  1.  Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath’.  [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]
  1. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
  2. Sharat Chandra 
  3. Premchand 
  4. Rabindranath Tagore

       Ans : a

 

  1.  Who organised Dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930? [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 2, 2017]
  1. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar 
  2. Motilal Nehru 
  3. Baba Ramchandra 
  4. Mahatma Gandhi

  Ans : a

 

  1.  Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932? [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 3, 2017]
  1. First round table conference
  2. Gandhi-irwin pact 
  3. Poona pact 
  4. Third round table conference 

Ans :  c.

 

  1. What did the Rowlatt Act, 1919 presume?
  1. detention of political prisoners without trial
  2. forced recruitment in the army
  3. forced manual labour 
  4. equal pay for equal work

Ans: a

 

  1. What did the term ‘picket’ refer to?
  1. stealing from shops
  2. import of goods
  3. protest by blocking shop entrances
  4. boycott of clothes and  goods

Ans: a

 

  1. What was the effect of the Non-cooperation movement on the plantation workers in Assam?
  1. They left the plantations and headed home
  2. They went on a strike
  3. They destroyed the plantations
  4. None of these

Ans: a

 

  1. What was the main problem with the Simon Commission?
  1. It was an all British commission
  2. It was formed in Britain
  3. It was set up in response to the nationalist movement
  4. All of the above

Ans: a

 

  1. Where was Gandhi’s ashram located?
  1. Dandi
  2. Sabarmati
  3. Allahabad
  4. Nagpur

Ans: b

 

  1. Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by:
  1. Jawaharlal Nehru
  2. Mahatma Gandhi
  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  4. None of these

Ans: a

 

  1. A militant Guerrilla movement spread in:
  1. Garo hills
  2. Khasi hills
  3. Gudem hills
  4. All of these

Ans: c

 

  1. The ______  Round Table Conference which was boycotted by the Congress.
  1. Second
  2. Third 
  3. Fourth
  4. First

Ans: d

 

  1. Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries was formed by:
  1. British traders
  2. Indian farmers
  3. Indian merchants
  4. None of these

Ans: c

 

  1. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India from South Africa?
  1. 1919
  2. 1913
  3. 1915
  4. 1921

Ans: c

 

  1. What did Mahatma Gandhi in his book, Hind Swaraj, declare?
  1. British ruled India because Indians cooperated with them
  2. British ruled India because the latter was militarily weak
  3. British ruled India because they got international support
  4. None of these

Ans: a

 

  1. Who led the peasants in Awadh?
  1. Baba Ramchandra
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. Mahatma Gandhi
  4. None of these 

Ans: a

 

  1. What did the term ‘begar’ mean?
  1. Labour without payment
  2. High rents demanded by landlords
  3. Payment of wages
  4. None of these

Ans: a

 

  1. What led to the Civil Disobedience Movement?
  1. Working at the farm without payments
  2. Fall in demand for agricultural goods
  3. Violation of salt tax by Gandhi
  4. Arrival of the Simon Commission

Ans: c

 

  1. Who were the ‘Sanatanis’?
  1. High caste Hindus 
  2. Dalits
  3. Saints
  4. None of these

Ans: a

 

  1. What moved Abanindranath Tagore to paint the famous image of Bharat Mata?
  1. Civil Disobedience Movement
  2. Swadeshi Movement
  3. Quit India Movement
  4. All of these 

Ans: b

 

  1. Who was Sir Mohammad Iqbal?
  1. Gandhiji’s devout disciple
  2. Congress President
  3. President of the Muslim League, 1930
  4. None of these

Ans: c

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true about the Jallianwalla Bagh incident?
  1. Dyer’s aim was to produce a moral effect of great terror and awe in the minds of the satyagrahis
  2. General Dyer blocked all exit points, and stop the opened fire on the peaceful crowd
  3. Gandhiji went on indefinite fast to repression by the British
  4. Crowds took to the streets in many Indian towns, attacking the police and government buildings

Ans: c

 

  1. Which of the following was not a part of Gandhiji’s satyagraha?
  1. A physical force which sought destruction of the enemy
  2. Satyagraha as a pure soul-force
  3. Emphasis on the power of truth and search for truth
  4. Not a weapon of the weak but a weapon which forced the adversary to accept the truth without violence

Ans: a

 

  1. The first three successful Satyagraha movements by Gandhiji in India were:
  1. Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Khilafat
  2. Peasants Movements in Champaran in Bihar, Kheda district in Gujarat and in Ahmedabad by cotton mill workers
  3. Khilafat movement, Non-Cooperation and Quit India movement
  4. Against the Rowlatt Act, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India

Ans: b

 

  1. When and where was the Non-Cooperation program adopted by the Congress?
  1. At Bombay in December 1920
  2. At Nagpur in December 1920
  3. At Surat in December 1920
  4. At Calcutta in January 1921

Ans: b

 

  1. The various social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement of 1921, were:
  1. The Brahmans in cities, the peasants in the villages and workers in villages
  2. The rich in the cities, the poor in the villages and the people in plantations
  3. The middle class in cities, the peasants and the tribal in the countryside and plantation workers
  4. The students in cities, the farmers in villages and the owners of the plantations

Ans: c

 

  1. Why did Gandhi ji urge the Congress to join the Khilafat Movement?
  1. He knew that only hindus can launch broad-based movement
  2. He knew that only muslims can launch broad-based movement
  3. He saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement
  4. He wanted to support the Khilafat alone

Ans: c

 

  1. The Non-Cooperation Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in support of:
  1. Swaraj
  2. Chauri Chaura
  3. Khilafat and Swaraj
  4. Khilafat

Ans: c

 

  1. The tribals’ chanting Gandhiji’s name and raising slogans demanding ‘Swatantra Bharat’ as:
  1. The various ways in which ‘Swaraj’ was interpreted by different people
  2. They were a unifying force of the Non-Cooperation Movement
  3. It showed the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi
  4. They were going beyond their own locality and emotionally identifying with an all-India movement

Ans: d

 

  1. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra was:
  1. Venkata Raju
  2. Baba Ramchandra
  3. Alluri Sitaram Raju
  4. Jawahar Lal Nehru

Ans: c

 

  1. Baba Ramchandra was :
  1. a yoga trainer who was also a peasant
  2. Founder of the Kisan Sabha of Awadh in October 1920 along with Jawahar Lal Nehru
  3. Leader of the peasants revolt in Awadh
  4. None of these 

Ans:

 

  1. The Swaraj Party was formed by:
  1. Nehru and Bose who wanted full independence
  2. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru as they wanted to enter the Provincial Councils and oppose British policies
  3. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose to oppose Gandhiji’s policies
  4. The young leaders in Congress who were against mass struggles

Ans: b

 

  1. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of ___could unite all Indians
  1. fights
  2. violence
  3. non-violence
  4. truth

Ans: c

 

  1. Why did production of Indian textiles and handloom go up during the Non- Cooperation Movement?
  1. Foreign cloth was burnt in huge bonfires
  2. The import of foreign clothes was halved and the value dropped from Rs 102 crores to Rs 57 crores
  3. People discarded imported clothes and wore only Indian ones
  4. All of these 

Ans: d

 

  1. When did the Bardoli satyagraha take place?
  1. 1918
  2. 1928
  3. 1925
  4. 1929

Ans: b
 

 
 

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE (1 MARK EACH)

  1. What is meant by Satyagraha? [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 3, 2017]

Ans-    The nonviolent approach of mass protest against the oppressor is called satyagraha. The power of truth was emphasised by the Satyagraha movement.

 

  1. What was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s proposal for Dalits?

Ans- The Dalits were organised into the Depressed Classes Association by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. At the Second Round Table Conference, he disagreed with Mahatma Gandhi by calling for separate electorates for Dalits

 

  1. How was Abnindranath Tagore’s artwork of Bharat Mata depicted?

Ans- Bharat Mata is depicted as an ascetic figure in his picture; she is serene, collected, divine, and spiritual.

 

  1. What was the Rowlatt Act of 1919?

Ans- It granted the British government the authority to stifle political activity and permitted the two-year imprisonment of political prisoners without charge.

 

  1. Name the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Ans- The author of “Hind Swaraj” is Mahatma Gandhi.

 

  1. Why did Indians oppose the ‘Simon Commission’? [CBSE Delhi, Set 3, 2020]

Ans– The “Simon Commission,” which was established to provide an account of how the Indian Constitution was functioning without any Indian representation, was opposed by Indians.

 

  1. Why did farmers in Kheda revolt against the British?

Ans– The peasants of Kheda demanded that the tax be released because they were unable to pay taxes due to crop failure and a plague pandemic.

 

  1. What was the length of the Dandi March and how long did it last?

Ans– Gandhiji walked ten miles per day for 24 days to cover more than 240 miles to Dandi.

 

  1. Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath’. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Ans– The author of this novel is Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

 

  1. Irwin-Gandhi Pact: What was it?

Ans– Gandhiji agreed to attend a Round Table Conference in London, and the government decided to release the political prisoners.

 

  1. When did the  Jallianwala Bagh massacre take place?

Ans –  The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th of April, 1919.

 

  1. In which novel was the hymn ‘Vande Mataram’ included and who was the novel written by? (2014 OD)

Ans – The hymn was included in the novel- “Anandmath”, which was written by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay.

 

  1. Name two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.

Ans – 1916- indigo plantation satyagraha, Champaran, Bihar

1917- peasants’ movement against revenue, Kheda, Gujarat 

 

  1. Why was the Khilafat movement started? (2012 OD)

 Ans – The Khilafat movement was against the harsh treaty imposed on the Turkish Ottoman empire’s Khalifa and its dismemberment and was seen as a way of uniting the masses against the British by Mahatma Gandhi with Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali.

 

  1. Mention the colours used by Mahatma Gandhi in the Swaraj Flag designed by him in 1921.

Ans – red, white and green.

 

  1. Who led the Bardoli satyagraha of 1928 in Gujarat?

Ans – Sardar Vallabh-bhai Patel.

 

  1. State the slogan with which Simon Commission was greeted in 1928 in India.  [CBSE 2016]

Ans –  ‘Simon go back’.

 

  1. What is meant by Satyagraha? [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 3, 2017]

Ans. Satyagraha is a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. 
 

 
 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE (3 MARKS EACH)

 

  1. Explain the effect of the ‘Boycott movement on foreign textile trade’  [CBSE Delhi, Set 1, 2020]

Ans– Members of the Justice Party who were non-Brahmins had so far been unable to defeat Brahman candidates in elections. They saw it as a fantastic chance for them to join the councils. They consequently opted against skipping council elections.

Because the movement was sparked by middle-class participation in the cities, the implications of non-cooperation were more pronounced on the economic front. Thousands of students dropped out of government-run schools and colleges, principals and teachers quit, and attorneys stopped practising law. Foreign goods were shunned and liquor stores were picketed.

The “Boycott Movement”’s effects on international textile commerce included picketing liquor stores, a boycott of foreign goods, and massive bonfires burning foreign clothing.

 

  1. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw from the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in February 1922? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Ans-The following are the reasons for the Non-Cooperation Movement getting withdrawn:

(i) In Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur), Uttar Pradesh, several Non-Cooperation Movement members set a police station on fire, killing 21 police officers.

(ii) Gandhiji believed that the Indian people were not prepared for a widespread movement of mass struggle and that he should call off the movement.

(iii) In addition, many Indian National Congress members believed that the Non-Cooperation Movement was pointless and boring because they intended to run for office.

 

  1. Why did anti-colonial movements become more prevalent in the colonies? [HOTS]

Ans– By the turn of the 20th century, nationalism had risen as a result of anti-colonial movements in the majority of the colonies.

Exploitation during colonialism made people poor and miserable. They were all opposed to foreign authority and hated it.

In the course of opposing colonialism, people in colonies started to realise their solidarity.

Each class and group suffered colonialism’s effects. They shared a feeling of unity and hate for imperial tyrants.

The British divide-and-conquer strategy exposed the true nature of their authority and was sufficient to establish national sentiments among Indians.

 

  1. What was the Khilafat Movement?

Ans– The Ali brothers, Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali were the ones who founded the movement. They started it to express their allegiance to Khalifa, the Ottoman Empire’s ruler A Khilafat Committee was established in India to try to preserve Khalifa, who had been overthrown by the British following World War I.

 

  1. Explain any three effects of the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ on the economic front. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 3, 2017]

Ans– The Indian nationalist revolution’s non-cooperation movement had a significant impact on the economy. The primary outcomes were: Shop owners and the general public boycott “Foreign Goods” in response to the appeal of the non-cooperation campaign.

(ii) The middle class provided a significant amount of support for the movement in cities by picketing liquor stores and burning a significant amount of foreign clothing.

(iii) As the movement gained traction, the import of imported clothing was cut in half.

(iv) In many locations, traders and merchants declined to finance or trade in foreign goods.

 

  1. Why did the Indian National Congress go from Swaraj to Purna Swaraj as its objective?[HOTS]

Ans– During the Non-Cooperation Movement, Congress stated that Swaraj was its ultimate aim. However, due to the occurrences between 1926 and 1929, it changed its objective to Purna Swaraj or total independence. The national leaders of India were driven to demand independence due to the British government’s treatment of the Indian people.

(i) The arrival of the Simon Commission in 1928, which the Indians rejected because it made no promises of concessions. It didn’t have any Indian representatives either.

(ii) Cruel handling of the protesters.

(iii) The Viceroy’s vague offer of Dominion Status, did not appease Congress leaders.

(iv) Radical leaders in Congress, like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose, grew increasingly outspoken and wanted complete freedom.

(v) A resolution on Purna Swaraj and total independence was adopted during the Lahore Session.

(vi) The industrialists, led by well-known businessmen like Purushottam Das Tandon and G.D. Birla, criticised the colonial government and backed Congress.

 

  1. ‘‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’’ Support the statement with examples. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2016]

Ans-The Non-Cooperation Movement was distinct from the Civil Disobedience Movement. The following are the two movements’ primary distinctions:

(i) Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921, but the Civil Disobedience Movement was started in 1930.

(ii) While industrialists like GD Birla and Purshottamdas Thakur first backed the civil disobedience movement, the non-cooperation movement was founded with middle class involvement.

(iii) The Muslim community took a significant part in the Non-Cooperation as a result of Khalifa problems. But the Muslims were discouraged from taking part in the Civil Disobedience Movement by the Congress party’s increasing alliance with the Hindu Mahasabha.

 

  1. ‘‘The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its program of struggle.’’ Analyse the reasons. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2015]

Ans– Congress wants to take into account the needs of the general public, not just certain classes or organisations. Additionally, the industrialists gave Congress financial support. Therefore, the industrialists would be outraged if the workers’ demands were incorporated. In order to avoid undermining industrialists and fostering

 

  1. How did B.R. Ambedkar represented the Dalits’ cause and brought it to the British parliament?

Ans– (i) Dalits were organised into the Depressed Classes Association by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in 1930.

(ii) He disagreed with Mahatma Gandhi during the Second Round Table Conference by arguing that the Dalits should have their own electorates. 

(iii) Dalits started organising themselves and calling for reserved seats in educational institutions and a distinct electorate, which they could only obtain by becoming politically powerful, for which Dr. Ambedkar gave them his complete support.

 

  1. Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints, etc., in shaping nationalism during the freedom struggle. [CBSE Delhi, Term 2, Set 1, 2017]

Ans-During the war for liberation, popular prints, music, folklore, history, and literature all had a significant impact on the nationalism that prevailed. The following characteristics can be used to define it:

The Bharat Mata picture, sculpted by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, came to symbolise the identity of India. He also created “Vande Matram” as a patriotic anthem.

 In the same manner, the khadi and charkha worn by Mahatma Gandhi came to represent dissent and struggle.

 

  1. Explain the effects of ‘worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards the late 1920s. 

Ans –  By the 19th century, India had become an exporter of agricultural goods and raw           materials , and importer of industrially manufactured goods.

  • The worldwide economic depression drastically affected the economy of that time.
  • Both imports and exports halved between 1928-34 
  • The revenue demands of the colonial government were still the same, despite a fall in agricultural prices- leading to an increase in indebtedness
  • The prices fell in international markets, and producers (agricultural, jute etc.) suffered to find a market.
  • By 1930, there was immense turmoil.

 

SOURCE- BASED QUESTIONS (4 PARTS x 1 MARK PER QUESTION= 4 MARKS EACH)

 

1- MAHATMA GANDHI ON SATYAGRAHA 

‘It is said of “PASSIVE RESISTANCE” that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can only be used by the strong. This power is not passive resistance, indeed it calls for activity. The movement in south africa was not passive but active …. ’

  1. What is meant by satyagraha?
  1. That truth is ultimate and must be searched for.
  1. What is “supreme dharma” by Gandhiji?
  1. Non- violence
  1. What did Mahatma Gandhi envision as the ‘religion of India’?
  1. Non- violence
  1. When did Gandhiji return from Africa ?
  1. 1915

 

2- Excerpt from-  THE INDEPENDENCE DAY PLEDGE, 26 JAN. 1930

“We believe that it is the unalienable right of the Indian people, to have freedom and enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if a government deprives the people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it…. ”

 

  1. Which congress session formalised the demand for Purna Swaraj?
  1. Lahore session of 1929
  1. In which book does this idea first find a mention?
  1. “Hind swaraj ” by M.K. Gandhi
  1. Which day was decided as the independence day?
  1. 26 january, 1930
  1. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose were _____ leaders among the congress.
    1. Liberals
    2. Radicals
    3. Moderates
  1. Radicals

 

 
 

LONG ANSWER TYPE  (5 MARKS EACH )

 

  1. Describe the main features of the ‘Poona Pact‘. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2015]

Ans-The pact that Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi signed on September 24, 1932 is known as the Poona Pact.

The following were the main tenets of this agreement:

(i) In the provincial legislatures, the disadvantaged classes were to receive 148 seats. In comparison to the 71 seats guaranteed in the communal award, this was more than twice as many.

(ii) The downtrodden classes would be given a certain percentage of the seats allocated to the general non-Muslim electorate.

(iii) Congress must concur that the underrepresented classes will get appropriate representation in the civil service.

(iv) The depressed classes consented to follow the Joint Electorate’s tenets.

 

  1. How did ‘Salt March’ become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 1, 2015]

Ans-Mahatma Gandhi saw salt as a potent symbol that might bring the country together.

Gandhiji listed his eleven requests in a letter to Viceroy Irwin. The demand to eliminate the salt tax was the one that stirred people the most. Rich and poor alike devoured salt, which was considered to be the most important component of diet. Irwin refused to compromise, so Gandhiji organised 78 people and began the Salt March. He arrived in Dandi on April 6th, broke the law, and produced salt. People from all around the nation participated in this march, defied the salt ban by producing their own salt, and protested in front of the government’s salt plants.

 

  1. Describe the peasants’ complaints against the government. What actions were taken to coordinate the peasant movement in order to meet their demands? [HOTS]

Ans– People from various groups and sectors had varied perspectives on non-cooperation and responded in various ways. However, they were all motivated by Gandhiji and reacted to the demand of Swaraj.

Through the Satyagraha approach, the movement in cities began with middle class participation, including students, teachers, lawyers, members of the government services, and legislative councils.

It brought rural tribes and peasants into the fold of the movement. Baba Ramchandra was the leader of the peasants of Awadh.

They started the campaign in opposition to wealthy talukdars and landowners who sought excessive land rents and other cesses. Peasants were made to perform begar on the talukdars’ property. Re-education of land revenue and beggar eradication were demands made by the peasants.

Numerous Kissan Sabha was established. Merchants’ and talukdars’ homes were attacked.

Tribes had a different response. The colonial government’s forest restrictions, which denied them their traditional freedom to enter forests to graze their cattle and gather firewood and fruits, were the main cause of their ire. Under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju, a guerrilla militant movement was organised in the Andhra Pradesh Gudem Hills. Rebels from Gudem stormed a police station and made murderous attempts on police officers. Raju was apprehended and put to death in 1924.

Congress officials travelled to these locations with the intention of uniting them under Gandhiji in a single movement.

The Oudh Kisan Sabha was founded in 1920, and 300 further branches were created in various locations after that. Farmers were informed by local officials that Gandhiji had stated that no taxes were impoverished to get land distributions and debt payments. All actions and objectives were sanctioned by using the name of Mahatma.

 

  1. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples. [CBSE OD, Set 1, 2019]

Ans-When individuals start to feel connected to one another and see how much nationalism unites them, nationalism starts to spread. People from many communities, locations, or tongues come together through their shared challenges to have a sense of collective belonging. Nationalism also captivated people’s attention through a range of cultural phenomena. The emergence of nationalism was influenced by history, fiction, folklore, music, popular poetry, and symbols, all of which had a significant impact. A person or thing is frequently used to symbolise the identity of a nation.

With the rise of nationalism in the early 19th century, Bharat Mata’s image started to become synonymous with the identity of India. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay is credited with creating the image initially. He wrote “Vande Mataram” as a patriotic song in the 1870s. Abanindranath Tagore created his well-known painting of Bharat Mata after being moved by the Swadeshi movement. Bharat Mata is portrayed in this painting as an ascetic woman who is serene, composed, divine, and spiritual. The revival of Indian folklore also gave rise to nationalistic ideas. Nationalists in India started documenting folk tales sung by bards in the late 19th century, and they travelled to villages to collect folk songs and legends. These stories painted a realistic portrait of a traditional society that had been harmed and perverted by outside pressures. People experienced a sense of national identity when they heard these tunes. They were amped up and extremely patriotic. Therefore, it was crucial to propagate this folk culture in order to uncover citizens’ national identities and rekindle pride in their heritage.

 

 

  1. Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 3, 2017]

Ans– Gandhiji took the following steps to address the issue of untouchability:

(i) He warned that swaraj would not arrive for 100 years if untouchability was not eradicated.

(ii) Gandhiji himself scrubbed bathrooms to elevate a sweeper’s duties.

(iii) Gandhiji convinced the higher caste to alter their minds and abandon the “sin of untouchability”

(iv) He organised satyagraha to ensure their access to public wells, tanks, roads, and schools as well as admittance into temples.

(v) In September 1932, he and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar signed the Poona Pact, which set aside some seats in the provincial and national legislative councils for members of the downtrodden classes.

 

  1. How did the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front. [CBSE OD, Term 2, Set 3, 2015]

Ans-The Congress party launched the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement in January 1921. This trend first gained traction in the cities among the middle class. Numerous thousands of students, educators, and attorneys quit their jobs and joined the protest.

Different cities around the nation saw the start of this movement. The Non-Cooperation Movement had a significant impact on British business in India.

 

The Non-Cooperation Movement had the following economic effects:

  1.  Between 1921 and 1922, the import of foreign clothing fell by half, from 102 crores to 57 crore rupees, as a result of the boycott of foreign goods and clothing.
  2. In many regions, traders and merchants declined to engage in foreign trade or deal in foreign commodities.
  3. As individuals began to wear Indian clothing instead of garments from other countries, production at Indian textile mills and handlooms increased. In this manner, the Non-Cooperation Movement spread throughout the nation’s cities.

 

 

  1. Describe the Jallianwalla Bagh incident and its effects.

Ans-On April 13, a large group of villagers assembled at the Jallianwalla Bagh enclosure near Amritsar. These individuals went there to attend a fair; they were not aware of the political climate at the time or the martial law that General Dyer, the military governor, had established. Hundreds of people were killed when Dyer entered the building, closed up the exits, and started shooting at the defenceless crowd. The Jallianwalla Bagh massacre is the name given to this occurrence. General Dyer stated that the satyagrahis’ main objective was to have a moral impact and to inspire fear and awe in them. The Indian national movement saw a sea change as a result of this occurrence. As word of the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre spread, large crowds gathered in the streets of numerous North Indian towns. There were strikes, police encounters, and assaults on government structures. The government reacted by imposing harsh repression. Unarmed civilians were terrorized and humiliated. Villages were burned without cause, and people were publicly flogged.

The national leaders vowed to protest after being horrified by this callous treatment of their fellow Indians.

Now, Mahatma Gandhi saw the need to start a larger, more inclusive movement in India. After a few months, the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements were launched. These movements’ primary objectives were to denounce the Jallianwalla Bagh event and call for swaraj.

 

  1. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhi’s ideas

Ans– The peasant uprising in the Andhra Pradesh Gudem Hills was headed by Alluri Sitaram Raju. He rose to fame by asserting that he possessed unique abilities for making astrological predictions and for healing people. He could withstand gunshot wounds. Early in the 1920s, a militant guerrilla organisation grew in the Andhra Pradesh region’s Gudem Hills. The movement’s principal objective was to express opposition to colonial regulations. For cattle grazing and the gathering of firewood or fruits, the authorities had blocked off forest regions. They were required to work for free by the government to build roads (begar). Under Alluri Sitaram Raju, the populace revolted. He praised Gandhiji and cited the Non-Cooperation Movement as an influence. The populace was convinced to stop drinking alcohol and don Khadi. He thought that India will gain independence via violence, not through nonviolence. The Gudem rebels killed British officials while attacking police stations.