NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 Nationalism in Europe – Important Questions

 

Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 Nationalism in Europe. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Social Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.


 

 
 

Multiple Choice Questions

1 mark each

1)     Who coined the proverb “when France sneezes, Europe catches a cold”?

  1. Mazzini
  2. Metternich
  3. Louis Philippe
  4. Robespierre

Ans-

 

2)     The civil code of 1807 also known as__________

  1. republican code
  2. napoleon code
  3. mazzini code
  4. code of conduct

Ans – B

 

3)     Giuseppe mazzini established the secret group known as “young europe” in_________

  1. Marseilles
  2. Berne
  3. Vienna
  4. Brussels

Ans – B

 

4)     Which country broke away from the ‘united kingdom of the netherlands’ after the july revolution of 1830?

  1. Belgium
  2. Greece
  3. Ireland
  4. Scotland

Ans – A

 

5)     Which one of the following was an ‘allegory’ of the German nation?

  1. marianne
  2. liberty
  3. germania
  4. none of the above

Ans – C

 

6)     Which of the following treaties recognized Greece as an autonomous country?

  1. treaty of vienna
  2. treaty of st. germain
  3. treaty of constantinople of 1832
  4. treaty of versailles

Ans  – C

 

7)     The bourbon dynasty, was restored to power after signing the treaty of__________

  1. treaty of Vienna
  2. treaty of Versailles
  3. Prussia
  4. Marseilles

Ans – A

 

8)      The idea of la patrie means _____.

  1. motherland
  2. fatherland
  3. country
  4. citizens

Ans – B

 

9)    Which of the following statements about the civil code of 1804 are true-

  1. removed all privileges based on birth
  2. secured the right to property
  3. equality before law
  4. all of the above

Ans – D

 

10)  The first political experiment in liberal democracy took place in ________.

  1. The Great Britain
  2. Italy
  3. France
  4. United States of America

Ans –

 

11)  The language spoken by the aristocracy in Galicia is?

  1. German
  2. Polish
  3. French
  4. English

Ans – B

 

12)  Process of ‘national unification’ of prussia  was a brainchild of

  1. Otto von Bismarck
  2. Giuseppe Mazzini
  3. Victor Emmanuel
  4. Emanual Kant

Ans- B

 

13)  In which of these countries did the French military campaign-

  1. Holland and Belgium
  2. Switzerland and Italy
  3. Holland, Belgium, Switzerland but not Italy
  4. Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy

Ans- C

 

14)  What did Napoleon do in the territory under his reign?

  1. worked for peace
  2. set up war strategies to conquer new territory
  3. set about to introduce many reforms in civil and administrative sector
  4. worked towards setting democratic rule and equal rights

Ans- C

 

15) What did the customs union or zollverein do?

  1. abolished tax
  2. abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies  from over thirty to two
  3. abolished tariff charges and reduced the currencies to 5
  4. only abolished tariff barriers

Ans- B

 

16) What were the jacobin clubs for?

  1. demoralise the people
  2. speak against france
  3. organise activities and campaigns
  4. socialise between different races

Ans- C

 

17) When was Napoleon defeated in the battle of Waterloo?

  1. 1815
  2. 1820
  3. 1817
  4. 1821

Ans- A

 

18) When was Ireland forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom

  1. 1799
  2. 1798
  3. 1800
  4. 1801 

Ans- D

 

19) Wilhelm Grimm was born in the german city of hanau in-

  1. 1776
  2. 1806
  3. 1816
  4. 1786

Ans – D

 

20) In january 1871, who was proclaimed emperor of Germany at a ceremony held in versailles?.

  1. William II
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3. Kaiser William I
  4. Metternich

Ans- C

 

21) On what date was a constitution written in the Frankfurt parliament?

  1. 8 may, 1848
  2. 18 may, 1848 
  3. 18 june, 1840 
  4. 11 august, 1848

Ans- B

 

22)     Which time frame was the unification of germany?

  1. 1866 to 1871
  2. 1860 to 1871
  3. 1856 to 1871
  4. 1870 to 1871

Ans –

 

23) What was the significance of ‘broken chains’?

  1. heroism 
  2. readiness to fight 
  3. willingness to make peace
  4. being freed

Ans –

 

24) What did das volk stand for-

  1. willingness to make peace
  2. democracy 
  3. factory workers 
  4. common people

Ans – D 

 

25) What were the large landowners of prussia known as

  1. mahantas 
  2. junkers
  3. kulaks 
  4. pykars

Ans – B

 

26) What is the German oak representative of?

  1. heroism 
  2. patriotism 
  3. liberalism 
  4. socialism

Ans-

 

27) Who described mazzini as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’? 

  1. Ernest Renan 
  2. Louis Philippe 
  3. Napoleon Bonaparte 
  4. Metternich 

Ans –

 

28) Whom did the silesian weavers of 1845 lead a revolt against?

  1. social workers 
  2. farmers
  3. wealthy people 
  4. contractors

Ans-

 

29) Who is referred to as “Bismarck of Italy”?

  1. cavour 
  2. johann gottfried herder
  3. mazzini 
  4. garibaldi

Ans-

 

30) Choose the correctly matched pair from the  following

  1. Otto von Bismarck — Germany
  2. Napoleon- Spain
  3. Giuseppe Garibaldi- France
  4. Bourbon Kings- Italy

Ans –

 

31) Which of the following was not enacted by the Vienna treaty of 1815?

  1. restoration of the bourbon dynasty.
  2. Setting up a series of states within the boundaries of france.
  3. restoration of monarchies
  4. diluting the German confederation of 39 states.

Ans –

 

32) What was the main occupation in the mid-18th century in Europe?

  1. trade and commerce
  2. peasantry
  3. craftsmanship
  4. none of these

Ans –

 

33) Which among the following best signifies the idea of liberal nationalism of nineteenth-century Europe? [cbse od, set 1, 2020] 

  1. emphasis on social justice 
  2. state-planned socio-economic system 
  3. freedom for individuals and equality before law 
  4. supremacy of state oriented nationalism.

Ans –

 

34) Which of the following revolutions is called as the first expression of nationalism? [cbse delhi, set 1, 2020] 

  1. french revolution 
  2. russian revolution 
  3. glorious revolution 
  4. the revolution of the liberals

Ans –

 

35) Economic hardships faced by europe in 1830s were: 

  1. increase in population. 
  2. unemployment, migration and price rise. 
  3. stiff competition in the market
  4. all of the above

Ans – A

 

36) Jacob and Wilhelm the two brothers who developed an interest in collecting old folktales were called:

  1. Bonn Brothers
  2. Grimm brothers
  3. Twin Brothers
  4. Trinn Brothers

Ans-

 

37) Assuming that there is social, economic, and political equality between the sexes, awareness of women’s rights and interests refers to:

  1. feminist
  2. womanish
  3. chartism
  4. suffrage

Ans- A

 

38) A system of ideas that represents a specific social and political worldview includes:

  1. sociology
  2. ideology
  3. democracy
  4. philosophy

Ans –

 

39) Another nation with an extended history of political fragmentation, like Germany, was:  

  1. Russia
  2. Denmark
  3. Prussia
  4. Italy

Ans-

 

40) The symbol of ‘sword’ signifies:

  1. heroism
  2. being freed
  3. willingness to make peace
  4. readiness to fight

Ans – D

 

41) Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in:

  1. 1909
  2. 1818
  3. 1914
  4. 1614

Ans –

 

42) A picture of a society that is thought to be so perfect that it is improbable to actually exist is called:

  1. absolutist
  2. plebiscite
  3. suffrage
  4. utopian

Ans –

 

43) The rays of the rising sun means:

  1. beginning of a new year
  2. beginning of a new period
  3. beginning of a new regime
  4. beginning of a new era

Ans – D

 

44) Count cavour was the prime minister of:

  1. Greece
  2. Rome
  3. Italy
  4. Sardinia

Ans – D

 

45) First time the phrase “Young Poland” was used was by a polish author named:

  1. Count Cavour
  2. Mazzini
  3. Arthur Gorski
  4. Napoleon

Ans – C

 

46) An indirect vote by which people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal is-

  1. plebiscite
  2. poll
  3. referendum 
  4. veto 

Ans –

 

47) Who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy and was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.

  1. lombardy
  2. venetia 
  3. piedmont 
  4. cavour 

Ans –

 

48) The Scottish highlander’s native language was-

  1. a) Scottish
  2. b) Gaelic
  3. c) French
  4. d) English 

Ans – B

 

49) Ethnic relates to-

  1. a common race, tribe
  2. native of a country
  3. same forefathers
  4. similar cultural origin or background that a community identifies with.

Ans –

 

50) In 1861 he was proclaimed king of united Italy.

  1. Metternich
  2. Victor Emmanuel II
  3. Kaiser William I
  4. Napoleon

Ans- B

 

51) ………………….. was a country deeply divided between catholics and protestants.

  1. Russia 
  2. France 
  3. Prussia
  4. Ireland 

Ans –
 

 
 

Very Short Answer Type

1 mark each

  1. What is the meaning of liberalism in the early 19th century in europe? [CBSE 2016]

Ans- Liberalism is derived from liber which means free in latin, for the middle classes in the early 19th century it stood for equality before law and freedom of the individual. in political terms, it meant the government which is formed and run by the consent and will of the masses.

 

  1. What caused the 1885 summit of major European countries in Berlin?

Ans- The great European nations came together to develop a global market in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as a result of merchants from European towns travelling out to the countryside and paying farmers and artisans to make goods for an international market.

 

  1. Name the female allegory representing the Republic of France

Ans– Marianne was the female allegory representing the Republic of France

 

  1. What was the treaty of Vienna’s primary goal in 1815?

Ans– The restoration of conservative territories in Europe was the primary goal of the treaty of Vienna in 1815.

 

  1. What was the main aim of the french revolutionaries

Ans- by fostering a feeling of national identity among the french people, their primary goal was to shift authority from the monarchy to a body of french people

 

  1. Who was Frederic Sorrieu?

Ans– Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics.

 

  1. What impact did Napoleon’s restoration to the monarchy have?

Ans– by restoration of the monarchy. Without a doubt, Napoleon destroyed French democracy, but in the realm of administration, he introduced revolutionary ideas to improve the system as a whole.

 

  1. What views did romantic writers and artists have on nationalism?

Ans – the glorification of reason and science was typically condemned by romantic artists and poets, who instead emphasised emotions, intuition, and mystical impulses. their goal was to establish a feeling of a common cultural past serving as the foundation of a nation and a sense of shared national heritage.

 

  1. Why did Silesia’s weavers revolt in 1845?

Ans- in 1845, weavers in silesia led a revolt against contractors who supplied them with raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payment.

 

  1. What exactly is an “allegory”?

Ans- artists began personifying nations, or portraying them as though they were people, which led to the emergence of national allegory.

 

  1. Name the customs union formed at the initiative of Prussia in 1834.  [cbse od, set 2, 2020]

Ans. Zollverein.

 

  1. Name the ‘act’ which resulted in the formation of the ‘united kingdom of great britain’. [cbse od, set 3, 2020]

Ans. Act of Union 1707.

 

  1. Which of the following revolutions is called as the first expression of nationalism? [CBSE Delhi, set 1, 2020]

Ans. the french revolution. 

 

  1. Name the civil code of 1804 which established equality before law and secured the right to property in france. [CBSE od, set 1, 2020]

Ans. The napoleonic code

 

  1. Name the treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation.[Delhi 2016]

Ans. Treaty of Constantinople led to recognition of Greece as an independent nation. 
 

 
 

Source- Based Questions

(4 parts x 1 mark each)  per question

Q1. Economists began to think in terms of the national economy. They talked of how the nation could develop and what economic measures could help forge this nation together. Friedrich list, professor of economics at the university of tübingen in germany, wrote in 1834: ‘the aim of the zollverein is to bind the germans economically into a nation. it will strengthen the nation materially as much by protecting its interests externally as by stimulating its internal productivity. it ought to awaken and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests. The German people have realised that a free economic system is the only means to engender national feeling.

 

  1. What is zollverein?
  • a customs union of german states in the 19th century
  1. When was the zollverein found?
  • 1834
  1. Which nation is being talked about in the above source?
  • germany 
  1. What was the purpose of zollverein?
  • to manage tariffs and economic policies.

 

Q2.  ‘a nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion. a heroic past, great men, glory, that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. to have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. a nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity … its existence is a daily plebiscite … a province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant. a nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will. The existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’ 

 

  1. The above excerpt is a part of whose writing?
  • Ernst renan
  1. What does the existence of a daily plebiscite mean?
  • a direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
  1. Who is the author of the famous essay- “What is a nation?”
  • Ernst renan
  1. To which country does this idea belong(in this context)?
  • France. 

 

 
 

Short Answer Type

3 marks each

 

1.Explain the aim to form ‘Zollverein’ in Germany. 

Answer

  • Zollverein was a German customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. 
  • The union aimed to finish internal custom dues which encouraged free trade between neighbouring states.
  • It reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two. Many German states joined the zollverein.
  • The major purpose being collectively managing tariffs and economic policies of the German states at that time.

 

Q2.  Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885? [CBSE, 2018]

Answer 

  • – big european powers held a meeting in berlin in 1885 to decide the carving 
  • up of Africa among them. 
  • – the first chancellor of germany, otto von bismark had held this conference.
  • – no african was invited to this conference

 

Q3. How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control?

explain with examples.[CBSE, Delhii, set 1, 2019]

Answer 

 Napoleonic code exported to the regions under the french control as:

  1. it did away with all privileges based on birth.
  2. it established equality before the law.
  3. it secured the right to property.
  4. abolished feudal dues.

 

Q4. Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. [CBSE, Delhi, Term 2, set 1, 2017]

Answer- 

Three steps taken by the french revolutionaries were: 

  • a new french flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
  • a centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  • internal custom duties and dues were abolished.

 

Alternative answer

The French revolutionaries created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people through:

  • new hymns, oaths and martyrs were commemorated in the name of the nation.
  • a central administrative system made uniform laws for the entire nation.
  • they gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

 

Q5. How did the Greek war of independence mobilise nationalist feelings among the educated elite across europe? Explain. [CBSE Delhi, set 1, 2020]

Answer- 

  • greeks nationalists supported other greeks who were living in exile
  • greece was viewed as a part of europe that had been annexed by ottomans and now needed to be liberated
  • greece was considered an independent nation by the treaty of constantinople of 1832

 

Q6. How did ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe allied to the ideology of liberalism? Explain. [CBSE, Delhi 2020]

Answer 

  • liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law, irrespective of any differences based on birth.
  • liberalism believed in a constitution and representative government through a parliament.
  • liberalism emphasised the concept of government by consent of the ones being governed.

 

Q7. How did the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the 19th century in europe? analyse.

Answer-

  • artists wanted to represent the country as a human form and thought of giving a face to the nation to get a message across.
  • they chose female figures to represent the country which did not stand for any particular woman in real life.
  • for example, a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales shows the concept of justice under the french revolution.

 

Q8. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? explain.

Answer-

Culture played a huge role in the development of nationalism in europe due to:

  • Romanticism and cultural movements in Greece helped in developing the feeling of nationalism, sense of togetherness and love for the country through language, art, poetry, stories, folk songs, music and the past experiences.
  • Karol Kurpinski was able to develop the feeling of nationalist through his operas, music and folk dances.
  • The Polish people were fighting with Russia for their language and culture.

 

Q9. How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiments growing in europe? explain.

Answer- 

 The wave of economic nationalism was strengthened by:

  • the demand for the unconstrained transfer of commodities and people.
  • the formation of zollverein.
  • the formation of the railway network which increased the mobility and strengthened the economic condition.

 

Q10. How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? explain.

Answer-

 The local people in those areas had a mixed reaction to French rule.

  • The businessman and the small producers welcomed the economic reforms introduced by napoleon.
  • Initially, the french armies were recognized as the messenger of liberty but later on it was realised that the administrative reforms cannot go hand in hand with political reform.
  • The increased taxation and censorship were not liked by the people.

 

Q11.describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in europe during the

1930s. [CBSE od, set 1, 2019]

Answer-

Great economic hardships were faced by the people of Europe in the 1930s. some of the difficulties that they faced were: 

  • the ratio of the rise of population was larger than that of employment 
  • generation. People from rural areas were migrating to cities in search of employment, which was not easily available because of overcrowding. 
  • small producers in towns (especially textile producing industries) were 
  • often overthrown by the cheap machines. They faced stiff competition from the imports from england. 
  • peasants still suffered under the burden of feudal dues and obligations in some regions of europe. The rise of food prices and unemployment led to widespread pauperism in the country.

 

 
 

Long answer type questions

5 marks each

 

1- Interpret the concept of ‘Liberalisation‘ in the field of economic sphere during

the nineteenth century in Europe. [CBSE, Delhi, set 1, 2019]

Answer– 

In the economic sphere, ‘liberalism’ stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. duties were levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods which were different for different states. liberalisation meant reduction of custom duties and removal of these quotas. a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital was the need of the hour. In 1834, zollverein, a customs union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. this was the main concept of liberalisation prevalent in the 19th century in europe.

 

2- Describe the explosive conditions that prevailed in the Balkans after 1871 in Europe. 

Answer- 

The explosive conditions that prevailed in the balkans after 1871 were:

  • The modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia etc. were together called the balkans. they had conflict with one another on the basis of feelings of nationalism.
  • The different balkan regions were jealous of each other and always for their own identity.
  • They wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
  • The Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. each power-russia, germany, england were keen to take hold of the balkans.
  • The Balkans people used history to prove that they had once been independent. so, they became nationalist and rebellious to win back their long-lost independence.

 

3–  How did nationalism rise and spread in Europe?

Answer- 

Centralised power exercising sovereign control over a clearly defined territory was the main idea behind the nation-state. nationalism began to grow as most citizens began to develop a sense of common identity, ancestry, or shared history. During the 19th century, nationalism emerged as a force that caused enormous changes in the political and mental world of europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state. The French revolution of 1789 was the first clear expression of nationalism. According to the utopian vision of French artist Frédéric Sorrieu, the peoples of the world are grouped into distinct nations, identified by their national flags and costumes.

The development of nationalism in Europe was aided by the french revolution. The French military started exporting nationalism after the start of the revolutionary wars. The French revolutionaries implemented a number of policies and practices that could help the French people develop a feeling of national identity. The French nation’s goal and destiny, according to the revolutionaries, is to free the people of Europe from dictatorship.

 

4 Describe the explosive conditions that prevailed in the Balkans after 1871 in europe. 

Answer- 

  • After 1871, the Balkans region of Europe experienced explosive conditions. modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro were all once part of the geographically diverse and ethnically diverse Balkan region, whose inhabitants were collectively referred to as slavs.
  • The ottoman empire endeavoured to modernise and institute internal changes in the 19th century, but with limited success.
  • Its European subject ethnicities progressively rebelled against its rule and proclaimed their freedom.
  • The Balkan peoples grounded their demands for independence or political rights on nationality and utilised history to show that they were previously free but were later conquered by other powers.
  • The balkan peoples grounded their demands for independence or political rights on nationality and utilised history to show that they were previously free but were later conquered by other powers. Consequently, the balkans’ rebellious ethnicities believed that their conflict was an effort to regain their long-lost freedom, which turned the area into a battleground.

 

5 –  Who hosted the ‘vienna congress’ in 1815? analyse the main changes brought by the ‘vienna treaty.’ [CBSE, Delhi, Term 2, set 1, 2017]

Answer – 

  • At the Vienna congress in 1815, representatives from the European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria—met for the first time since their combined defeat of napoleon. Duke Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, served as the congress’ host. The treaty was written by the delegates. After being overthrown during the french revolution, the bourbon monarchy was reinstated.
  • France lost the areas that Napoleon had annexed.
  • To stop future French expansion, a number of states were established along France’s borders. 
  • Belgium and the kingdom of the Netherlands were established.
  • Important new lands were ceded to Prussia on its western frontiers, while Austria gained control of northern italy.
  • In the east, Prussia received a portion of Poland while Russia received the remainder in an area in saxony.
  • The major goals were to establish a new, conservative order in Europe and to restore the kingdoms that Napoleon had abolished.

 

6 – Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.  [CBSE, Delhi Term 2, set 1, 2016]

Answer- 

Through the following concepts, the french revolutionaries helped the French people develop a sense of national identity:

  • Photographs taken by artists like frederic sorrieu that personified the statue of liberty as a female figure and depicted the people of europe and america marching in a procession and paying respects to it.
  • The concepts of la patrie and le citoyen were emphasised in order to foster a sense of shared identity among the French people.
  • In place of the previous royal standard, the tricolour was chosen as the new french flag. 
  • The national assembly replaced the estates general as the body of elected and engaged citizens.
  • In the name of the country, brand-new songs were written, and martyrs were remembered.
  • The introduction of a centralised administration and the creation of consistent laws for the people.
  • In Paris, the French language was widely used and was both spoken and written.
  • the establishment of a centralised government and the formulation of uniform laws for the populace.
  • French was a common language in Paris, both spoken and written.

 

7‘‘The first clear expression of nationalism came with the ‘french revolution in 1789.’’ examine the statement. [CBSE od, Term 2, set 1, 2017]

Answer –  

  • Prior to 1789, France had a fully functional territorial state ruled by an absolute ruler in politics. Constitutional amendments came about during the French renaissance during the revolution, the transfer transition from the monarchy to the body of a citizen of france.
  • The revolution claimed to be successful for the individuals who would, thus forth create the country and take shape end goal. The French have always been revolutionaries who brought about various techniques and policies that could develop a sense of group identification, as well as a sense of nationalism among the people of france. The locality was entitled to equal protection under the constitution.
  • The previous royal standard was changed to the tricolour, which is now the national flag of france. The group of engaged citizens abolished the estates general and renamed it the national assembly. In the name of the nation, new hymns were written, oaths were taken, and sacrifices were remembered.
  • Regional languages were suppressed, and the official language of the country became French as it was spoken and written in paris. The revolutionaries went on to say that they will aid in the liberation of other European peoples. students and other members of the educated middle class started forming jacobin clubs as soon as word of the events in france spread to other european towns. Their campaigns and activities paved the way for the French armies that went forward during the 1790s, into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and parts of italy. nationalism then spread over all of Europe as a result of the start of the revolutionary wars.

 

8Describe the process of the unification of Britain.[CBSE, DElhi Term 2, set 3, 2015]

Answer

The creation of the nations in Britain’s states came about as a result of a protracted process. The primary names of the individuals had ethnic origins. Every ethnic group, Irish, Welsh, Scotch, or English, had its own political and cultural customs. The English people gradually expanded in riches and authority. it could elongate it and sway over other countries. The act of union of 1707 between Scotland led to the establishment of Great Britain’s United kingdom. The british lawmakers were primarily led by but scottish influence in the english gradually obliterated these events resulting in so many uprisings the more established countries were relegated to being the inferior partners. in the configuration. the British flag, Britain popularised its national anthem.

 

9Explain any four changes brought about in europe by the treaty of vienna(1815)

Answer

In 1815, a confederation of European nations, including Austria, Prussia, Britain, and russia. The treaty of Vienna was drafted by delegates of European nations at a convention duke metternich, the Austrian chancellor, sponsored with the intention of rectifying the changes that had occurred in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. this treaty changed europe in the ways noted below:

  • The french revolution’s destruction of the bourbon dynasty was reversed. the areas that France had acquired under Napoleon were lost.
  • To stop further French expansion, a number of nations were established along its borders.
  • In the north, the Netherlands, which encompassed Belgium, was founded. The southern Piedmont region now includes genoa. important additional lands were added to Prussia’s western frontiers. northern Italy was placed under Austrian rule.
  • Napoleon kept intact the 39-state German confederation he had established. a portion of Poland was handed to Russia, and a portion of Saxony was ceded to prussia.
  • In Europe, the monarchy was reinstated and a new, conservative system was established.

 

10Describe the process of unification of germany.

Answer – 

The german reunification process is as under :

  • By 1848, political groups’ popular attempt to impose a constitutional monarchy in Germany had failed.
  • The failure of the Frankfurt parliament made it evident that the army and the monarchy would need to work together with powerful landowners to unite germany.
  • Beginning in 1848, Prussia assumed control of the campaign for national unification.
  • Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian chief minister, turned out to be the key planner in this process.
  • With the aid of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy, Bismarck succeeded in his mission. He fought three wars in seven years against Austria, Denmark, and France, winning two of them and bringing about the unity of Germany.