Chapter 1 Development NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development – Important Questions

Given in this post  is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Economics important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.

 

 MCQ Based Questions

Q1 Which of the following measures the proportion of literate population in the seven and above age group? 

A. Net Attendance Ratio 

B. Enrolment Rate 

C. Literacy Rate 

D. Drop out Ratio

Ans C. Literacy Rate

 

Q2 Which one of the following is the correct meaning of ‘Average Income’? 

A. The total income of the country divided by its earning population. 

B. The total income of the country divided by its total population. 

C. The total income of all the residents of the country. 

D. The total income from the domestic and foreign sources

Ans B. The total income of the country divided by its total population.

 

Q3 Which one of the following best describes Human Development Index (HDI)? 

A. Improvement in science, information and technology 

B. Improvement in health, education and income 

C. Improvement in information and communication 

D. Improvement in investment, finance and technology

Ans B. Improvement in health, education and income 

 

Q4 “Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.” Which of the following is the essence of this statement? 

A. Economic development 

B. Human Development 

C. Sustainable Development 

D. National Development

Ans C. Sustainable Development 

 

Q5 Which of the following statements defines Sustainable Development? 

A. Sustainable use of natural resources without considering the need of the future generation. 

B. Present generation fulfils its needs while considering the needs of the future generation as well. 

C. It means utilization of natural resources by the past, present and forthcoming future generation. 

D. To meets the needs of the future generations even if the needs of the present generation go unmet.

Ans B. Present generation fulfils its needs while considering the needs of the future generation as well.  

 

Q6 Development of a country is generally determined by (NCERT QUESTION)

A Its per capita income

B Its average literacy level

C Health status of its people

D All of the above

 

Ans A Its per capita income

 

Q7 Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India? (NCERT QUESTION)

A Bangladesh

B Sri Lanka

C Nepal

D Pakistan

 

Ans B Sri Lanka

 

Q8 Examples of environmental degradation that can be observed around are

A Water pollution

B Falling levels of groundwater

C Automobiles causing extreme level of air pollution

D All of the above

 

Ans D All of the above

 

Q9 Read the following data and information carefully and select the most appropriate answer from the given options: 

TABLE FOR COMPARISON OF THREE COUNTRIES 

Monthly income of citizens in 2007 (in Rupees)

CountriesIIIIIIIVV
Country A9500 10500 98001000010200
Country B500500 500 500 48000
Country C5000 100015000400025000

 

Rita is an employee of a multinational company who gets transferred to different countries after every three years of service. She has been given an opportunity to choose any one out of the three countries mentioned in the table above as her next job location. She calculates average income of all these countries as per the given data and chooses to be transferred to Country A. 

Identify the reason for which Rita has chosen country A. 

A. Most of its citizens are rich and stable 

B. Has most equitable distribution of income 

C. National income of its citizens is higher 

D. Average income of its citizens is lower

Ans B. Has most equitable distribution of income 

 

Q10 Read the given data and find out which country has most equitable distribution of income. Monthly Income of Citizens in four countries in 2018:

CountriesCitizen ICitizen IICitizen IIICitizen IVCitizen VAverage
Country A10500 11200 1080011000 10700 10,840 
Country B600 5000600 600 600 1,480
Country C550 105004007500 20004,190
Country D800 4800 700 50007502,410

 

A. Country A 

B. Country B 

C. Country C 

D. Country D

Ans A. Country A 

Important Questions and Answers

 

Q11 For development, people look at a mix of ___________ .

A goals

B responsibilities

C accountability

D none of the above

Ans A goals

 

Q12 For comparison between countries, total income is not such a useful measure. State whether true or false. 

A True

B False

Ans True

 

Q13 For comparing the development of countries, their _______ is considered to be one of the most important attributes.

A income

B population

C demographics

D all of the above

 

Ans A income

 

Q14 Since countries have different _______, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. 

A economic policies

B reserves

C resources

D populations

Ans D populations

 

Q15 In World Development Reports, brought out by the_________, per capita income criterion is used in classifying countries. 

A UNICEF

B World Bank

C World Economic Forum

D United Nations

Ans B World Bank

 

Q16 Among the following states __________ has the highest per capita income as per 2012-13 figures. 

A Maharashtra

B Bihar

C Kerala

D Jharkhand

 

Ans A Maharashtra

 

Q17 Countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called __________. 

A underdeveloped countries

B developing countries

C poor countries

D rich countries

Ans D rich countries

 

Q18 Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of ____________ as a proportion of 100 live children born in that particular year. 

A four years

B one year

C two years

D three years

Ans B one year

 

Q19 Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of the age group ________ attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group. 

A 17 and 18 years

B 9 and 10 years

C 12 and 13 years

D 14 and 15 years 

 

Ans D 14 and 15 years 

 

Q20 Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the _________ age group. 

A 10 and above

B 21 and above

C 7 and above

D 18 and above

Ans C 7 and above

 

Q21 If the Body Mass Index (BMI) is _________ then the adult person would be considered overweight. 

A more than 18

B more than 30

C more than 45

D more than 25

Ans D more than 25

 

Q22 If the Body Mass Index (BMI) is _________ then the adult person would be considered undernourished. 

A less than 18.5

B less than 10.5

C less than 25.5

D less than 28.5

Ans A less than 18.5

 

Q23 Which of the following statements about money are true? 

A Money cannot buy you a pollution-free environment.

B Money cannot ensure that you get unadulterated medicines.

C Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases.

D All of the above statements are true.

Ans D All of the above statements are true.

 

Q24 Among the following South Asian countries, ______ had the highest life expectancy at birth. 

A Myanma

B Sri Lanka

C Nepal

D India

 

Ans B Sri Lanka

 

Q25 Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on _________. 

A health status 

B per capita income

C educational levels of the people

D all of the above

Ans D all of the above

 

1 Mark Questions

Q1 What are the developmental goals for landless rural labourers?

Ans Developmental goals for landless rural labourers are more days of work and better wages, local schools, which are able to provide quality education for their children and there should not be any social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.

Q2 What can developmental goals be for prosperous farmers from Punjab?

Ans Assured high family income through higher support prices for their crops, hard working and cheap labours. They should be able to settle their children abroad.

Q3 What are the common developmental goals of a person?

Ans Some of the common development goals are regular work, better wages and better standards of living.

Q4 What is per capita income?

Ans When the total income of the country is divided by its population, we get per capita income.

Q5 What is Infant mortality rate?

Ans It is the number of deaths of infants under 1 year per 1000 live births in a particular area.

Q6 What is the literacy rate measure?

Ans Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the seven and above age group.

Q7 What is Net Attendance Ratio?

Ans It is a total number of children of the age group 14-15 years attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.

Q8 Is it true that money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you need to live well? Explain.

Ans Actually, money cannot buy you a pollution free environment or ensure that you get unadulterated medicines, money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases.

Q9 Why Kerala has a low infant mortality rate?

Ans Kerala has a low infant mortality rate because it has adequate provisions of basic health and educational facilities.

Q10 Which state has the lowest infant mortality rate? (CBSE 2013)

Ans Kerala

Q11 What is Life Expectancy at birth?

Ans Life expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. 

Q12 What is Gross Enrollment Ratio?

Ans Gross enrollment ratio is at 3 levels- enrollment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school.

Q13 Which indicators are taken into consideration for measuring Human Development Index (HDI)

Ans (i) Per capita income

(ii) Life expectancy at birth

(iii) Literacy rate for 15+ population 

(iv) Gross enrollment ratio for three levels

Q14 What is National income?

Ans the sum total of all goods and services produced within a country or nation’s Gross domestic product (GDP) plus net income received from overseas during a period of 1 year.

Q15 What is HDI rank of India in the world as per Human Development Report, 2014?

Ans 131

Q16 How do ration shops under the Public Distribution System (PDS) help people?

Ans Ration shops help by maintaining the nutritional status of the people and making food available at lower cost.

Q17 How do infant mortality rates need to be checked by the government?

Ans The infant mortality rate (IMR) of Odisha is 44 and of Madhya Pradesh is 47, which is higher. So government needs to check malnutrition among the children. 

Q18 Define GDP. (CBSE 2012)

Ans GDP or Gross Domestic Product is the total value of all final goods and services produced during a particular year in a country. 

Q19 What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? (CBSE 2012)

Ans The World Bank uses average income or per capita income as a criterion for classifying different countries.

Q20 Why is the total income of countries not used to make comparisons between them? (CBSE 2012) 

Ans The total income of countries is not used to make comparisons between them, because the population of different countries is different and does not give a clear picture if comparisons are made on the basis. 

Q21 What do you understand by HDI? ( CBSE 2013)

Ans HDI stands for Human Development Index. Human Development Index is a composite index of achievements of a nation in terms of three important variables, namely—longevity, knowledge and standard of living, that determine the quality of life.

Q22 Name the report published by UNDP which compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income. (CBSE 2013)

Ans Human Development Report

Q23 What is the advantage of per capita income? Mention any one. (CBSE 2014)

Ans It helps to compare the development of countries as per capita income tells us whether people in one country are better off than others in a different country.

Q24 What do final goods and services mean? (CBSE 2014)

Ans The various production activities in the primary, secondary and tertiary sector produce large number of goods and services for consumption and investment are final goods and services.

Q25 Why is sustainable development essential? Give one reason. (CBSE 2015)

Ans Sustainable development aims at economic development without damaging the environment and at the same time conserving for the future. Resources should be used in a careful manner so that future generations can enjoy them too.

Q26 “What may be development for one may not be development for the other.” Explain with a suitable example. 

Ans Different persons have different notions of development because life situations of persons are different. For example, Construction of dams leads to generation of hydroelectricity, thus development. However many people have to be displaced from their villages, hence it may not be development for them.

Q27 Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans Average income is an important criterion for development as it tells us what an average person is likely to earn. Prosperity of a country depends not only on its national income but also on the number of people who would share it. 

Q28 Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies? (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans Besides size of per capita income, equitable distribution of income in a country is also a important aspect in comparing two or more societies.

Q29 From the text, find out the per capita income level of low-income countries as per World Development Reports. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans The per capita income level of low-income countries as per World Development Reports  is US$ 1045.

 

Important Videos Links

Assertion-Reason based questions:

 

Q1 Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option. 

Assertion (A): Human Development mentions how much socio-economic development has happened in a country. 

Reason (R): Comparison of national income of two countries explains Human Development Index. 

Options: 

A. Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A. 

B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A. 

C. A is true but R is false. 

D. A is false but R is true

Ans C. A is true but R is false. 

Human Development mentions how much socio-economic development has happened in a country but Human Development Index refers to as a composite statistics of life expectancy, education and per capita income indicators.

 

Q2 Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option. 

Assertion (A): Crude oil reserves in the entire world are depleting, we need to find a sustainable substitute for it. 

Reason (R): Oil and petrol prices are increasing day by day. 

Options: 

A. Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A. 

B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A. 

C. A is true but R is false. 

D. A is false but R is true

Ans B. Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A. 

Crude oil reserves in the entire world are depleting, we need to find a sustainable substitute for it as crude oil reserves are non-renewable resources, they will exhaust after a certain period of time if not used judiciously.

 

Q3 In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option: 

Assertion (A): Different people have different development goals. 

Reason (R): People want freedom, equality, security and respect 

Options: 

A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. 

B. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 

C. A is true but R is false. 

D. A is false but R is true.

Ans A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

 

Fill in the blanks in the following : 

 

Q1 One of the best ways to reduce over usage of groundwater is _______________________.

Ans Implementation of stringent policies to control misuse of water.

Q2 The number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1000 live births is referred to as ______________.

Ans Infant mortality rate (IMR)

Q3 The total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group is referred as ________________________.

Ans Net Attendance Ratio

Q4 _________ is such a situation that can fullfill the aspirations or desires of people.

Ans Development

Q5 For development, people look _____________ .

Ans at a mix of goals

Q6 For comparing countries, their ______ is considered as one of the most important attributes.

Ans Income

Q7 While averages are useful for comparison, they also hide ___________ .

Ans Disparities

Q8 Human Development Report published by ______ compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Ans UNDP

 

2 Marks  Questions

 

Q1 Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is 5000. If the income of this family is 4000, 7000 and 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family? (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans 

Total income of four families = 5000 x 4 = 20000

Total income of three families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 = 14000

Income of the fourth family = 20000 – 14000 = 6000

Therefore, the income of the fourth family is Rs 6000.

 

Q2 What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any? (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans 

  1. The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is average per capita income. The countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013 are considered as rich countries, whereas countries with per capita income of US$ 1045 or less are considered as low income countries.
  2. Limitations of this criterion: It fails to explain how this average income is distributed among the people in the individual countries. Two countries with the same per capita income might be very different with regard to income distribution. One country might have an equitable distribution of income while the other country might have great disparities between the rich and the poor.

 

Q3 “The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans 

  1. According to the statement, the natural resources of the earth are over used in the name of development.
  2. Earth provides enough resources to meet the needs of all but today’s generation has become so greedy that for their own progress and development they resort to activities like deforestation, unsustainable fuel wood, shifting cultivation, fodder extraction, encroachment into forest lands, indiscrimination use of agrochemicals, extraction of groundwater in excess of recharge capacity, etc.

 

Q4 The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various States for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions. (NCERT QUESTION)

StateMale (%)Female (%)
Kerala2218
Karnataka3436
Madhya Pradesh4238
All states3433

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. 

(ii) can you guess why around 40% of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.

Ans 

(i) Many people remain backward and poor; therefore they don’t receive a proper nutritious diet. There is also a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country.

(ii) Public distribution system does not function properly in most of the states and the poor people cannot get cheap food items, which results in them being undernourished.

 

Q5 What is development? What are the two aspects of development?

Ans 

Development is such a situation that can fulfill the aspirations or desires of people. It is the progress or improvement in the lifestyles of the people. Two aspects of development are:

(i) Different persons can have different developmental goals.

(ii) What may be development for one, may not be development for the other.

 

Q6 Compare the aspirational goals of a boy from a rich urban family and a girl from a rich urban family.

 

Ans

The aspirational goals of these urban boys and girls can be different or sometimes conflicting.

(i) A boy from a rich urban family: He would like to go for a good education to a reputed institution, probably use a good branded mobile, a laptop or an iPad.

(ii) A girl from a rich urban family: She should be able to pursue her studies abroad, get as much freedom as her brother and should be able to decide what she wants to do. She would like to go for professional education and then pursue a job.

 

Q7 Write a paragraph on your notion of what India should do, or achieve, to become a developed country. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans

To become a developed country, India should frame and implement laws for population control as there are limited resources. India should achieve a highly developed economy and improve infrastructure by constructing better roads, buildings and transportation facilities. Better healthcare facilities will lead to higher life expectancy and lower Infant Mortality rate. More employment opportunities for the youth in the service sector and several other steps will make India a developed country. 

 

Q8 Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans

Whether all sections of the economy have become better cannot be concluded from this information because different sections of the economy may have become better or worse. An example is the current situation in India, where the average income has increased with ever passing year; the services sector has increased very much, but agriculture is having virtually no growth.

 

3 Marks  Questions

 

Q1 ‘The issue of sustainability is important for development.’ Examine the statement.

OR

Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? (NCERT QUESTION)

OR

‘Sustainable Development is a crucial step for the development of a country’. Explain with 3 suitable examples.

 

Ans (i) Sustainability of development means economic development without any damage to the environment.

(ii) However, since the second half of the 20th century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels of development are not sustainable.

(iii) To make development sustainable, non renewable sources of energy are to be saved for the future generation. The development of the country would continue but that technology has to be made eco friendly so that it does not harm the environment.

 

Q2 Mohit is 28 years of age, has 65 kg of body weight and is 1.4 meters tall. Calculate his BMI. Find out whether he is under nourished or overweight. Why?

 

Ans (i) Calculating BMI = Weight (in kg) ÷ Height (in m)

65 ÷ (1.4)^2 = 65 ÷ 1.96 = 33.16

Therefore, his BMI is 33.16.

(ii) Ideally BMI should be less than 25 else the person is overweight.

(iii) Hence, he is overweight.

 

Q3 In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans UNDP

  1. Has taken education, health and per capita income as the base
  2. Countries have been ranked
  3. It is also considered as a broader concept of development

World Bank

  • It uses per capita income as its base for comparison
  • Under this concept countries have been divided into three categories- rich, middle and poor
  • It is considered as a narrow concept of development

 

Q4 Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Views averages for a better understanding. For comparison between countries, total income is not a much useful measure. Since countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

  1. According to the criterion used by the World Bank, countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013 are considered as rich countries, whereas countries with per capita income of US$ 1045 or less are considered as low income countries.
  2. Limitations: Although the country maybe rich, there may not be equal distribution of income. A small number of people may be extremely rich and the masses may be poor. Hence, while average income is useful for comparison it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

 

Q5 Find out the present sources of energy used by people in India. What could be the possibilities 50 years from now? (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans 1. Coal and petroleum products, electricity are some of the present sources of energy used by people in India. 

  1. Petroleum products and coal are non renewable sources of energy. These natural resources would be exhausted after a few years of they are not used judiciously.
  2. Possibilities for energy sources after 50 years can be nuclear energy from radioactive elements, solar energy, wind energy etc. Wind, sunlight is non exhaustive resources which may be utilised without interruption for years and years.

 

Q6 Give examples to prove that there are other important developmental goals than income.

 

Ans Example 1: If you get a job in a far off place, before accepting it, you would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as facilities for your family, school for your children, working atmosphere or opportunity to learn.

Example 2: A job may give you high pay but no job security and also no time for your family. This will reduce your sense of security and freedom.

Example 3: If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases. However, it is also the case that if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside. A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

Hence, the developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life like sense of security, freedom, opportunities, etc.

 

Q7 “Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well.” Is it true or not? Elucidate. 

 

Ans (i) Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.

(ii) Normally, money cannot buy a pollution free environment or ensure that we get unadulterated medicines.

(iii) Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases unless the whole of your community takes preventive steps.

 

Q8 What are the development goals of landless rural labourers, prosperous farmers, and farmers who depend only on rains? 

 

Ans  Developmental goals and aspirations for these farmers are different.

(i) Landless rural labourers: They would like to have more days of work and better wages; local schools to provide quality education to their children; there should not be any social discrimination so that they too can become leaders in the village.

(ii) Prosperous farmers: They should have assurance of high family income through higher support prices for their crops through hardworking and cheap labourers. They also want to be able to send their children abroad.

(iii) Farmers who depend only on rains: These kinds of farmers’ main goal is to have irrigational facilities, crop insurance on less premium and better facilities of life for them as well as their children.

 

Q9 Define

  1. Infant Mortality Rate
  2. Net Attendance Ratio
  3. BMI

Ans 1. Infant mortality rate: It indicates the number of children that die before the age of 1 year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

  1. Net Attendance ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 6 to 10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
  2. BMI stands for Body Mass Index It is calculated by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms (kgs) by the square of his/her height in meters. It is an indicator of the level of nourishment in adults.

 

Q10 Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations. (NCERT QUESTION)

 

Ans Examples where an average is used for comparing situations are:

  1. Average height of students in a class of 40 students.
  2. Average marks scored by students in a class test.
  3. Desert cover of a country.

 

4 Marks  Questions

 

 

Q1 Read the text given below and answer the following questions:

A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open-air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning. A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.

 

  1. Who are the people who benefited from this?

Ans The multinational company

  1. Who are the people who got harmed from this?

Ans People of Abidjan in Ivory Coast

  1. What should be the developmental goal for this country?

 Ans The developmental goal for this country should be safe living environment/surroundings.

  1. Fill in the blank.

What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be ___________ for the other.

Ans Destructive

 

Q2 Read the text given below and answer the following questions:

There are two countries, country A and country B. In country A and B, for the sake of simplicity, let us assume there are only 5 people each. In country A, the five people built 10 chairs and each person divided them equally and got two chairs. In country B, the five people built 10 chairs and one of the persons took 8 chairs and the four other persons left had to share two chairs.

 

  1. Will you be equally happy to live in both these countries?

Ans No, because there is unequal distribution of resources in Country B.

  1. In which country would you like to live?

Ans I would like to live in country A as there are no rich or no poor people and the resources are distributed equally.

  1. Are both countries equally developed? 

Ans No, there is not an equitable distribution of resources in both countries hence they are not equally developed.

  1. Fill in the blank.

While averages are useful for comparison, they also hide _______________.

Ans Disparities

 

Q3 Read the text given below and answer the following questions:

In World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, this criterion is used in classifying countries. Countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 1045 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 2013 was just US$ 1570 per annum.

  1. What do you mean by per capita income?

Ans Per capita income is a measure of the amount of money earned per person in a nation or geographic region.

  1. What is the criterion used by the World Bank to classify countries?

Ans World Bank uses per capita income as its base for comparison.

  1. Countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called __________. 

A underdeveloped countries

B developing countries

C poor countries

D rich countries

Ans D rich countries

  1. List three things that India should do, or achieve, to become a developed country.

Ans a. Population control

  1. More employment opportunities
  2. Better education system

 

5 MARK QUESTIONS 

 

Q1 Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human Development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criteria at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss. (NCERT QUESTION)

Ans 1. Yes, I do agree that money, income or per capita income are not the only factors. Factors like the infant mortality rate and net attendance ratio also play a very crucial role in the overall human development. When compared, in these factors Kerala is considered to be better than Punjab. 

  1. Infant mortality rate is 11 in Kerala compared to Punjab which is 49. 
  2. Literacy rate was 91% in Kerala as compared to Punjab which was 70%. 
  3. Whereas the net attendance ratio from class 1-5 was 91 in Kerala compared to Punjab which was 81. 
  4. Due to the above mentioned advantages Kerala has a better human development ranking than Punjab in spite of lower per capita income.

 

Q2 Why is literacy essential for economic development? Explain.

Ans Literacy is an essential element for economic development since:

(i) Only by education can we get vast knowledge about the world and ourselves.

(ii) A person has to look after himself and his family’s needs and only a literate person is eligible to get suitable employment.

(iii) Education develops the ability to implement modern technology.

(iv) With the knowledge of professionals, technology can develop and help in the development of the country.

(v) Literate people have knowledge about health and fitness and they realise the importance of remaining healthy.

 

Q3 Mention the differences between developed countries and developing countries.

Ans Comparison chart

S. No.BasisDeveloped countriesDeveloping countries
1DefinitionA country having an effective rate of industrialisation and individual income.A country which has a slow rate of industrialisation and low per capita income.
2StatusIndependent and prosperousDependent and impoverished
3Available resourcesEffectively utilisedIneffectively utilised
4Literacy rateHighLow
5InfrastructureHigh standard of livingModerate standard of living

 

Q4 What do you understand by sustainability of development? What can be done to make development sustainable?

Ans (i) Sustainability of development means economic development without any damage to the environment.

(ii) However, since the second half of the 20th century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels of development are not sustainable.

(iii) To make development sustainable, non renewable sources of energy are to be saved for the future generation. The development of the country would continue but that technology has to be made eco friendly so that it does not harm the environment.

(iv) Sustainable development aims at fulfilling the needs of today without compromising the needs of the future generation. 

(v) Sustainability is the capability to use the resources judiciously and maintain the ecological balance. It lays emphasis on environmental protection and checks environmental degradation.

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