Chapter 1 Power Sharing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science

 

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing – Important Questions

 

Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Political Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each) 

 

  1. Which of the following does Belgium not share a border with?
  1. France 
  2. Germany 
  3. Austria
  4. Netherlands 

Answer- C. Austria

 

  1. Who comprises Belgium’s minority community?
  1. French speaking 
  2. Dutch speaking 
  3. Both above 
  4. None of the above 

Answer- A. French speaking 

 

  1. Which community was relatively rich and powerful in Belgium?
  1. French 
  2. Dutch 
  3. German 
  4. Polish 

Answer – A. French 

 

  1. In Belgium, the percentage of French community is:
  1. 1%
  2. 60%
  3. 40%
  4. 59%

Answer – C. 40%

 

  1. Which language is spoken by the linguistic majority of Belgium?
  1. French 
  2. Dutch 
  3. German 
  4. Irish 

Answer- B. Dutch 

 

  1. Which of the following is the capital of Belgium?
  1. Antwerp 
  2. Liege
  3. Ghent 
  4. Brussels

Answer- D. Brussels

 

  1. How many amendments have been made in the constitution of Belgium between 1970 and 1993?
  1. 8
  2. 5
  3. 4
  4. 6

Answer – C. 4

 

  1.  Which city was chosen as its headquarters when the European Union was formed? [CCE 2010]
  1. Antwerp 
  2. Liege
  3. Ghent 
  4. Brussels

Answer- D. Brussels 

 

  1. How many people speak French and Dutch in the capital city of Brussels?
  1. a) 60% French 40% Dutch
  2. b) 50% Dutch 50% French
  3. c) 80% French 20% Dutch
  4. d) 80% Dutch 20% French

Answer – C. 80% French 20% Dutch

 

  1. Which social group is in majority in Sri Lanka?
  1. Sinhala speakers
  2. Sri Lankan Tamils 
  3. Indian Tamils 
  4. Buddhists 

Answer – A. Sinhala speakers

 

  1. What is the percentage of Sinhala speaking people in Sri Lanka?
  1. 68
  2. 13
  3. 74
  4. 8

Answer- C. 74%

 

  1. Which community is relatively rich and powerful in Belgium?
  1. French 
  2. Dutch 
  3. German
  4. Belgian 

Answer- A. French 

 

  1. Which city is the European Union’s headquarters located in?
  1. Paris 
  2. Brussels 
  3. New York 
  4. Washington DC

Answer – B. Brussels

 

  1. Which language is spoken by the people of the Flemish region of Belgium?
  1. French 
  2. German 
  3. Dutch 
  4. None of the above 

Answer – C. Dutch language 

 

  1. Which was the only official language of Sri Lanka?
  1. Sinhala 
  2. Tamil
  3. English 
  4. Malayalam 

Answer – A. Sinhala 

 

  1. Which religion was followed by the Sinhala speaking community?
  1. Muslim 
  2. Hindu 
  3. Buddhist 
  4. Christianity 

Answer – C. Buddhist 

 

  1. When did Sri Lanka become independent?
  1. 1946
  2. 1948
  3. 1958
  4. 1914

Answer – B. 1948

 

  1. Which of the following is a majoritarian measure taken in Sri Lanka?
  1. Protection of all religions 
  2. Fair opportunities
  3. Sinhala recognised as only official language 
  4. Preferential policy for Tamils

Answer – C. Sinhala recognised as only official language 

 

  1. What kind of war broke out in Sri Lanka?
  1. Guerrilla war 
  2. Civil war
  3. Cold war 
  4. Ethnic war 

Answer- B. civil war 

 

  1. When did the Sri Lankan civil war end?
  1. 2007
  2. 2008
  3. 2009
  4. 1948

Answer- C. 2009

 

  1. Are the state governments subordinate to the central government in Belgium?
  1. Yes 
  2. No 
  3. Cannot say 
  4. No comments 

Answer- B. No

 

  1. Struggle demanding a separate Eelam was launched by which community?
  1. Sinhalese
  2. Tamil
  3. Buddhist 
  4. Muslim 

Answer – B. Tamil 

 

  1. An Act recognising Sinhala as the official language was signed in:
  1. 1942 
  2. 1956  
  3. 1954  
  4. 1948

Answer – B. 1956

 

  1. Apart from the Central and the State Governments, which third type of government exists in Belgium?  
  1. Ethnic government 
  2. Community government
  3. Cultural government
  4. Linguistic government

Answer – B. Community government

 

  1. Which system of power sharing is called checks and balances? 
  1. Vertical distribution of powers
  2. Power sharing amongst different social groups 
  3.   Horizontal distribution of powers
  4. Both A. and C. 

Answer – C. Horizontal distribution of powers

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 mark each) 

 

  1. Give a disadvantage of power- sharing.

Answer- Due to wide consultation, the process of making and execution of decisions is often slowed down in nations with power sharing systems.

 

  1. Apart from the Central and the State governments, which is the third type of government practised in Belgium? (2012)

Answer- Community government which is the third type of government practised in Belgium.

 

  1. Define majoritarianism. (2013)

Answer- Majoritarianism is rule by the majority community by disregarding the needs and wishes of the minority community.

 

  1. What measure was adopted by the democratically elected government of Sri Lanka to establish Sinhala Supremacy? (2014)

Answer- 

(i) In 1956, an Act was passed to make Sinhala the official language.

(ii) The government followed preferential policies favouring Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.

 

  1. What is meant by the system of ‘checks and balances? (2015)

Answer-In a democracy, in the horizontal distribution of powers, there are different organs placed at the same level. This way, each organ checks the others and none enjoys unlimited power. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.

 

  1. Who elects the community government in Belgium?  

Answer- People belonging to each language community elect a community government.

 

  1. Give a reason in favour of power sharing?

Answer- Power sharing is crucial for democracy since it facilitates a country’s diversity.

 

  1. Name any two countries with which Belgium share borders

Answer – France and Germany

 

  1. The Belgium community government is an example of which type of power sharing?

(2016-17)

Answer- Power sharing among different social groups (such as religious or linguistic groups)

 

  1. What is the language spoken by the people residing in the Wallonia region of Belgium? (2014)

Answer- The people residing in the Wallonia region of Belgium speak French.

 

  1. Define the term ‘Ethnic’.

Answer- Ethnic means a social division based on shared culture and common descent. People belonging to an ethnic group need not have the same religion or nationality.

 

  1. What is vertical division of power?

Answer- When power is shared among governments at different levels, i.e., the Union or the Central Government, the State Government and the Municipality and Panchayat at the lower level. This division of power involving higher and lower levels of government is called the vertical division of power.

 

  1. Mention the 4 kinds of power sharing.

Answer- the 4 kinds of power sharing are:

  1. Horizontal (system of checks and balances)
  2. Vertical (federal division of power)
  3. Among different social groups 
  4. Among political parties, pressure groups and movements

 

  1. What do you understand by the term ‘prudential’?

Answer- Prudential means based on careful calculation of loss and gains, as an opposite to moral considerations.

 

  1. What is a civil war?

Answer- A civil war is a violent conflict between opposing social groups within a country that becomes so intense that it looks like a war.

 

  1. What is majoritarianism?

Answer- Majoritarianism is the belief that the majority should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wants and needs of the minority.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each)

 

Q1. Describe the Ethnic composition of Belgium

Answer –

A small nation in Western Europe, Belgium is bordered by the nations of the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Luxembourg. In a region of 30,521 sq. km, there are just over one crore people living there.

  1.  Belgium’s ethnic composition is pretty complex.
  2.  There are two official languages in the country: Dutch and French.
  1. Of the total population, 59% of people live in the Flemish region and speak Dutch, while 40% of people in the Wallonia region speak French. German is spoken by 1% of people. 
  2. In the nation’s capital city of Brussels, 20% of the population speaks Dutch and 80% speak French. Compared to the majority Dutch speakers, the minority French speakers are wealthier and more powerful. Conflict between the two results from this situation.

 

Q2. Describe the Ethnic composition of Sri Lanka.

Answer- 

About 80 kilometres (km) east of India’s southernmost tip is the island nation of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean. More than two crore people reside in the country. Since ancient times, Sri Lanka has been a hub for Buddhist culture and religion. It is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country. Along with Buddhism (69.1%), other religions are represented as well, including Hinduism (7.1%), Christianity (6.2%), Islam (7.6%), and others. The two largest social groupings in this country are Tamil speakers (18%) and Sinhala speakers (74%). There are two subcategories of Tamil people: (1) Sri Lankan Tamils (13%) and (2) Indian Tamils (5%). Native Tamils of Sri Lanka are known as Sri Lankan Tamils, whereas the remainder are Indian Tamils because they immigrated from India during the colonial era. The primary languages used by the population are Sinhala, Tamil and English.

 

Q3. What do you mean by the “Checks and balances” structure of power sharing in a democratic government? [2015]

Answer- In democratic countries power is shared among different organs of the government. such as legislature, executive and judiciary.

  1. These organs are placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
  2.  None of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions for example. Even though ministers exercise power they are responsible to the parliament or state assemblies similarly.
  3. Judges are appointed by the executive and they can check the functioning of executive and legislature. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.

 

Q4. How did the Belgian government solve the ethnic community differences between communities?

Answer- The path of accommodation followed in Belgium.

  1. Dutch and French-speaking ministers in the central government will be on an equal level.
  2. The state governments have been given several of the federal government’s powers. The state governments are independent of the federal government.

iii. Brussels has a separate government with equal representation including both communities.

  1. A third type of government, referred to as community government, is chosen by all members of the Dutch, French, and German ethnic groups, regardless of where they reside.

 

Q5. What is majoritarianism? How has it led to alienation of the minority community in Sri Lanka?

Answer- The dominance of the majority community to rule the country in whichever way it wants, totally disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority community is known as majoritarianism.

  1. There are two primary ethnic groups in Sri Lanka: the Sinhala and the Tamil. The leaders of the Sinhala community wanted to control the government through their majority.
  2. Sinhala has been recognised as the nation’s official language by ignoring the Tamil community 

iii. Government followed a preferential policy favouring Sinhalese in university portions and government jobs.

  1. The government encouraged and protected Buddhist distrust has turned into a civil war that has caused a setback to the social , cultural and economic life of Sri Lanka.

 

Q6. What is the reason for tension in Belgium?

Answer-

  1. The Dutch form 59%, the French form 40% and the German about 1% comprises the population of Belgium.
  2. The French community is in majority in the capital of Belgium, Brussels.

iii. They are rich and powerful and this is not liked by the Dutch.

  1. The Dutch speaking community got the benefit of economic development and education much later showed resentment.
  2. This led to conflict between French and Dutch speaking people.

 

Q7. What does power sharing mean?

Answer- 

  1. Power sharing is a mechanism in which each of the major societal groups is given a permanent share of power in the nation’s governance.
  2. It is a way of exchanging values, rules, and roles to make large-scale decision-making, controlling, and leadership simpler.

iii. It may serve as a tool for settling social conflicts.

 

Q8. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give examples of each.

Answer- 

  1. Power is shared among different organs of the government as legislature, executive and judiciary. Example: The constitution of India divides powers between the executive, legislature and judiciary.
  2. Power is shared among governments at different levels. Example: Indian constitution establishes a dual policy in which the powers are divided between state and union government.

iii. Power is shared among various social groups. Example: Community government style as followed in Belgium.

  1. Power is shared among various political parties, pressure groups and movements. Example: The multi-party system as followed in India.

 

Q9. Describe any three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils. 

Answer- the Sri Lankan Tamils had the following demands-

  1. the recognition of Tamil as another official language 
  2. they also demanded equality of opportunity in education and employment.

iii. Through formation of political organisations and pressure groups, they also demanded a separate Tamil Eelam in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

 

Q10. Describe the features of vertical power sharing.

Answer –

  1. In the vertical division of Power Sharing power is shared among the different levels of the government like Union Government, state government and Lower levels.
  2. Different levels of the government exercise the power of the government.

iii. It ensures the concept of deepening democracy.

  1. Central Government, State Government and Panchayat Raj are the example of the Vertical division of Power Sharing

 

Q11. Give reasons for desirability of power sharing.

Answer- power sharing is desirable due to the following reasons-

  1. Power sharing brings stability and fairness to political order
  2. It strengthens the spirit of democracy 

iii. It ensures that all powerful bodies are in check and that none has absolute or unlimited power

  1. It also can act as a medium to resolve and avoid conflicts between different social groups.

 

Q12. When did Sri Lanka become independent? How did the Sinhala community seek to secure dominance over government and why? What were its effects? [CBSE 2016-17]

Answer-

  1. Sri Lanka became independent in 1948.
  2. The majoritarian Sinhala community sought dominance over the government by virtue of their majority through the following measures:
  1. In 1956, an act was passed, recognising Sinhalese as the only official language, disregarding Tamil language.
  2. There were preferential policies which favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and jobs.
  3. Constitutional amendments were used as a way to protect and foster Buddhism.

(iv)   As an effect of this, a civil war broke out due to tensions between the Sinhala and Tamil communities.

 

Q13. ‘Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy’

Give prudential and moral reasons to this. [2017]

Answer- 

(i) Prudential reason: power sharing will bring better outcomes- it ensures equality for all communities and reduces the chances of conflicts between social groups.

(ii) Example- in India, reserved constituencies ensure representation for all castes, and sometimes coalition governments are formed sharing power between different political parties and pressure groups.

(iii) Moral reason- power sharing is valuable – it strengthens the very spirit of democracy and consultation of each citizen (direct or indirect) is ensured in decision making.

(iv) Example- people elect their political representatives.

 

Q14. Majoritarianism: What is it? Is it wrong if a country’s majority community rules? Give justifications for your answer.

Answer- A belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority is majoritarianism.

Yes, it is wrong if a majority community in a country rules in this manner.

(i) Power sharing is adopted to ensure that absolute power does not rest with any person, ideology or community.

(ii) This strengthens democracy by accommodating diversity in a country.

(iii) In a majoritarian reign, the minorities will be disadvantaged, and discriminated against.

(iv) As a response to such injustices, civil wars and widespread social unrest may break out, hindering the nation’s growth.

 

Source Based Questions  (1 mark X 4 = 4 marks each) 

 

Q1. Look at the following picture- 

 

Image credits – NCERT textbook in political science for class 10, democratic politics 

 

Now answer the following questions-

  1. Name any 2 nations which share borders with Belgium.

Answer – France and Netherlands 

  1. Which community is the linguistic majority in Belgium?

Answer- Dutch speaking community of Flemish region

  1. Which language is spoken by the residents of the Wallonia region?

Answer- French language 

  1. Where is the headquarters of the European Union situated?

Answers- in Brussels, the capital of Belgium.

 

Q2. Look at the following picture and answer the questions that follow.

 

ehinic communities

Image credits – NCERT textbook in political science for class 10, democratic politics 

 

  1. When did Sri Lanka gain independence?

Answer- 1948

  1. What kind of measures were adopted by the Sri Lankan government?

Answer- majoritarian measures

  1. When was the act recognising Sinhala as the only official language passed?

Answer – 1956

  1. What was the religion practiced by the linguistic majority of Sri Lanka?

Answer- Buddhism. 

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 marks each)

 

  1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? [2016]

 

Answer- there are four major forms of power sharing.

  1. POWER SHARED AMONG DIFFERENT ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT

This is also known as horizontal distribution of power, it places different organs of the government – such as the legislature, executive, judiciary – at the same level. This way none of them enjoys unlimited power and each one checks the others. Hence, this is an arrangement of checks and balances.

  1. Power Shared Among Governments At Different Levels

There is a general government for the entire country called the federal government (union/central in India) and there are governments at provincial/regional level such as state governments and municipalities and panchayats. This is called vertical division or federal division of power between higher and lower levels.

  1. Power Shared Among Different Social Groups 

Socially weaker sections are thus represented in legislatures and administration. This method gives a fair share in power to minority communities and gives space to diverse social groups in government and administration.

  1. When Political Parties, Pressure Groups And Movements Control/Influence Those In Power

In a democracy, this gives the citizens the right to choose among various contenders for power. Political parties often form coalitions and have a share in governmental powers through participation in committees or movements.

 

  1. Analyse how majoritarianism has increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils? [2014, 2015]

 

Answer – In 1948, Sri Lanka gained its independence. A number of policies were implemented by the democratically elected government to promote Sinhala dominance:

(i)  In 1956, an Act was passed to make Sinhala the official language.

(ii) The government followed preferential policies favouring Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.

(iii) The Constitution provided for State protection and fostering of Buddhism.

The Sri Lankan Tamils felt that none of the major political parties run by Buddhist Sinhala leaders were cognizant of their language and culture, and that the government’s policies denied them equal political rights, which intensified their sense of alienation.

Therefore, the measures adopted by the government to establish Sinhala supremacy led to distrust between the two communities which turned the widespread conflict into a Civil War.

The Tamil community launched struggles, parties and demanded equality of opportunity in education and employment and even a separate Tamil-Eelam

 

  1. Power Sharing is the very spirit of democracy”. Justify the statement.  [2015]

 

 

Answer- 

(i) Sharing powers with individuals who will be affected by a democratic rule is crucial. Power sharing makes certain that everyone has the right to fair involvement in politics and the right to be consulted.

(ii)Everyone in a democracy has a voice in determining how the government functions through their elected representatives. This is how power sharing ensures that every citizen has the same rights.

(iii) Sharing of power assures that desire for harmony and tolerance for diversity become a shared ideal amongst various communities in a nation. In actuality, it promotes democracy and national unity.

(iv) Prudent arguments emphasise that power sharing would produce better results by assisting in lowering the likelihood of any societal conflict.

(v) A good technique to maintain overall stability is through power sharing. through unity in diversity.

 

  1. How was the ethnic problem in Belgium solved? 

 

Answer- to resolve the ethnic conflicts in Belgium, the following arrangement of power sharing was adopted-

 

(i) Between 1970 and 1993, the constitution was amended 4 times to work out an arrangement 

(ii) As per their constitution, the central government needs to have an equal number of Dutch and French speaking ministers and some special laws require majority support from each group.

(iii) Many powers of central government have been given to state government and state governments are not the subordinates

(iv) Brussels has a separate government with equal representation from both groups.

(v) There is a third type of government too- the community government- which is elected by people belonging to one language community- French, Dutch, German- no matter where they live.

 

  1. Differentiate between horizontal and vertical systems of power sharing.

 

Answer – the differences have been tabulated as under –

 

Horizontal divisionVertical division
Power is shared among different organs of government such as the legislature, executive and judiciaryPower is shared among different levels of government, such as union, state and local governments
Different organs coexist and cooperateDifferent levels of governments exercise power
It’s also called a system of checks and balancesAlso called federal system of power sharing
Ensures expansion/ widening of democracyEnsured deepening of democracy
Example- the legislature, executive and judiciary are different organs of Indian governmentExample- in India, the union/central government, state government, municipality and Panchayati Raj are different levels of the government