NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Important Questions

 

Minerals and Energy Resources Important Question Answers – Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Geography important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

MCQ Based Questions 

 

Q1 Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material? (NCERT QUESTION)

A Coal

B Gold

C Bauxite

D Zinc 

 

Ans C Bauxite

 

Q2 Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals? (NCERT QUESTION)

A Bauxite

B Mica

C Iron Ore

D Copper

 

Ans B Mica

 

Q3 Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks? (NCERT QUESTION)

A Sedimentary rocks

B Metamorphic rocks

C Igneous rocks

D None of the above

 

Ans A Sedimentary rocks

 

Q4 Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand? (NCERT QUESTION)

A Oil

B Thorium

C Uranium

D Coal

 

Ans B Thorium

 

Q5 Gold, silver and platinum are examples of ___________. 

A Ferrous minerals

B Non-ferrous minerals

C Precious minerals

D Non-metallic minerals

 

Ans C Precious minerals

 

Q6 Cobalt is an example of ___________ mineral. 

A Ferrous minerals

B Non-ferrous minerals

C Energy minerals

D Non-metallic minerals

 

Ans A Ferrous minerals

 

Q7 Sandstone and Mica are examples of ___________. 

A Non-metallic minerals

B Energy minerals

C Non-ferrous minerals

D Ferrous minerals 

 

Ans A Non-metallic minerals

 

Q8 Coal and Natural Gas are examples of ____________ minerals. 

A Non-metallic

B Energy 

C Ferrous

D Non-ferrous

 

Ans B Energy

 

Q9 ____________ provides a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. 

A Ferrous minerals

B Non-ferrous minerals

C Energy minerals

D Precious minerals

 

Ans A Ferrous minerals

 

Q10 Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as ____________ mining. 

A Rathole 

B Opencast mining 

C Underground mining 

D None of the above

 

Ans A Rathole 

 

Q11 Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and _________ have most of the petroleum deposits. 

A Madhya Pradesh

B Telangana 

C Assam 

D Maharashtra 

 

Ans C Assam

 

Q12 Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to ___________. 

A 70 percent

B 50 percent

C 40 percent

D 30 percent 

 

Ans A 70 percent

 

Q13 Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt lies in ___________ and ___________. 

A Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh

B Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra

C Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh

D Madhya Pradesh and Odisha

 

Ans B Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra

 

Q14 Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt in Karnataka has large reserves of __________. 

A Iron ore

B Copper 

C Uranium 

D Granite 

 

Ans A Iron ore

 

Q15 ____________ is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. 

A Jharkhand 

B Odisha 

C Madhya Pradesh

D West Bengal

 

Ans B Odisha 

 

Q16 In which of the following locations Mica deposits are not found? 

A Ajmer 

B Beawar 

C Hazaribagh 

D Katni

 

Ans D Katni

 

Q17 Koraput has rich deposits of __________. 

A Mica 

B Bauxite 

C Iron ore

D Manganese 

 

Ans B Bauxite 

 

Q18 Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, __________ is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.

A Steel 

B Manganese 

C Copper 

D None of the above

 

Ans C Copper

 

Q19 India’s ___________ deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. 

A Bauxite 

B Iron Ore

C Steel 

D Manganese 

 

Ans A Bauxite 

 

Q20 _______ deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. 

A Bauxite 

B Mica 

C Copper 

D Iron Ore

 

Ans B Mica 

 

Q21 The principal lignite reserves are found in ___________, in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity. 

A Madurai 

B Vellore 

C Neyveli 

D Tuticorin 

 

Ans C Neyveli 

 

Q22 The ___________, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys contain coal deposits. 

A Sutlej 

B Narmada 

C Krishna 

D Godavari

 

Ans D Godavari

 

Q23 Majority of India’s petroleum production is from ___________.

A Mumbai High

B Assam 

C Gujarat 

D None of the above

 

Ans A Mumbai High

 

Q24 __________ is the oldest oil-producing state of India. a) b) c) d) 

A Gujarat 

B Tamil Nadu

C Assam 

D Maharashtra

 

Ans C Assam

 

Q25 The toothbrush and tube containing paste are made up of plastic obtained from:

A Mica 

B Petroleum 

C Fibre 

D Paper

 

Ans B Petroleum 

 

RelatedCBSE Class 10 Poltical Science Chapter-wise Explanation, Notes, Question Answers

 

Minerals and Energy Resources – 1 Mark Questions

 

Q1 What are rocks?

 

Ans Rocks are the combinations of homogenous substances called minerals.

 

 Q2 What is the role of a geologist in studying about a mineral? 

 

Ans A geologist is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.

 

Q3 What is an ‘ore’?

 

Ans The term ‘ore’ is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable.

 

Q4 What are ‘veins’ and ‘lodes’?

 

Ans In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes.

 

Q5 How are minerals formed in veins and lodes?

 

Ans In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards, through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.

 

Q6 Name the minerals obtained from veins and lodes.

 

Ans Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.

 

Q7 In what form do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks? 

 

Ans In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in the form of “beds’ and “layers”.

 

Q8 How are minerals formed in sedimentary rocks? 

 

Ans They are formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal states.

 

Q9 Name the minerals formed in beds and layers.

 

Ans Sedimentary minerals include iron ore, coal, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt.

 

Q10 What are ‘placer deposits’?

 

Ans When minerals occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills, then deposits are called ‘placer deposits. 

 

Q11 Name minerals formed as ‘placer deposits’.

 

Ans Gold, silver, tin and platinum are the most important ones among minerals formed as ‘placer deposits’.

 

Q12 Which minerals are derived from oceanic waters?

 

Ans Common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. 

 

Q13 Which factors affect the economic viability of a reserve?

 

Ans The concentration of minerals in the ore, the ease of extraction and closeness to the market play an important role in affecting the economic viability of a reserve.

 

Q14 What are ferrous minerals? 

 

Ans Minerals which contain iron-content in it are called ferrous minerals.

 

Q15 What is Magnetite? 

 

Ans Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron upto 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.

 

Q16 What is Haematite?

 

Ans Haematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite, i.e., 50-60 per cent. 

 

Q17 Name the two types of iron-ore found in India.

 

Ans Magnetite and Haematite.

 

Q18 In which places of the Odisha-Jharkhand belt is iron ore found? 

 

Ans High grade Hematite iron ore is found in Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar district and in Singhbhum District of Jharkhand, iron-ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.

 

Q19 Where are Bailadila hills located and why are they called so? 

 

Ans Bailadila hills are located in the Bastar District of Chattisgarh. These Bailadila hills look like the “hump of an ox, hence they are called so.

 

Q20 Name the countries to which iron-ore is exported from Bailadila hills.

 

Ans Iron-ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.

 

Q21 Name the regions having iron-ore deposits in Karnataka. 

 

Ans Bellary, Chitradurga, Chikmaglur and Tumkur are the locations of iron-ore in Karnataka.

 

Q22 Where are ‘Kudremukh’ mines located? 

 

Ans The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world. It is one of the largest iron ore mines. 

 

Q23 Why are they called ‘Kudremukh’ mines?

 

Ans ‘Kudre’ in Kannada means horse. The highest peak in western ghats of Karnataka resembles the face of a horse. 

 

Q24 What do you know about iron-ore deposits of the Maharashtra Goa belt? 

 

Ans This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri District of Maharashtra. Though the ores are not of a very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited and exported through Marmagao port.

 

Q 25 What are the uses of Manganese? 

 

Ans Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also used in manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

 

Q26 Which state is the major manganese producing state of India? 

 

Ans Orissa is the largest producer of Manganese ore in India. Other producer states are Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

 

Q27 What are the non-ferrous minerals produced by India?

 

Ans India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory. However, these minerals include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold.

 

Q28 What are the uses of copper?

 

Ans Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.

 

Q29 Name the leading producer of copper. 

 

Ans Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand and the Khetri Mines in Rajasthan are the leading producers of copper in India.

 

Q30 How is aluminium obtained? 

 

Ans Bauxite, a clay like substance that has alumina in it, later forms aluminium.

 

Q31 What is the importance of aluminium?

 

Ans Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

 

Q32 Which is the largest producing state of bauxite?

 

Ans Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state in India. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits of Odisha.

 

Q33 Which mineral can split easily into thin sheets?

 

Ans Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves.

 

Q34 What are the uses of mica?

 

Ans Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries.

 

Q35 Name the mica deposits regions of India. 

 

Ans 1. Chotanagpur Plateau, Koderma, Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand.

  1. Ajmer in Rajasthan.
  2. Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.

 

Q36 Name the major limestone producing states of India. 

 

Ans Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu are the major limestone producing states of India.

 

Q37 What is the impact of mining on the health of miners?

OR

How does mining affect the health of miners? (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans 1. The dust and various fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.

  1. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coal mines are a constant threat to miners.

 

Q38 What is the impact of mining on the environment?

 

Ans The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining. Dumping of waste and slurry in stream leads to degradation of land, soil and increased river pollution.

 

Q39 What can be done to prevent mining from becoming a ‘killer industry”? 

 

Ans Stricter safety regulations and implementation of environmental laws are essential to prevent mining from becoming a killer industry. 

 

Q40 What is the result of continued extraction of ores?

 

Ans Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with reduction in quality. 

 

Q41 How can we conserve minerals?

 

Ans 1. Use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner. 

  1. Improved technology can allow to use low grade ores at low costs.
  2. Recycling of metals.

 

Q42 Why do we need energy?

OR

Why is energy needed? Write one reason. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans 1. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat.

  1. To propel vehicles.
  2. To drive machinery in industries. 

 

Q43 What are the conventional sources of energy?

 

Ans It includes firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. 

 

Q44 What do non-conventional sources include?

 

Ans Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, bio-gas and atomic energy.

 

Q45 What are the common sources of energy in rural India?

 

Ans Firewood and cattle dung cakes are the most common sources of energy in rural India.

 

Q46 What problems do we face with the continued use of sources of energy in rural India?

 

Ans 1. Continuation of these is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area. 

  1. Using dung cakes too is being discharged because it consumes the most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

 

Q47 What are the uses of coal?

 

Ans Coal is used for power generation to supply energy to industry as well as domestic needs.

 

Q48 How is coal formed?

 

Ans Coal is formed due to the consumption of plant material over millions of years.

 

Q49 Name the types of coal found in India.

 

Ans 1. Peat

  1. Lignite or brown coal
  2. Bituminous
  3. Anthracite 

 

Q50 What kind of coal is peat?

 

Ans Decayed plants in swamps produce peat, which has low carbon and high moisture content and low heating capacity. 

 

Q 51 What is lignite?

 

Ans Lignite is a kind of coal which is called brown coal. It is basically used for generation of electricity since it has low coal content.

 

Q52 How is bituminous coal formed?

 

Ans Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperature is bituminous coal. It is metallurgical coal, which has special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. 

 

Q 53 Where do we find Gondwana age coal in India?

 

Ans In Damodar Valley, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Iharia, Raniganj and Bokaro. The river valleys of the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Son and the Wardha also contain these coal deposits. 

 

Q54 Where does tertiary coal occur in India?

 

Ans Tertiary coal occurs in the North Eastern States of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

Q55 What are the uses of mineral oil?

 

Ans It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.

 

Q56 What is the role of petroleum refineries in a ‘nodal industry’?

 

Ans Petroleum are used for synthetic textiles, fertilisers and numerous chemical industries. 

 

Q57 Name the oil bearing regions of India.

 

Ans Mumbai high, Gujarat, Ankleshwar and Assam, which is the oldest oil producing state produces it in Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan.

 

Q58 In which region is natural gas found in India?

 

Ans Natural gas is found in Krishna-Godawari basin, Mumbai high, Gulf of Cambay and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

 

Q59 Who are the key users of natural gas?

 

Ans The power and fertiliser industries are the key users of natural gas.

 

Q60 What are the full forms of CNG and LPG? 

 

Ans CNG: Compressed natural gas, used in Vehicles.

LPG: Liquified Petroleum Gas, used as a cooking medium.

 

Q61 Why is electricity considered as an index to development?

 

Ans Electricity has such a wide range of applications in today’s world that its per capita consumption is considered as an index to development.

 

Q62 In which two main ways is electricity generated? 

 

Ans 1. By running water, which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity.

  1. By burning fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.

 

Q63 How is nuclear or atomic energy obtained?

 

Ans Nuclear Energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power.

 

Q64. Where do in India we find atomic minerals?

 

Ans Uranium and thorium are available in Jharkhand and Aravalli range of Rajasthan and Monazite sands of Kerala are rich in thorium.

 

Q65 Name the best variety of iron-ore found in India. 

 

Ans Best variety of Iron Ore in India: Magnetite 

 

Q66 What is the effect of rising prices of oil and gas?

 

Ans Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future which, in turn, has serious repercussions on the growth of national economy.

 

Q67 What are the renewable sources of energy?

 

Ans Solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material are all renewable sources of energy and are also called non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q68 How is solar energy trapped and used?

 

Ans Solar energy uses captured sunlight to create photovoltaic power (PV) or concentrated solar power (CSP) for solar heating. This energy conversion allows solar to be used to power auto motives, lights, pools, heaters and gadgets.

 

Q69 What are the advantages of solar energy in India?

 

Ans It is expected that use of solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes which, in turn, will contribute to environment conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

 

Q70 What is India’s status in the use of wind power? 

 

Ans India now ranks as a ‘wind super power’ in the world.

 

Q71 Which state in India has the largest wind farm clusters?

 

Ans The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai. 

 

Q72 Which other states of India are well known for effective use of wind energy?

 

Ans Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. 

 

  1. 73. What is used to produce biogas?

 

Ans Shrubs, farm waste, animals and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas.

 

Q74 What are the two benefits of Gobar Gas Plants for the farmers? 

 

Ans Twin benefits to the farmers are: 

  1. Energy and 
  2. Improved quality of manure.

 

Q75 What are the benefits of biogas?

 

Ans Biogas is by far the most efficient use of cattle dung. It improves the quality of manure and also prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.

 

Q76 In which region is tidal energy generated in India?

 

Ans In India, the Gulf of Kachchh, provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy. A 900 MW tidal energy power plant is set up here by the National Hydropower Corporation.

 

Q77 How is Geo-thermal energy produced? 

 

Ans Geothermal Energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. 

 

Q78 Why does geothermal energy exist on the earth?

 

Ans Geothermal energy exists because the earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth, where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depth. 

 

Q79 Which are the two experimental projects of geothermal energy in India? 

 

Ans 1. Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal.

  1. Puga Valley in Ladakh. 

 

Q80 How can we say that energy is a basic requirement for economic development?

 

Ans Energy is a basic requirement for economic development as every sector of the national economy, agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic needs inputs of energy. The economic development plans since independence require energy for operation. 

 

Q81 What are the twin measures of sustainable energy?

 

Ans. 1. Promotion of energy conservation. 

  1. Increased use of renewable energy.

 

Q82 What are your duties as a concerned citizen to save energy? 

 

Ans 1. By using the public transport system instead of individual vehicles.

  1. Switching off electricity when not in use.
  2. Using power saving devices.
  3. Using non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q83 Why is copper mainly used in electrical cables and electronic industries? 

 

Ans Copper is mainly used because of being malleable, ductile and a good conductor of heat and electricity.

 

Q84 Why are there a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density found in minerals? (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans The ranges found in minerals are due to: Physical and Chemical conditions. 

 

Q85 How do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (CBSE 2016) (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Occurrence of minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in cracks, crevices, faults and joints.

 

Q 86 How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks? (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans Occurrence of minerals in sedimentary rocks: In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. 

 

Q87 Why should the use of cattle cake as fuel be discouraged? (CBSE 2010)

 

Ans 1. It creates pollution. 

  1. It consumes the most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

 

Q88 How are ‘Gobar gas plants’ beneficial to the farmers? (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans. ‘Gobar Gas Plants’ are beneficial to the farmers in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.

 

Q89 What is a Mineral? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general atomic structure.

 

Q90 Q Being a tropical country, India has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Suggest any one way to popularize its maximum use. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2019-20)

 

Ans Making people aware about renewable energy resources/use of rooftop solar panels/solar street lighting system.

 

Q91 A concerted effort has to be made for sustainable development. Suggest any one step in conserving our mineral resources for the future. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2019-20)

 

Ans Improved technologies/ Recycling of metals/ Using scrap metals and other substitutes

 

Assertion-reason based questions:

 

Q1 Assertion (A): Uses of iron brought a radical change in human life.

Reason (R): Different kinds of tools were invented by using minerals.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Revolution in agriculture-different type of tools invented like axe, hook, plough etc., revolution in industry-different tools and machines like spinning and also revolution in transportation- bullock- cart, ships, boats etc brought a radical change in human life.

 

Q2 Assertion (A): Mining activity is often called a “Killer Industry”.

Reason (R): Mining helps in agriculture.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans c. A is true but R is false.

Mining is a source of deforestation, high risk is involved, water sources get contaminated and mining doesn’t help in agriculture.

 

Q3 Assertion (A): Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of India. 

Reason (R): India is rich in good quality Iron ore.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. India is rich in good quality iron ores. Iron ore is exported largely from India, however the reason does not justify the assertion.

 

Q4 Assertion (A): Mica is a metallic mineral.

Reason (R): Mica mineral is the basic raw material for cement industry.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans d. Both assertion and reason are false. 

Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It is a non-metallic mineral and it is used in electric and electronic industries.

 

Q5 Assertion (A): Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. 

Reason (R): Minerals have a universal use, they are used to manufacture everything we use in our day to day lives.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion. 

Minerals are found in varied forms in nature. Even the food that we eat contains minerals. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pinto a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals.

 

Q6 Assertion (A): Geological processes of mineral formation are slow.

Reason (R): Minerals resources are consumed way faster than they are formed.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans b. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion. 

Mineral formation is slow as it requires millions of years to be created but is used very quickly in comparison.

 

Q7 Assertion (A): Thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields. 

Reason (R): Coal is a bulky material, which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash. Hence, heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion. The reason justifies the assertion.

 

Q8 Assertion (A): Natural gas is referred to as an environment friendly fuel. 

Reason (R): Natural gas contains low carbon dioxide emissions.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

Natural gas is considered an environmentally friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.

 

Q9 Assertion (A): Increased use of fossil fuels creates a healthy environment. 

Reason (R): Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas are easily obtained from natural resources. 

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans d. Both assertion and reason are false. 

Increased use of fossil fuels causes serious environmental problems. Hence, there is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material.

 

Q10 Assertion (A): Conservation of Energy Resources is essential. 

Reason (R): Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.

Options:

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 
  3. A is true but R is false. 
  4. If both A and R are false.

 

Ans a. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

Energy saved is energy produced, the economic development plans implemented since Independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational.

 

Fill in the blanks in the following:

 

Q1 In __________ and ___________ rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. 

 

Ans igneous, metamorphic

 

Q2 The sparkle in some toothpastes comes from ______________.

 

Ans mica

 

Q3 Although, over _____________ minerals have been identified, only a few are abundantly found in most of the rocks.

 

Ans 2000

 

Q4 Geographers study ____________ as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms. 

 

Ans minerals

 

Q5 India’s ___________ deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. 

 

Ans Bauxite

 

Q6 Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called ______________. 

 

Ans minerals

 

Q7 The principal lignite reserves are found in ___________, in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity. 

 

Ans Neyveli

 

Q8 Majority of India’s petroleum production is from ___________. 

 

Ans Mumbai High

 

Q9 Fluoride which is used to reduce cavities comes from a mineral _______________.

 

Ans fluorite

 

Q10 Minerals are usually found in _____________.

 

Ans ores

 

Minerals and Energy Resources – 2 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 

Ferrous mineralsNon-ferrous minerals
1. Ferrous minerals are in the category of metallic minerals that contain iron (Fe). The composition of iron varies from mineral to mineral.1. Non-ferrous minerals are the metallic minerals that do not contain iron (Fe).
2. Pyrite is an example of ferrous mineral2. Gold (Au) is an example of non-ferrous mineral.

 

Q2 How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (CBSE 2017) (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Minerals generally occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid or molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface, they cool and solidify as they rise in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes.

 

Q3 Why do we need to conserve mineral resources? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Mineral resources form about 1% of Earth’s crust and require millions of years to form, therefore are finite and non-renewable in nature. 

  1. The continued extraction of ores will lead to increase in cost as extraction comes from greater depths. There is also a decrease in quality along lower depths.

 

Q4 Describe the distribution of coal in India. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Coal known as ‘Gondwana coal’ is found in the Damodar valley, situated in Bengal and Jharkhand region. Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields while Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. While tertiary coal occurs in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

Q5 What types of iron ore are found in India?

 

Ans India is rich in good quality iron ores.

  1. Magnetite: It is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable in the electrical industry.
  2. Haematite: It is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite, i.e. 50 per cent.

 

Q6 How is mineral oil found? 

 

Ans 1. It is an odorless and colourless oil that’s made from petroleum as a by-product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline.

  1. In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, petroleum occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.

 

Q7 State the difference between a mineral and a rock. 

 

Ans 

MineralRock
1. A mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable inter structure. 1. A rock is an aggregate of different minerals.
2. For example: Limestone, cuprite, etc.2. For example: The rock granite contains the minerals-quartz, feldspar and mica.

 

Q8 What is Rat-hole mining?

 

Ans 1. Most of the minerals in India are nationalised and they can be extracted with due permission of the government. But in most of the tribal areas of north-east India, minerals are owned by individuals or communities. 

  1. Mining of minerals like coal, iron ore, limestone, dolomite, etc., is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat-hole Mining’.

 

Q9 Which factors affect the economic viability of a reserve?

 

Ans 1.The concentration of mineral in the ore.

  1. The ease of extraction.
  2. Closeness to the market.

 

Q10 In which two geological ages did coal occur in India? 

 

Ans In India, coal occured in two geological ages-Gondwana and tertiary deposits. 

  1. Gondwana is a little over 200 million years in age. The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields.
  2. Tertiary deposits are only 55 million years old. Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

Q11 Name the major iron ore belts in India. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2016)

 

Ans Odisha-Jharkhand belt

Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt

Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt

 

Minerals and Energy Resources – 3 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Distinguish between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans

ConventionalNon-conventional
1. They are the energy resources in use since ages.1. They are in use recently.
2. They make use of non-renewable sources of energy.2. They make use of renewable sources of energy.
3. They are expensive.3. They are cheaper.
4. They can cause pollution; e.g., coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity, etc.4. No pollution is caused by them; eg, solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, etc.

 

Q2 Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. India is a tropical country and therefore receives a large amount of sunlight, which can be used for Solar energy. States such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, among others have large tracts of wasteland which receive huge amounts of sunlight and therefore can be used to build large scale solar plants. 

  1. There has been an increased investment from the private sector and Foreign direct investment into solar power technology, thereby reducing pricing of per unit electricity produced. The government has subsidized the use of solar water heaters, solar lights, etc. which has increased their usage in high altitude regions, such as Ladakh, among others.
  2. There has also been a shift in government planning towards renewable sources of energy among which solar power has been prioritized.

 

Q3 Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three reasons. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Conservation of mineral resources is essential because: 

  1. Minerals are an indispensable part of our life.
  2. It is available in limited quantity.
  3. Takes millions of years to get formed. 
  4. They are finite and non renewable resources.
  5. Continued extraction leads in increasing costs. 

 

Q4 How can minerals be conserved?

 

Ans Ans 1. We must make use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.

  1. Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow the use of low grade ores at low cost.
  2. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving mineral resources for the future.

 

Q5 What is the importance of ferrous minerals? 

 

Ans Importance of ferrous minerals:

  1. They account for about three-fourth of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. 
  2. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
  3. India also exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals after meeting the internal demands.

 

Q6 Differentiate between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals, with examples. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Difference between ferrous and non ferrous minerals: 

 

Ferrous Minerals (Containing Iron Context)Non-ferrous Minerals (Non Iron Context)
1. Ferrous minerals account for about three fourth of the total value of metallic minerals.1. India’s reserves and production of non ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
2. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.2. They play a vital role in a number of metallurgical engineering electrical industries.
3. Iron, manganese etc. are the examples.3. Bauxite, lead, gold etc. are the examples.

 

Q7 What are the various uses of petroleum?

 

Ans 1. Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy resource in India after coal. 

  1. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw material for a number of manufacturing industries. 
  2. Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.

 

Q8 Give a brief description of the HVJ pipeline.

 

Ans 1. The 1,700-km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien with fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in Western and Northern India.

  1. This artery has provided an impetus to India’s gas production. 
  2. The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.

 

Q9 How is nuclear energy or atomic energy produced? Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of an atom.

 

Ans 1. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electricity.

  1. Uranium and thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravali ranges of Rajasthan, are used for generating atomic or nuclear power.
  2. The Monazite sands of Kerala are also rich in thorium. 

 

Q10 What is the need of using non-conventional sources of energy?

 

Ans 1. The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. 

  1. Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
  2. Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.

Hence, there is a primary need to use renewable energy sources like solar, wind, tidal, biomass and energy from waste material. They are called non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q11 Describe any three characteristics of ‘Odisha-Jharkhand belt’ of iron ore in India. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Odisha- Jharkhand Belt:

  1. In Odisha high grade hematite ore is found. 
  2. It is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhauj and Kendujhar districts.
  3.  In the adjoining Singbhum district of Jharkhand hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.

 

Q12 What is biogas? Where in India are biogas plants set up and why?

 

Ans 1. Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas.

  1. Biogas plants are set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.
  2. These plants are set up in rural areas since they provide twin benefits to the farmer-

(a) They provide energy to the farmer. 

(b) Improved quality of manure is available. 

 

Q13 What are rocks? How are they associated with minerals?

 

Ans 1. Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals. 

  1. Some rocks like limestone, consist of single minerals only, but the majority of the rocks consists of several minerals in varying proportions.
  2. Although over 2,000 minerals have been identified, only a few are abundantly found in most of the rocks.

 

Q14 What is the role of a geographer and a geologist in the study of minerals?

 

Ans 1. Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms. 

  1. The distribution of mineral resources and associated economic activities are of interest to geographers. 
  2. A geologist is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.

 

Q15 What are ‘placer deposits’? 

 

Ans 1. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.

  1. The deposits are called ‘placer deposits, and generally contain minerals, which are not corroded by water.
  2. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are the most important among such minerals.

 

Q16 What are the chief characteristics of bauxite?

 

Ans 1. Though several ores contain aluminium, it is from bauxite that a clay-like substance alumina and later aluminium are obtained.

  1. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
  2. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

 

Q17 What are the chief characteristics of mica?

 

Ans 1. It is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets.

  1. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand plates can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimetres high.
  2. Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries.

 

Q18 Describe any three characteristics of Bellary-Chitradurga, Chikmaglur-Tumkur iron-ore belt in India. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt:

It lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.

  1. Very high grade hematites are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chattisgarh.
  2. The range of hills comprises of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore. 
  3. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.

 

Q19 Where do we find limestone and what are its uses?

 

Ans 1. It is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.

  1. It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations.
  2. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry. It is essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

 

Q20 What are the uses of energy resources?

 

Ans 1. Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat.

  1. It is used to propel vehicles. 
  2. It is also used to drive machinery in industries.

 

Q21 What are the various uses of coal?

 

Ans 1. In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel.

  1. It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs.
  2. It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements.

 

Q22 Which State is the largest producer of manganese in India? Mention any two uses of manganese. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Odisha is the largest producer of manganese.

Uses of manganese in India:

  1. It is used in manufacturing of steel and ferro- manganese alloy. 
  2. These alloys are strong and are used in making giant machines.
  3. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder. 
  4. It is also used in insecticides.
  5. It is also used in the manufacturing of paints.

 

Q23 What are the uses of petroleum or mineral oil in India? 

 

Ans 1. Petroleum is also an important energy source in India after coal. 

  1. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials to a number of manufacturing industries. Mineral oil is used in lotions and moisturiser.
  2. Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. 

 

Q24 What are the uses or importance of natural gas as a fuel?

 

Ans 1. It is an important and clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum. 

  1. It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry.
  2. As a source of energy, it is used in vehicles as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). For cooking purposes, it is used as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). 
  3. It is considered an environmental friendly fuel because of low carbon-dioxide emissions.

 

Q25 Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

 

Ans 1. Mineral resources are basic requirements for economic development.

  1. Every sector of the national economy- agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic-needs inputs of mineral resources.
  2. The economic development plans implemented since independence necessarily required increasing amounts of minerals to remain operational. As a result, consumption of minerals in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country and we need to conserve it for the future.

 

Q26 How is mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain. (CBSE 2015)

OR

What are the hazards of mining? 

 

Ans 1. The dust and various fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.

  1. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coal mines are a constant threat to miners.
  2. The water resources in the regions get contaminated due to mining. 
  3. Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil and increase in stream and river pollution.

 

Q27 ‘Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving. Suggest and explain any three measures to solve this burning problem. (CBSE 2016)

OR

There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. Give two broad measures for it. As concerned citizens, how can you help to conserve energy? (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2016)

 

Ans 1. Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent  need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving.” 

  1. Energy sector of the National economy, agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic needs input of energy.
  2. With an increasing population and changing lifestyles, energy consumption is increasing very fast.
  3. We are not self sufficient in energy according to demands therefore judicious use of limited resources is essential.

Measures to solve this burning problems are: 

  1. We can do one bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
  2. Switching off electricity when not in use.
  3. Using power saving devices or using non-conventional sources of energy. 
  4. Checking the power equipment regularly can help in saving energy. 

 

Q28 “India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential.” Suggest and explain any three measures to get full potential. (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:

  1. High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
  2. Lower productivity of labour.
  3. Irregular supply of energy
  4. Poor infrastructure.

 

Q29 ‘Natural gas is an important source of clean energy. Support the statement with examples. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2017)

 

Ans In a power deficient country, natural gas is a precious gift.

  1. It can be used as a source of energy. It takes less time to build a power plant based on natural gas.
  2. It can be used as an industrial raw material in the petro-chemical industry. 
  3. It can be used in building the fertilizer plants and thereby encouraging the use of fertilizers.
  4. It can boost agricultural production. 
  5. Through easy transportation of pipelines, its utility is further increased.
  6. Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country. 

 

Q30 Discuss the hazards of mining on the life of miners and on the environment. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2017)

 

Ans 1. The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.

  1. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coal mines are a constant threat to miners.
  2. The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining. Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil and increase in stream and river pollution.

 

Q31 How we have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources? Explain. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Steps to adopt for judicious use of our limited energy resources:

  1. Use public transport.
  2. Switch off electricity when not in use. 
  3. Use power saving devices.
  4. Use non conventional sources of energy.

 

Q32 “Energy saved is energy produced”. Support the statement with suitable examples. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2019-20)

 

Ans “Energy saved is energy produced”. 

  1. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy.
  2. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. 
  3. We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.
  4. Using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles. 
  5. Switching off electricity when not in use. 
  6. Using power-saving devices and using non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q33 “India has fairly rich and varied mineral resources across different regions”. Support the statement with examples. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2019-20)

 

Ans 1. Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.

  1. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 
  2. Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals.

 

Q34 Suggest any two ways to conserve energy resources in India. (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2022-23)

 

Ans Ways to conserve energy resources in India.ways to conserve energy resources in India:

  1. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources 
  2. Have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources. 
  3. Use public transport systems instead of individual vehicles 
  4. Switch off electricity when not in use 
  5. Using power-saving devices 
  6. Use non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q35 Suggest any two ways to improve the usage of Solar energy. 

 

Ans Ways to improve the usage of solar energy:

  1. Reducing the cost of solar panels 
  2. Use of efficient solar panel models.
  3. Rising awareness about the importance of renewable energy
  4. Easy installation process 
  5. Buy panels with High Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Cells. 
  6. Avoid installing solar panels in shaded areas.

 

Minerals and Energy Resources – 4 Mark Questions

 

Q1 Read the extract and answer the questions that follows:

 

Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources. Conventional sources include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity (both hydel and thermal). Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, and atomic energy. Firewood and cattle dung cake is most common in rural India. According to one estimate, more than 70 percent of energy requirement in rural households is met by these two; continuation of these is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area. Moreover, using dung cake too is being discouraged because it consumes the most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about conventional energy resources?

A They cause minimum pollution.

B They are available in limited quantity.

C Cattle dung is the most used energy in the world.

D There are sufficient reserves of conventional energy sources.

 

Ans B They are available in limited quantity.

 

  1. Which of the following resources does not generate energy?

A Coal 

B Fuel

C Natural gas

D None of the above

 

Ans D None of the above

 

  1. Which of the following energy is the non-conventional source of energy?

A Firewood

B Tidal energy

C Natural gas

D Petroleum

 

Ans B Tidal energy

 

  1. Firewood and cattle dung cake are most common energy in rural India because

A they are easily available

B they are non-conventional

C they produces high energy

D None of the above

 

Ans A they are easily available

 

Q2 Read the extract and answer the questions that follows:

 

Source A Biogas

Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas. which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.

Source B Solar Energy

India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas.

Source C Wind Energy

India has great potential for wind power. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms.

 

  1. To what extent do you think biogas is better than dung cake for fuel?

 

Ans Biogas is much better than dung cakes as it produces no smoke and has more thermal efficiency.

 

  1. Why does solar energy have more potential to be developed as a major fuel in rural areas?

 

Ans There is more potential of developing solar energy in rural areas as there are relatively more open spaces. This will reduce the dependence on firewood and dung cakes fuel.

 

  1. What similarity or trait can be seen in the places ideally suited for setting up wind farms?

 

Ans The similarities identified are that the areas should be close to the sea where there is a lot of potential for blowing of wind or other windy areas.

 

  1. What are the renewable sources of energy?

 

Ans Solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material are all renewable sources of energy and are also called non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q3 Read the extract and answer the questions that follows:

 

Decaying plants in swamps produce peat which has a low carbon and high moisture content and low heating capacity. Lighite is low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The principal lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity. Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal. In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old. The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Tertiary coals occur in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

  1. Which reserves are important for lignite in India?

 

Ans Neyveli reserves in Tamil Nadu are important lignite reserves in India.

 

  1. To what extent do you agree that bituminous coal is metallurgical coal? State its one property.

 

Ans Bituminous coal is a high grade coal and thus, is a metallurgical coal. This type of coal has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.

 

  1. Why is coal associated with geological ages? State where it is found?

 

Ans Coal is associated with geological ages because coal is formed due to compression of plant material and takes millions of years to come into existence.

In India, coal occurs in rock series of two Indian geological ages, namely Gondwana rock series which is a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits rock series which are only about 55 million years old.

Distribution of Gondwana coal deposits are found in Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and YVardha valleys also contain coal deposits.

Tertiary coal deposits are found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

  1. The ___________, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys contain coal deposits. 

A Sutlej 

B Narmada 

C Krishna 

D Godavari

 

Ans D Godavari

 

Minerals and Energy Resources – 5 Mark Questions

 

Q1 How are bauxite deposits formed? In which regions is bauxite found? 

 

Ans 1. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks, rich in aluminium silicates.

  1. It is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness, with good conductivity.
  2. They are mainly found in Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur
  3. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state. 
  4. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district (Odisha) are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.

 

Q2 How is tidal energy produced?

 

Ans 1. Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. 

  1. Floodgate dams are built across inlets.
  2. During high tide, water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. 
  3. After the tide falls outside the floodgate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.

 

Q3 Why should we use renewable energy resources? Explain with arguments. (CBSE 2017

 

Ans We should use renewable energy resources because of the:

  1. Exhaustibility of non renewable resources. 
  2. Long years of geological formation of non renewable resources.
  3. Causes less pollution.
  4. Available in abundance. 
  5. Environmental friendly.
  6. Strong dependence on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas is a threat to our environment. 
  7. Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages.
  8. Uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future.
  9. There is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material. 

 

Q4 In what forms do minerals occur?

 

Ans Minerals generally occur in these forms: 

  1. Igneous and metamorphic rocks: Minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins or lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid, molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. 

Example: Metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc., are obtained from the veins and lodes.

  1. In sedimentary rocks: A number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of iron ore and sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. 
  2. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
  3. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in the sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which are not corroded by water. 

Example: Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.

  1. The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too widely diffused to be of economic significance.

Example: Common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from the ocean waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in manganese nodules. 

 

Q5 What are the major iron ore belts in India? 

 

Ans 1. Odisha-Jharkhand Belt: In Odisha, high grade haematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. In the adjoining Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.

  1. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt: It lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade haematite are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making: iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan, South Korea via the Vishakhapatnam port. 
  2. Bellary-Chitradurga-Belt Chikkamagaluru: Tumakuru belt in Karnataka has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudermukh mines located in the western ghats of Karnataka are a 100 percent export unit. Kudermukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world. 
  3. Maharashtra-Goa belt: It includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Though the ores are not of very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through the Marmagao port.

 

Q6 What are the four main types of coal found in India? 

 

Ans 1. Anthracite. It is the highest quality hard coal. It is found in parts of Jammu and Kashmir. 2. Bituminous: This coal has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. 

  1. Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. It is used for the generation of electricity.
  2. Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produce peat, which has low carbon content and high moisture content resulting in low heating capacity. 

 

Q7 Differentiate between hydel power and thermal power.

 

Ans 

Hydel powerThermal power
1. It is generated by fast flowing water. 1. It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.
2. It uses renewable resources.2. It uses all non-renewable resources. 
3. Initially, its cost was high but later it became cheaper.3. Its cost is very high and its production is expensive.
4. It does not cause any pollution.4. It does cause pollution.
5. Example: Bhakra Nangal project.5. Example: Badarpur thermal plant of Delhi.

 

Q8 How are minerals formed in sedimentary rocks?

 

Ans 1. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers.

  1. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. 
  2. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure. 
  3. Another group of sedimentary minerals includes gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.

 

Q9 “India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. However, these are unevenly distributed.” Comment.

OR

“Minerals are unevenly distributed in India.” Support the statement with examples. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans 1. Minerals are unevenly distributed in various regions of India. 

  1. Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals. 
  2. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
  3. Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous 
  4. The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals.

 

Q10 What are the uses of copper? Give distribution of copper in India.

 

Ans 1. India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper.

  1. Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
  2. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 per cent of India’s copper.
  3. The Singhbhum district of Jharkhand is also a leading producer of copper.
  4. The Khetri mines in Rajasthan are also famous for copper reserves.

 

Q11 In which regions does petroleum occur in India?

 

Ans 1. Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. 

  1. In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold.
  2. The oil bearing layer is porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. 
  3. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.
  4. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between parous and non-porous rocks. 

 

Q12 Which regions are known for petroleum production in India?

 

Ans 1. About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High. 

  1. 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.
  2. There are three major offshore fields of western India, where oil is produced. 
  3. Ankleshwar is the most important oil field of Gujarat.
  4. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oilfields in the state.

 

Q13 India now ranks as a ‘wind superpower of the world.’ Is it true? 

 

Ans 1. India is one of the world’s wind superpowers at present.

  1. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai. 
  2. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms.
  3. Nagercoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.
  4. Since India has a long coastline, the coasts can easily be used for setting up effective windmills. 

 

Q14 What is geothermal energy? In which regions have experimental projects been set up in India?

 

Ans 1. Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. 

  1. It exists because the earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth.
  2. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. 
  3. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
  4. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.

Two experimental projects: One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the puga valley, Ladakh. 

 

Q15 Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India. (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans Importance of Petroleum:

  1. Petroleum is the major energy source in India. 
  2. Provides fuel for heat and lighting.
  3. Provides lubricant for machinery.
  4. Provides raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.
  5. Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic, textile, fertilizer and chemical industries

Its occurrence:

  1. Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
  2. In regions of folding, anticline or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold. 
  3. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.

 

Q16 Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them. (CBSE 2016)

 

Ans Importance of conservation of Minerals: 

  1. Mineral resources are being rapidly consumed which takes millions of years to be created and concentrated. 
  2. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable 
  3. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decreasing quality. 

The three measures to conserve minerals are:

  1. It should be used in a planned and sustainable manner. 
  2. Improved technology needs to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs.
  3. Some of the metals are recyclables.
  4. Scrap of metal can be used and sore other substitutes can be found.

 

Q17 “Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.” Support this statement with suitable examples. (CBSE 2016) (CBSE 2017)

 

 Ans Minerals are indispensable part of our lives:

  1. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
  2. The railway lines and tarmac (paving) of the roads are made from minerals.
  3. Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. 
  4. Even the food that we eat contains minerals.
  5. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religions and ceremonial rites. 

 

Q18 Which type of minerals has provided a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries in India. Explain with the help of examples.

 

Ans 1. Iron ore provides a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries in India Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.

  1. Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro manganese alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel. 
  2. Aluminium or Bauxite is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability
  3. Copper is a good conductor of heat and is therefore used for electric wires. It is also used in metallurgical industry.

 

Q19 “India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources.” Elaborate the statement.

 

Ans 1. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of Iron Ore. Iron ore from the mines of Durg Bastar-Chandrapur are exported to lapan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam Port.

  1. Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. Bituminous coal which is most popular coal in commercial use is abundantly available in India. 
  2. By exporting these minerals, India is able to earn foreign exchange.
  3. Mica is also abundantly available in India. Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries. 

 

Q20 Which is the basic mineral and is the backbone of industrial development?

OR

What is the status of iron ore in India?

 

Ans 1. Iron ore is the basic mineral and is the backbone of Industrial development.

  1. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. 
  2. India is rich in good quality iron ores.
  3. Magnetite is the finest ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industries:
  4. Haematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 per cent). 

 

Q21 Which is the second most important energy resource in India after coal? Mention its two uses along with its deposits in India.

 

Ans Petroleum or mineral oil is the second most important energy resource in India after coal.

Two uses:

  1. It provides fuel for heat & lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
  2. Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal Industry for synthetic textile fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. 

Deposits of Petroleum:

  1. 63 per cent of India’s Petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat & 16 per cent from Assam.
  2. Ankleshwar is the most important offshore field of Gujarat. 
  3. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India.
  4. Digboi, Naharkatia and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state. 

 

Q22 Distinguish between Biogas and Natural Gas.

 

Ans

Bio GasNatural Gas
1. Biogas is the man made energy resource.Natural gas is a natural resource.
2. It is prepared by using shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste.2. It is found beneath the earth usually above the oil.
3. It is produced for domestic uses.3.  It is basically used in Industries as raw material.
4. Biogas is the most efficient use of cow dung, farm waste and animal waste.4. Compressed natural gas (CNG) is used as environment friendly fuel and is gaining popularity in India.

 

Q23 ‘Why is there a pressing need to use renewable energy resources in India.’ Explain giving any five reasons. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans 1. The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil & gas. 

  1. Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which in turn has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
  2. Moreover, increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems. 
  3. The conventional sources of energy are at the extent of getting exhausted and there is a need for alternative sources i.e. renewable sources of energy to sustain development. 
  4. The economic development plans implemented by government require steady and increasing amount of energy to remain optional.

Hence, there is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tidal, biomass and energy from waste material. These are called non-conventional energy resources.

 

Q24 “Energy saved is energy produced.” Justify the statement by giving any six measures to conserve the energy resources. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.

As concerned citizens, we can do our bit by: 

  1. Using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
  2. Switching off electricity when not in use. 
  3. Using power saving devices like stars appearing in electronic industries. 
  4. Using CNG as fuel which is environmentally friendly.
  5. Increased use of renewable energy. 
  6. Using of biogas for domestic consumption in the rural areas.
  7. Using non-conventional sources of energy.

 

Q25 Why is Conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them. [CBSE 2015]

OR

Why is it necessary to conserve mineral resources? Explain any four ways to conserve mineral resources. (CBSE 2017)

 

Ans Need for conservation of Minerals:

  1. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that require millions of years to be created and concentrated.
  2. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to its consumption.
  3. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as minerals extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality. 
  4. Most of the minerals are unevenly distributed on the Earth’s surface. Mineral resources are therefore finite and non-renewable.

Three methods to conserve Minerals:

  1. We must make use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner. 
  2. Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow the use of low grade ores at low cost.
  3. Recycling of metals
  4. Using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving ore mineral resources for the future.

 

Map Based Questions

 

Q1 On the map of India, mark the important minerals and where they are found with the help of suitable symbols. 

 

Ans

 the important minerals

 

Image Credit: https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/minerals/

 

Q2 On the map of India, mark the conventional energy resources and where they are found with the help of suitable symbols. 

 

Ans

the conventional energy resources

Image Credit: NCERT Textbook (Contemporary India)

 

Q3 On the map of India, mark the nuclear and thermal power plants with the help of suitable symbols. 

  1. Kalpakkam- Nuclear Power Plant (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2019-20)
  2. Namrup Thermal Plant (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2020-21) (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2021-22)
  3. Naraura Nuclear Power Plant (CBSE SAMPLE PAPER 2020-21)

Ans

power-plants